Majjhima Nikaya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Majjhima Nikaya

The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha

 

NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO

SAMMASAMBUDDHASSA

 

HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED ONE,

ACCOMPLISHED AND FULLY ENLIGHTENED

 

 

 

 

Contenido

Part One. 3

The Root Fifty Discourses. 3

(MulapannasapaH) 3

1 Mulapariyaya Sutta The Root of All Things. 3

2 Sabbasava Sutta All the Taints. 12

3 Dhammadayada Sutta Heirs in Dhamma. 19

4 Bhayabherava Sutta Fear and Dread. 25

5 Anangana Sutta Without Blemishes. 31

6 Akankheyya Sutta If a Bhikkhu Should Wish. 39

7 Vatthupama Sutta The Simile of the Cloth. 43

8 Sallekha Sutta Effacement 49

9 Sammaditthi Sutta Right View.. 61

10 Satipatthana Sutta The Foundations of Mindfulness. 77

11 Culasthanada Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. 90

12 Mahasthanada Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. 96

13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering  113

14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering  121

15 Anumana Sutta Inference. 126

16 Cetokhila Sutta The Wilderness in the Heart 131

17 Vanapattha Sutta Jungle Thickets. 136

18 Madhupindika Sutta The Honeyball 140

19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta Two Kinds of Thought 147

20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta The Removal of Distracting Thoughts. 152

21 Kakacupama Sutta The Simile of the Saw.. 156

22 Alagaddupama Suit a The Simile of the Snake. 165

23 Vammika Sutta The Ant-hill 181

24 Rathavinita Sutta The Relay Chariots. 185

25 Nivapa Sutta The Bait 193

26 Ariyapariyesana Sutta The Noble Search. 201

27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint 220

28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint 231

29 Mahasaropama Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood  240

30 Culasaropama Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood. 246

The Great Division of Pairs. 255

(Mahayamakavagga) 255

31 Culagosinga Sutta The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga. 255

32 Mahagosinga Sutta The Greater Discourse in Gosinga. 263

33 Mahagopalaka Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd. 271

34 Culagopalaka Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd. 278

35 Culasaccaka Sutta The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka. 282

36 Mahasaccaka Sutta The Greater Discourse to Saccaka. 294

37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving  309

38 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving  315

39 Maha-Assapura Sutta The Greater Discourse at Assapura. 330

40 Cula-Assapura Sutta The Shorter Discourse at Assapura. 341

41 Saleyyaka Sutta The Brahmins of Sala. 346

42 Veranjaka Sutta The Brahmins of Veranja. 354

43 Mahavedalla Sutta The Greater Series of Questions and Answers. 355

44 Culavedalla Sutta The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers. 366

45 Culadhammasamadana Sutta The Shorter Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 377

46 Mahadhammasamadana Sutta The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 381

47 Vimamsaka Sutta The Inquirer. 389

48 Kosambiya Sutta The Kosambians. 394

49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta The Invitation of a Brahma. 400

50 Maratajjaniya Sutta The Rebuke to Mara. 408

51 Kandaraka Sutta To Kandaraka. 417

52 Atthakanagara Sutta The Man from Atthakanagara. 430

53 The Disciple in Higher Training. 437

54 Potaliya Sutta To Potaliya. 444

55 Jwaka Sutta To Jivaka. 454

56 Upali Sutta To Upali 458

57 Kukkuravatika Sutta The Dog-duty Ascetic. 478

58 Abhayarajakumara Sutta To Prince Abhaya. 484

59 Bahuvedaniya Sutta The Many Kinds of Feeling. 488

60 The Incontrovertible Teaching. 493

61 Ambalatthikarahulovada Sutta Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika. 510

62 Maharahulovada Sutta The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula. 515

63 Culamalunkya Sutta The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta. 522

64 Mahamalunkya Sutta The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta. 527

65 Bhaddali Sutta To Bhaddali 533

66 Latukikopama Sutta The Simile of the Quail 544

67 Catuma Sutta At Catuma. 554

68 Nalakapana Sutta At Nalakapana. 562

69 Gulissani Sutta Gulissani 569

70 Kitagiri Sutta At Kitagiri 574

71 Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta To Vacchagotta on the Threefold True Knowledge. 583

72 Aggivacchagotta Suita To Vacchagotta on Fire. 587

73 Mahavacchagotta Sutta The Greater Discourse to Vacchagotta. 594

74 Dighanakha Sutta To Dighanakha. 604

75 Magandiya Sutta To Magandiya. 609

76 Sandaka Sutta To Sandaka. 622

77 Mahasakuludayi Sutta The Greater Discourse to Sakuludayin. 635

78 Samanamandika Sutta Samanamandikaputta. 656

79 Culasakuludayi Sutta The Shorter Discourse to Sakuludayin. 663

80 Vekhanassa Sutta To Vekhanassa. 674

The Division on Kings. 677

(Rajavagga) 677

81 Ghatikara Sutta Ghatlkara the Potter. 677

82 Ratthapala Sutta On Ratthapala. 687

83 Makhadeva Sutta King Makhadeva. 706

84 Madhura Sutta At Madhura. 713

85 Bodhirajakumara Sutta To Prince Bodhi 720

86 Angulimala Sutta On Angulimala. 727

87 Piyajatika Sutta Born from Those Who Are Dear. 737

88 Bahitika Sutta The Cloak. 743

89 Dhammacetiya Sutta Monuments to the Dhamma. 749

90 Kannakatthala Sutta At Kannakatthala. 757

91 Brahmayu Sutta Brahmayu. 766

92 Sela Sutta To Sela. 781

93 Assalayana Sutta To Assalayana. 792

94 Ghotamukha Sutta To Ghotamukha. 802

95 Canki Sutta With Canki 807

96 Esukan Sutta To Esukarl 821

97 Dhananjani Sutta To Dhananjani 827

98 Vasettha Sutta To Vasettha. 835

99 Subha Sutta To Subha. 847

100 Sangarava Sutta To Sangarava. 861

101 Devadaha Sutta At Devadaha. 866

102 Pancattaya Sutta The Five and Three. 880

103 What Do You Think About Me?. 890

104 Samagama Sutta At Samagama. 897

105 Sunakkhatta Sutta To Sunakkhatta. 906

106 Anenjasappaya Sutta The Way to the Imperturbable. 915

107 Ganakamoggallana Sutta To Ganaka Moggallana. 921

108 Gopakamoggallana Sutta With Gopaka Moggallana. 928

109 Mahapunnama Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Full-moon Night 937

110 Culapunnama Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Full-moon Night 942

The Division of One by One. 947

(Anupadavagga) 947

111 Anupada Sutta One by One As They Occurred. 947

112 Chabbisodhana Sutta The Sixfold Purity. 952

113 Sappurisa Sutta The True Man. 958

114 Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta To Be Cultivated and Not To Be Cultivated. 963

115 Bahudhatuka Sutta The Many Kinds of Elements. 977

116 Isigili Sutta Isigili: The Gullet of the Seers. 984

117 Mahacattansaka Sutta The Great Forty. 988

118 Anapanasati Sutta Mindfulness of Breathing. 996

119 Kayagatasati Sutta Mindfulness of the Body. 1006

120 Sankharupapatti Sutta Reappearance by Aspiration. 1016

121 Culasunnata Sutta The Shorter Discourse on Voidness. 1021

122 Mahasunnata Sutta The Greater Discourse on Voidness. 1028

123 Acchariya-abbhuta Sutta Wonderful and Marvellous. 1038

124 Bakkula Sutta Bakkula. 1045

125 Dantabhumi Sutta The Grade of the Tamed. 1049

126 Bhumija Sutta Bhumija. 1059

127 Anuruddha Sutta Anuruddha. 1065

128 Upakkilesa Sutta Imperfections. 1072

129 Balapandita Sutta Fools and Wise Men. 1082

130 Devaduta Sutta The Divine Messengers. 1098

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part One
The Root Fifty Discourses
(MulapannasapaH)

 

The Division of the Discourse on the Root
(Mulapariyayavagga)

 

1 Mulapariyaya Sutta The Root of All Things

 

[1] 1. Thus have I heard. 1 On one occasion the Blessed One was living in Ukkattha in the Subhaga Grove at the root of a royal sala tree. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” 2 -“Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on the root of all things. 3 Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

(the ordinary person)

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, 4 who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, perceives earth as earth. 5 Having perceived earth as earth, he conceives [himself as] earth, he conceives [himself] in earth, he conceives [himself apart] from earth, he conceives earth to be ‘mine/ he delights in earth. 6 Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. 7
  2. “He perceives water as water. Having perceived water as water, he conceives [himself as] water, he conceives [himself] in water, he conceives [himself apart] from water, he conceives water to be ‘mine/ he delights in water. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  3. “He perceives fire as fire. Having perceived fire as fire, he conceives [himself as] fire, he conceives [himself] in fire, he conceives [himself apart] from fire, he conceives fire to be ‘mine/ he delights in fire. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.

6- “He perceives air as air. Having perceived air as air, he conceives [himself as] air, he conceives [himself] in air, he conceives

 

i;

II

 

i 2

[himself apart] from air, he conceives air to be ‘mine,’ he delights in air. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say. [2]

  1. “He perceives beings as beings. 8 Having perceived beings as beings, he conceives beings, he conceives [himself] in beings, he conceives [himself apart] from beings, he conceives beings to be ‘mine,’ he delights in beings. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  2. “He perceives gods as gods. 9 Having perceived gods as gods, he conceives gods, he conceives [himself] in gods, he conceives [himself apart] from gods, he conceives gods to be ‘mine/ he delights in gods. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  3. “He perceives Pajapati as Pajapati. 10 Having perceived Pajapati as Pajapati, he conceives Pajapati, he conceives [himself] in Pajapati, he conceives [himself apart] from Pajapati, he conceives Pajapati to be ‘mine/ he delights in Pajapati. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  4. “He perceives Brahma as Brahma. 11 Having perceived Brahma as Brahma, he conceives Brahma, he conceives [himself] in Brahma, he conceives [himself apart] from Brahma, he conceives Brahma to be ‘mine/ he delights in Brahma. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  5. “He perceives the gods of Streaming Radiance as the gods of Streaming Radiance. 12 Having perceived the gods of Streaming Radiance as the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives [himself] in the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives [himself apart] from the gods of Streaming Radiance, he conceives the gods of Streaming Radiance to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the gods of Streaming Radiance. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  6. “He perceives the gods of Refulgent Glory as the gods of Refulgent Glory. 13 Having perceived the gods of Refulgent Glory as the gods of Refulgent Glory, he conceives the gods of Refulgent Glory, he conceives [himself] in the gods of Refulgent Glory, he conceives [himself apart] from the gods of Refulgent Glory, he conceives the gods of Refulgent Glory to be ‘mine/ he delights in the gods of Refulgent Glory. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.

The Root of All Things 85

  1. “He perceives the gods of Great Fruit as the gods of Great Fruit. 14 Having perceived the gods of Great Fruit as the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives [himself] in the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives [himself apart] from the gods of Great Fruit, he conceives the gods of Great Fruit to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the gods of Great Fruit. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  2. “He perceives the Overlord as the Overlord. 15 Having perceived the Overlord as the Overlord, he conceives the Overlord, he conceives [himself] in the Overlord, he conceives [himself apart] from the Overlord, he conceives the Overlord to be ‘mine/ he delights in the Overlord. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  3. “He perceives the base of infinite space as the base of infinite space. 16 Having perceived the base of infinite space as the base of infinite space, he conceives [himself as] the base of infinite space, he conceives [himself] in the base of infinite space, he conceives [himself apart] from the base of infinite space, he conceives the base of infinite space to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the base of infinite space. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  4. “He perceives the base of infinite consciousness as the base of infinite consciousness. Having perceived the base of infinite consciousness as the base of infinite consciousness, [3] he conceives [himself as] the base of infinite consciousness, he conceives [himself] in the base of infinite consciousness, he conceives [himself apart] from the base of infinite consciousness, he conceives the base of infinite consciousness to be ‘mine/ he delights in the base of infinite consciousness. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  5. “He perceives the base of nothingness as the base of nothingness. Having perceived the base of nothingness as the base of nothingness, he conceives [himself as] the base of nothingness, he conceives [himself] in the base of nothingness, he conceives [himself apart] from the base of nothingness, he conceives the base of nothingness to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the base of nothingness. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  6. “He perceives the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception as the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Having perceived the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception

i 3

as tiie base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives [himself as] the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives [himself] in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives [himself apart] from the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception to be ‘mine/ he delights in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.

  1. “He perceives the seen as the seen. 17 Having perceived the seen as the seen, he conceives [himself as] the seen, he conceives [himself] in the seen, he conceives [himself apart] from the seen, he conceives the seen to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the seen. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  2. “He perceives the heard as the heard. Having perceived the heard as the heard, he conceives [himself as] the heard, he conceives [himself] in the heard, he conceives [himself apart] from the heard, he conceives the heard to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the heard. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  3. “He perceives the sensed as the sensed. Having perceived the sensed as the sensed, he conceives [himself as] the sensed, he conceives [himself] in the sensed, he conceives [himself apart] from the sensed, he conceives the sensed to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the sensed. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  4. “He perceives the cognized as the cognized. Having perceived the cognized as the ’cognized, he conceives [himself as] the cognized, he conceives [himself] in the cognized, he conceives [himself apart] from the cognized, he conceives the cognized to be ‘mine,’ he delights in the cognized. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  5. “He perceives unity as unity. 18 Having perceived unity as unity, he conceives [himself as] unity, he conceives [himself] in unity, he conceives [himself apart] from unity, he conceives unity to be ‘mine,’ he delights in unity. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  6. “He perceives diversity as diversity. Having perceived diversity as diversity, he conceives [himself as] diversity, he conceives [himself] in diversity, he conceives [himself apart] from diversity, he conceives diversity to be ‘mine,’ he delights

 

The Root of All Things 87

in diversity. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.

  1. “He perceives all as all. 19 Having perceived all as all, he conceives [himself asl all, [4] he conceives [himself] in all, he conceives [himself apart] from all, he conceives all to be ‘mine,’ he delights in all. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.
  2. “He perceives Nibbana as Nibbana. 20 Having perceived Nibbana as Nibbana, he conceives [himself as] Nibbana, he conceives [himself] in Nibbana, he conceives [himself apart] from Nibbana, he conceives Nibbana to be ‘mine/ he delights in Nibbana. Why is that? Because he has not fully understood it, I say.

(the disciple in higher training)

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is in higher training, 21 whose mind has not yet reached the goal, and who is still aspiring to the supreme security from bondage, directly knows earth as earth. 22 Having directly known earth as earth, he should not conceive [himself as] earth, he should not conceive [himself] in earth, he should not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he should not conceive earth to be ‘mine/ he should not delight in earth. Why is that? So that he may fully understand it, I say. 23

28-49. “He directly knows water as water…He directly knows all as all…

  1. “He directly knows Nibbana as Nibbana. Having directly known Nibbana as Nibbana, he should not conceive [himself as] Nibbana, he should not conceive [himself] in Nibbana, he should not conceive [himself apart] from Nibbana, he should not conceive Nibbana to be ‘mine/ he should not delight in Nibbana. Why is that? So that he may fully understand it, I say.

(the arahant -1)

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant with taints destroyed, who has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final knowledge, 24 directly knows earth as earth. Having directly

known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be ‘mine/ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he has fully understood it, I say. 25

52-74. “He directly knows water as water…Nibbana as Nibbana.. .Why is that? Because he has fully understood it, I say.

(THE arahant – It)

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant…completely liberated through final knowledge, [5] directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be ‘mine/ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he is free from lust through the destruction of lust. 26

76-98. “He directly knows water as water…Nibbana as Nibbana…Why is that? Because he is free from lust through the destruction of lust.

(THE ARAHANT – III)

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant…completely liberated through final knowledge, directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be ‘mine/ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he is free from hate through the destruction of hate.

100-122. “He directly knows water as water…Nibbana as Nibbana.. .Why is that? Because he is free from hate through the destruction of hate.

(THE ARAHANT – IV)

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an arahant…completely liberated through final knowledge, directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he

 

The Root of All Things 89

i 6

does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be ‘mine,’ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he is free from delusion through the destruction of delusion.

124-146. “He directly knows water as water…Nibbana as Nibbana…Why is that? Because he is free from delusion through the destruction of delusion.

(THE TATHAGATA -1)

  1. “Bhikkhus, the Tathagata, 27 accomplished and fully enlightened, directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be ‘mine/ he does not delight in earth. [6] Why is that? Because the Tathagata has fully understood it to the end, I say. 28

148-170. “He directly knows water as water…Nibbana as Nibbana…Why is that? Because the Tathagata has fully understood it to the end, I say.

(THE TATHAGATA – II)

  1. “Bhikkhus, the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, directly knows earth as earth. Having directly known earth as earth, he does not conceive [himself as] earth, he does not conceive [himself] in earth, he does not conceive [himself apart] from earth, he does not conceive earth to be ‘mine,’ he does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he has understood that delight is the root of suffering, and that with being [as condition] there is birth, and that for whatever has come to be there is ageing and death. 29 Therefore, bhikkhus, through the complete destruction, fading away, cessation, giving up, and relinquishing of cravings, the Tathagata has awakened to supreme full enlightenment, I say. 30

172-194. “He directly knows water as water…Nibbana as Nibbana…Why is that? Because he has understood that delight is the root of suffering, and that with being [as condition] there is birth, and that for whatever has come to be there is ageing and death. Therefore, bhikkhus, through the complete destruction,

 

fading away, cessation, giving up, and relinquishing of cravings, the Tathagata has awakened to supreme full enlightenment, I say.”

That is what the Blessed One said. But those bhikkhus did not delight in the Blessed One’s words. 31

 

 

2 Sabbasava Sutta All the Taints

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on the restraint of all the taints. 32 [7] Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

(summary)

  1. “Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints is for one who knows and sees, not for one who does not know and see. Who knows and sees what? Wise attention and unwise attention. 33 When one attends unwisely, unarisen taints arise and arisen taints increase. When one attends wisely, unarisen taints do not arise and arisen taints are abandoned.
  2. “Bhikkhus, there are taints that should be abandoned by seeing. There are taints that should be abandoned by restraining. There are taints that should be abandoned by using. There are taints that should be abandoned by enduring. There are taints that should be abandoned by avoiding. There are taints that should be abandoned by removing. There are taints that should be abandoned by developing. 34

(taints to be abandoned by seeing)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by seeing? 35 Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their

i 8

Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, does not understand what things are fit for attention and what things are unfit for attention. Since that is so, he attends to those things unfit for attention and he does not attend to those things fit for attention. 36

  1. “What are the things unfit for attention that he attends to? They are things such that when he attends to them, the unarisen taint of sensual desire arises in him and the arisen taint of sensual desire increases, the unarisen taint of being arises in him and the arisen taint of being increases, the unarisen taint of ignorance arises in him and the arisen taint of ignorance increases. These are the things unfit for attention that he attends to. 37 And what are the things fit for attention that he does not attend to? They are things such that when he attends to them, the unarisen taint of sensual desire does not arise in him and the arisen taint of sensual desire is abandoned, the unarisen taint of being does not arise in him and the arisen taint of being is abandoned, the unarisen taint of ignorance does not arise in him and the arisen taint of ignorance is abandoned. These are the things fit for attention that he does not attend to. [8] By attending to things unfit for attention and by not attending to things fit for attention, both unarisen taints arise in him and arisen taints increase.
  2. “This is how he attends unwisely: ‘Was I in the past? Was I

not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past?

Having been what, what did I become in the past? Shall I be in

the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the

*

future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I become in the future?’ Or else he is inwardly perplexed about the present thus: ‘Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where will it go?’ 38

  1. “When he attends unwisely in this way, one of six views arises in him. 39 The view ‘self exists for me’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘no self exists for me’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘I perceive self with self’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘I perceive not-self with self’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘I perceive self with not-self’ arises in him as true and established; or else he has some such view as this: ‘It is this self of mine that speaks and feels and experiences here and there the result of good and bad actions; but this self of mine is permanent.

All the Taints 93

i 9

everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and it will endure as long as eternity.’ 40 This speculative view, bhikkhus, is called the thicket of views, the wilderness of views, the contortion of views, the vacillation of views, the fetter of views. Fettered by the fetter of views, the untaught ordinary person is not freed from birth, ageing, and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; he is not freed from suffering, I say.

  1. “Bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple, who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, understands what things are fit for attention and what things are unfit for attention. Since that is so, [9] he does not attend to those things unfit for attention and he attends to those things fit for attention.
  2. “What are the things unfit for attention that he does not attend to? They are things such that when he attends to them, the unarisen taint of sensual desire arises in him…(as §6 )…and the arisen taint of ignorance increases. These are the things unfit for attention that he does not attend to. And what are the things fit for attention that he attends to? They are things such that when he attends to them, the unarisen taint of sensual desire does not arise in him…(as §6 )…and the arisen taint of ignorance is abandoned. These are the things fit for attention that he attends to. By not attending to things unfit for attention and by attending to things fit for attention, unarisen taints do not arise in him and arisen taints are abandoned.
  3. “He attends wisely: ‘This is suffering’; he attends wisely: “This is the origin of suffering’; he attends wisely: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; he attends wisely: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ 41 When he attends wisely in this way, three fetters are abandoned in him: personality view, doubt, and adherence to rules and observances. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by seeing. 42

(taints to be abandoned by restraining)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by restraining? 43 Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, abides with the eye faculty restrained. While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who abides with the eye faculty unrestrained, there are no

ilO

taints, vexation, or fever in one who abides with the eye faculty restrained. 44 Reflecting wisely, he abides with the ear faculty restrained.. .with the nose faculty restrained.. .with the tongue faculty restrained.. .with the body faculty restrained.. .with the mind faculty restrained…While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who abides with the faculties unrestrained, [10] there are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who abides with the faculties restrained. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by restraining.

(taints to be abandoned by using)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by using? 45 Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, uses the robe only for protection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping things, and only for the purpose of concealing the private parts.
  2. “Reflecting wisely, he uses almsfood neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy life, considering: ‘Thus I shall terminate old feelings without arousing new feelings and I shall be healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort.’
  3. “Reflecting wisely, he uses the resting place only for protection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping things, and only for the purpose of warding off the perils of climate and for enjoying retreat.
  4. “Reflecting wisely, he uses the medicinal requisites only for protection from arisen afflicting feelings and for the benefit of good health.
  5. “While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who does not use the requisites thus, there are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who uses them thus. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by using.

J

(taints to be abandoned by enduring)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by enduring? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, bears cold and heat, hunger and

 

All the Taints 95

thirst, and contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping things; he endures ill-spoken, unwelcome words and arisen bodily feelings that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, disagreeable, distressing, and menacing to life. While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who does not endure such things, there are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who endures them. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by enduring.

(TAINTS TO BE ABANDONED BY AVOIDING)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by avoiding? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, avoids a wild elephant, a wild horse, a wild bull, a wild dog, a snake, a stump, [11] a bramble patch, a chasm, a cliff, a cesspit, a sewer. Reflecting wisely, he avoids sitting on unsuitable seats, wandering to unsuitable resorts, 46 and associating with bad friends, since if he were to do so wise companions in the holy life might suspect him of evil conduct. While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who does not avoid these things, there are no taints, vexation, and fever in one who avoids them. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by avoiding.

(TAINTS TO BE ABANDONED BY REMOVING)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by removing? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, does not tolerate an arisen thought of sensual desire; he abandons it, removes it, does away with it, and annihilates it. He does not tolerate an arisen thought of ill will…He does not tolerate an arisen thought of cruelty…He does not tolerate arisen evil unwholesome states; he abandons them, removes them, does away with them, and annihilates them. 47 While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who does not remove these thoughts, there are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who removes them. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by removing.

(TAINTS TO BE ABANDONED BY DEVELOPING)

  1. “What taints, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by developing? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, develops the mindfulness

i 12

enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispas-sion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor…the energy enlightenment factor…the rapture enlightenment factor…the tranquillity enlightenment factor…the concentration enlightenment factor…the equanimity enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. 48 While taints, vexation, and fever might arise in one who does not develop these enlightenment factors, there are no taints, vexation, or fever in one who develops them. These are called the taints that should be abandoned by developing. 49

(conclusion)

  1. “Bhikkhus, when for a bhikkhu the taints that should be abandoned by seeing have been abandoned by seeing, when the taints that should be abandoned by restraining have been abandoned by restraining, when the taints that should be abandoned by using have been abandoned by using, when the taints that should be abandoned by enduring have been abandoned by enduring, when the taints that should be abandoned by avoiding [12] have been abandoned by avoiding, when the taints that should be abandoned by removing have been abandoned by removing, when the taints that should be abandoned by developing have been abandonee] by developing – then he is called a bhikkhu who dwells restrained with the restraint of all the taints. He has severed craving, flung off the fetters, and with the complete penetration of conceit he has made an end of suffering/’ 50

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

3 Dhammadayada Sutta Heirs in Dhamma

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” 51 – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?’ If you are my heirs in material tilings, not my heirs in Dhamma, you will be reproached thus: “The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in material things, not as heirs in Dhamma’; and I will be reproached thus: ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in material things, not as his heirs in Dhamma.’

“If you are my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things, you will not be reproached [as it will be said]: ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma, not as his heirs in material things’; and I will not be reproached [as it will be said]: ‘The Teacher’s disciples live as his heirs in Dhamma, not as his heirs in material things.’ Therefore, bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?’

  1. “Now, bhikkhus, suppose that I had eaten, refused more food, had my fill, finished, had enough, had what I needed, and some almsfood was left over to be thrown away. Then two bhikkhus arrived [13] hungry and weak, and I told them: ‘Bhikkhus, I have eaten…had what I needed, but there is this almsfood of mine left over to be thrown away. Eat if you like; if you do not eat then I shall throw it away where there is no greenery or drop it into water where there is no life.’ Then one bhikkhu thought: ‘The Blessed One has eaten…had what he

i 14

needed, but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to be thrown away; if we do not eat it the Blessed One will throw it away.. .But this has been said by the Blessed One: “Bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things.” Now this almsfood is one of the material things. Suppose that instead of eating this almsfood I pass the night and day hungry and weak.’ And instead of eating that almsfood he passed that night and day hungry and weak. Then the second bhikkhu thought: ‘The Blessed One has eaten.. .had what he needed, but there is this almsfood of the Blessed One left over to be thrown away.. .Suppose that I eat this almsfood and pass the night and day neither hungry nor weak.’ And after eating that almsfood he passed the night and day neither hungry nor weak. Now although that bhikkhu by eating that almsfood passed the night and day neither hungry nor weak, yet the first bhikkhu is more to be respected and commended by me. Why is that? Because that will for long conduce to his fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, easy support, and arousal of energy. 52 Therefore, bhikkhus, be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things. Out of compassion for you I have thought: ‘How shall my disciples be my heirs in Dhamma, not my heirs in material things?'”

  1. That is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling. Soon after he had left, the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Friends, bhikkhus.” – “Friend,” they replied. [14] The venerable Sariputta said this:
  2. “Friends, in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded not train in seclusion? And in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion?”

“Indeed, friend, we would come from far away to learn from the venerable Sariputta the meaning of this statement. It would be good if the venerable Sariputta would explain the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him the bhikkhus will remember it.”

“Then, friends, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, friend,” the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Sariputta said this:

  1. “Friends, in what way do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded not train in seclusion? Here disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded do not train in seclusion; they do not abandon

 

Heirs in Dhamma 99

what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion.

“In this the elder bhikkhus are to be blamed for three reasons. 53 As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be blamed for this third reason. The elder bhikkhus are to be blamed for these three reasons.

“In this the middle bhikkhus are to be blamed for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be blamed for this third reason. The middle bhikkhus are to be blamed for these three reasons.

“In this the new bhikkhus are to be blamed for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they do not train in seclusion: they are to be blamed for this first reason. They do not abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be blamed for this second reason. They are luxurious and careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion: they are to be blamed for this third reason. The new bhikkhus are to be blamed for these three reasons.

“It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded do not train in seclusion.

  1. “In what way, friends, do disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded [15] train in seclusion? Here disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion; they abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are not luxurious and careless, they are keen to avoid backsliding, and are leaders in seclusion.

“In this the elder bhikkhus are to be commended for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first reason. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and

 

i 16

are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third reason. The elder bhikkhus are to be commended for these three reasons.

“In this the middle bhikkhus are to be commended for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first reason. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third reason. The middle bhikkhus are to be commended for these three reasons.

“In this the new bhikkhus are to be commended for three reasons. As disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded they train in seclusion: they are to be commended for this first reason. They abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon: they are to be commended for this second reason. They are not luxurious and careless; they are keen to avoid backsliding and are leaders in seclusion: they are to be commended for this third reason. The new bhikkhus are to be commended for these three reasons.

“It is in this way that disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion.

  1. “Friends, the evil herein is greed and hate. 54 There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of greed and hate, giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. This is the Middle Way giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. 55

9-15. “The evil herein is anger and revenge…contempt and a domineering attitude…envy and avarice…deceit and fraud…obstinacy [16] and presumption…conceit and arrogance…vanity and negligence. There is a Middle Way for the abandoning of vanity and negligence, giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. And what is that Middle Way? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech.

Heirs in Dhamma 101

right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. This is the Middle Way giving vision, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.”

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta’s words.

 

 

 

 

4 Bhayabherava Sutta Fear and Dread

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Then the brahmin Janussoni 56 went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said: “Master Gotama, when clansmen have gone forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in Master Gotama, do they have Master Gotama for their leader, their helper, and their guide? And do these people follow the example of Master Gotama?” 57

“That is so, brahmin, that is so. When clansmen have gone forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in me, they have me for their leader, their helper, and their guide. And these people follow my example.”

“But, Master Gotama, remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to practise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if hd has no concentration.” [17]

“That is so, brahmin, that is so. Remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to practise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.

  1. “Before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I too considered thus: ‘Remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure…the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.’
  2. “I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins unpurified in bodily conduct resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their unpurified bodily conduct these good recluses and brahmins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jun-

Fear and Dread 103

gle-thicket resting places in the forest unpurified in bodily conduct. I am purified in bodily conduct. I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with bodily conduct purified.’ Seeing in myself this purity of bodily conduct, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.

5-7. “I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins unpurified in verbal conduct…unpurified in mental conduct…unpurified in livelihood resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest…they evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But…I am purified in livelihood. I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with livelihood purified.’ Seeing in myself this purity of livelihood, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.

  1. “I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins who are covetous and full of lust.. .1 am uncovetous…’ [18]
  2. “‘…with a mind of ill will and intentions of hate…I have a mind of loving-kindness…’
  3. “‘…overcome by sloth and torpor…I am without sloth and torpor…’
  4. “‘…overcome with restless and unpeaceful mind…I have a peaceful mind…’

12..uncertain and doubting…1 have gone beyond doubt.

  1. ‘”[19]… given to self-praise and disparagement of others.. .1 am not given to self-praise and disparagement of others…’
  2. ‘”.. .subject to alarm and terror…1 am free from trepidation…’
  3. “‘…desirous of gain, honour, and renown…I have few wishes…’
  4. .lazy and wanting in energy.. .1 am energetic…’
  5. ‘”…[20] unmindful and not fully aware…I am established in mindfulness…’
  6. “‘…unconcentrated and with straying minds…I am possessed of concentration…’
  7. “I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins devoid of wisdom, drivellers, resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their being devoid of wisdom and drivellers these good recluses and brahmins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest devoid of wisdom, a driveller. I am possessed of wisdom. 58 I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble

i 21

ones possessed of wisdom.’ Seeing in myself this possession of wisdom, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.

  1. “I considered thus: ‘There are the specially auspicious nights of the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fortnight. 59 Now what if, on such nights as these, I were to dwell in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, woodland shrines, and tree shrines? Perhaps I might encounter that fear and dread.’ And later, on such specially auspicious nights as the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fortnight, I dwelt in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, woodland shrines, and tree shrines. And while I dwelt there, a wild animal would come up to me, or a peacock [21] would knock off a branch, or the wind would rustle the leaves. I thought: ‘What now if this is the fear and dread coming?’ I thought: ‘Why do I dwell always expecting fear and dread? What if I subdue that fear and dread while keeping the same posture that I am in when it comes upon me?’ 60

“While I walked, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither stood nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I stood, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I sat, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor stood nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I lay down, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor stood nor sat down till I had subdued that fear and dread.

  1. “There are, brahmin 1 , some recluses and brahmins who perceive day when it is night and night when it is day. I say that on their part this is an abiding in delusion. But I perceive night when it is night and day when it is day. Rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: ‘A being not subject to delusion has appeared in the world for the welfare and happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans,’ it is of me indeed that rightly speaking this should be said.
  2. “Tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was tranquil and untroubled, my mind concentrated and unified. 61
  3. “Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first

Fear and Dread 105

jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 62

  1. “With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I entered upon and abided in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind [22] without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of concentration.
  2. “With the fading away as well of rapture, I abided in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, I entered upon and abided in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’
  3. “With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
  4. “When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. 63 I recollected my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past lives.
  5. “This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.
  6. “When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. 64 With the divine eye,

i 23

which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well-conducted in body, [23] speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.

  1. “This was the second true knowledge attained by me in the second watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.
  2. “When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: “This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ I directly knew as it actually is: ‘These are the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: “This is the cessation of the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’ 65
  3. “When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it was liberated, there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ 66 I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’ 67

Fear and Dread 107

  1. “This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.
  2. “Now, brahmin, it might be that you think: ‘Perhaps the recluse Gotama is not free from lust, hate, and delusion even today, which is why he still resorts to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest.’ But you should not think thus. It is because I see two benefits that I still resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest: I see a pleasant abiding for myself here and now, and I have compassion for future generations.” 68
  3. “Indeed, it is because Master Gotama is an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One, that he has compassion for future generations. [24] Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

 

 

 

5 Anangana Sutta Without Blemishes

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus. “Friends, bhikkhus.” – “Friend,” they replied. The venerable Sariputta said this:
  2. “Friends, there are these four kinds of persons found existing in the world. 69 What four? Here some person with a blemish does not understand it as it actually is thus: T have a blemish in myself.’ Here some person with a blemish understands it as it actually is thus: T have a blemish in myself/ Here some person with no blemish does not understand it as it actually is thus: T have no blemish in myself.’ Here some person with no blemish understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish in myself.’

“Herein, the person with a blemish who does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘I have a blemish in myself’ is called the inferior of these two persons with a blemish. Herein, the person with a blemish who understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have a blemish in myself’ is called the superior of these two persons with a blemish.

“Herein, the person with no blemish [25] who does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish’ is called the inferior of these two persons with no blemish. Herein, the person with no blemish who understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish’ is called the superior of these two persons with no blemish.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana asked the venerable Sariputta: “Friend Sariputta, what is the cause and reason why, of these two persons with a blemish, one is called the inferior man and one is called the superior man? What is the

Without Blemishes 109

f I

cause and reason why, of these two persons with no blemish, one is called the inferior man and one is called the superior man?”

  1. “Herein, friend, when a person with a blemish does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘I have a blemish in myself/ it can be expected that he will not arouse zeal, make effort, or instigate energy to abandon that blemish, and that he will die with lust, hate, and delusion, with a blemish, with mind defiled. Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or a smithy covered with dirt and stains, and the owners neither used it nor had it cleaned but put it away in a dusty corner. Would the bronze dish thus get more defiled and stained later on?” – “Yes, friend.” – “So too, friend, when a person with a blemish does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘I have a blemish in myself,’ it can be expected.. .that he will die.. .with mind defiled.
  2. “Herein, when a person with a blemish understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have a blemish in myself/ it can be expected that he will arouse zeal, make effort, and instigate energy to abandon that blemish, and that he will die without lust, hate, and delusion, without blemish, with mind undefiled. Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or a smithy covered with dirt and stains, and the owners had it cleaned and did not put it in a dusty corner. [26] Would the bronze dish thus get cleaner and brighter later on?” – “Yes, friend.” – “So too, friend, when a person with a blemish understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have a blemish in myself/ it can be expected…that he will die…with mind undefiled.
  3. “Herein, when a person with no blemish does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish in myself/ it can be expected that he will give attention to the sign of the beautiful, 70 that by his doing so lust will infect his mind, and that he will die with lust, hate, and delusion, with a blemish, with mind defiled. Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or smithy clean and bright, and the owners neither used it nor had it cleaned but put it in a dusty corner. Would the bronze dish thus get more defiled and more stained later on?” – “Yes, friend.” – “So too, friend, when a person with no blemish does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish in myself/ it can be expected that he will die.. .with mind defiled.
  4. “Herein, when a person with no blemish understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish in myself,’ it can be expected

 

i 27

that he will not give attention to the sign of the beautiful, that by his not doing so lust will not infect his mind, and that he will die without lust, hate, and delusion, without blemish, with mind undefiled. Suppose a bronze dish were brought from a shop or smithy clean and bright, and the owners used it and had it cleaned and did not put it in a dusty corner. Would the bronze dish thus get cleaner and brighter later on?” – “Yes, friend.” -“So too, friend, when a person with no blemish understands it as it actually is thus: ‘I have no blemish in myself/ it can be expected.. .that he will die.. .with mind undefiled. [27]

  1. “This is the cause and reason why, of these two persons with a blemish, one is called the inferior man and one is called the superior man. This is the cause and reason why, of these two persons with no blemish, one is called the inferior man and one is called the superior man.
  2. “‘Blemish, blemish,’ is said, friend, but what is this word ‘blemish’ a term for? ‘Blemish/ friend, is a term for the spheres of evil unwholesome wishes.
  3. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘If I commit an offence, let the bhikkhus not know that I have committed an offence.’ And it is possible that the bhikkhus come to know that that bhikkhu has committed an offence. So he is angry and bitter thus: ‘The bhikkhus know I have committed an offence.’ The anger and bitterness are both a blemish.
  4. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘I have committed an offence. The bhikkhus should admonish me in private, not in the midst of the Sa’ngha.’ And it is possible that the bhikkhus admonish that bhikkhu in the midst of the Sangha, not in private. So he is angry and bitter thus: ‘The bhikkhus admonish me in the midst of the Sangha, not in private.’ The anger and bitterness are both a blemish.
  5. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘I have committed an offence. A person who is my equal should admonish me, not a person who is not my equal.’ And it is possible that a person not his equal admonishes him, not a person his equal. So he is angry and bitter thus: ‘A person not my equal admonishes me, not a person my equal.’ The anger and bitterness are both a blemish.
  6. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that the Teacher might teach the Dhamma to the bhikkhus by asking a

Without Blemishes 111

i 30

series of questions of me, not of some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus By asking a series of questions of some other bhikkhu, [28] not of that bhikkhu. So he is angry and bitter thus: ‘The Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus by asking a series of questions of some other bhikkhu, not of me.’ The anger and bitterness are both a blemish.

  1. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that the bhikkhus might enter the village for alms putting me in the forefront, not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that the bhikkhus enter the village for alms putting some other bhikkhu in the forefront, not that bhikkhu. So he is angry and bitter thus: ‘The bhikkhus enter the village for alms putting some other bhikkhu in the forefront, not me.’ The anger and bitterness are both a blemish.
  2. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that I might get the best seat, the best water, the best almsfood in the refectory, not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that some other bhikkhu gets the best seat…
  3. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that I might give the blessing in the refectory after the meal, not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that some other bhikkhu gives the blessing…

17-20. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that I might teach the Dhamma to the bhikkhus.. .that I might teach the Dhamma to the bhikkhunls.. .men lay followers.. .women lay followers… visiting the monastery, not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that some other bhikkhu teaches the Dhamma [29]…

21-24. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that the bhikkhus…bhikkhurus…men lay followers…women lay followers… might honour, respect, revere, and venerate me, not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that they honour…some other bhikkhu…

25-28. “It is possible that a bhikkhu here might wish: ‘Oh that I might be the one to get a superior robe, [30]…superior almsfood…a superior resting place…superior medicinal requisites…not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that some other bhikkhu is the one to get superior medicinal requisites, not that bhikkhu. So he is angry and bitter thus: ‘Another bhikkhu is the one to get superior medicinal requisites, not me.’ The anger and the bitterness are both a blemish.

i 31

“‘Blemish/ friend, is a term for the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes.

  1. “If the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to be unabandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all he may be a forest dweller, a frequenter of remote abodes, an almsfood eater, a house-to-house seeker, a refuse-rag wearer, a wearer of rough robes, 71 still his fellows in the holy life do not honour, respect, revere, and venerate him. Why is that? Because the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to be unabandoned in that venerable one.

“Suppose a metal bowl were brought from a shop or a smithy clean and bright; and the owners put the carcass of a snake or a dog or a human being in it and, covering it with another bowl, went back to the market; then people seeing it said: ‘What is that you are carrying about like a treasure?’ Then, raising the lid and uncovering it, they looked in, and as soon as they saw they were inspired with such loathing, repugnance, and disgust that even those who were hungry would not want to eat, not to speak of those who were full.

“So too, if the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to be unabandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all he may be a forest dweller…[31],..unabandoned in that venerable one.

  1. “If the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to be abandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all he may be a village dweller, an acceptor of invitations, a wearer of robes given him by householders, 72 yet his fellows in the holy life honour, respect, revere, and venerate him. Why is that? Because the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to be abandoned in that venerable one.

“Suppose a metal bowl were brought from a shop or a smithy clean and bright; and the owners put clean boiled rice and various soups and sauces into it, and, covering it with another bowl, went back to the market; then people seeing it said: ‘What is that you are carrying about like a treasure?’ Then raising the lid and uncovering it, they looked in, and as soon as they saw they were inspired with such liking, appetite, and relish that even those who were full would want to eat, not to speak of those who were hungry.

Without Blemishes 113

“So too, friend, if the spheres of these evil unwholesome wishes are seen and heard to be abandoned in any bhikkhu, then for all he may be a village dweller.. .abandoned in that venerable one.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana said to the venerable Sariputta: “A simile occurs to me, friend Sariputta.” – “State it, friend Moggallana.” – “On one occasion, friend, I was living at the Hill Fort at Rajagaha. Then, when it was morning, I dressed, and taking my bowl and outer robe, I went into Rajagaha for alms. Now on that occasion Samlti the Cartwright’s son was planing a felloe and the Ajlvaka Pandu-putta, son of a former cartwright, was standing by. 73 Then this thought arose in the Ajlvaka Panduputta’s mind: ‘Oh that this Samlti the Cartwright’s son might plane this bend, this twist, this fault, out of the felloe so that it would be without bends, twists, or faults, and come to consist purely of heartwood.’ [32] And just as this thought came to pass in his mind, so did Samlti the Cartwright’s son plane that bend, that twist, that fault, out of the felloe. Then the Ajlvaka Panduputta, son of a former cartwright, was glad and he voiced his gladness thus: ‘He planes just as if he knew my heart with his heart!’
  2. “So too, friend, there are persons who are faithless and have gone forth from the home life into homelessness not out of faith but seeking a livelihood, who are fraudulent, deceitful, treacherous, haughty, hollow, personally vain, rough-tongued, loose-spoken, unguarded in their sense faculties, immoderate in eating, undevoted to wakefulness, unconcerned with recluseship, not greatly respectful of training, luxurious, careless, leaders in backsliding, neglectful of seclusion, lazy, wanting in energy, unmindful, not fully aware, unconcentrated, with straying minds, devoid of wisdom, drivellers. The venerable Sariputta with his discourse on the Dhamma planes out their faults just as if he knew my heart with his heart! 74

“But there are clansmen who have gone forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, who are not fraudulent, deceitful, treacherous, haughty, hollow, personally vain, rough-tongued, or loose-spoken; who are guarded in their sense faculties, moderate in eating, devoted to wakefulness, concerned with recluseship, greatly respectful of training, not luxurious or careless, who are keen to avoid backsliding, leaders in seclusion.

I

i 32

energetic, resolute, established in mindfulness, fully aware, concentrated, with unified minds, possessing wisdom, not drivellers. These, on hearing the venerable Sariputta’s discourse on the Dhamma, drink it in and eat it, as it were, by word and thought. Good indeed it is that he makes his fellows in the holy life emerge from the unwholesome and establish themselves in the wholesome.

  1. “Just as a woman – or a man – young, youthful, fond of adornments, with head bathed, having received a garland of lotuses, jasmine, or roses, would take it with both hands and place it on the head, so too there are clansmen who have gone forth out of faith…not drivellers. These, on hearing the venerable Sariputta’s discourse on the Dhamma, drink it in and eat it, as it were, by word and thought. Good indeed it is that he makes his fellows in the holy life emerge from the unwholesome and establish themselves in the wholesome.”

Thus it was that these two great beings rejoiced in each other’s good words. 75

 

 

6 Akankheyya Sutta If a Bhikkhu Should Wish

 

[33] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, dwell possessed of virtue, possessed of the Patimokkha, restrained with the restraint of the Patimokkha, perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, train by undertaking the training precepts. 76
  2. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I be dear and agreeable to my companions in the holy life, respected and esteemed by them/ let him fulfil the precepts, be devoted to internal serenity of mind, not neglect meditation, be possessed of insight, and dwell in empty huts. 77
  3. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I be one to obtain robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites/ let him fulfil the precepts…
  4. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May the services of those whose robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites I use bring them great fruit and benefit,’ let him fulfil the precepts…
  5. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘When my kinsmen and relatives who have passed away and died remember me with confidence in their minds, may that bring them great fruit and great benefit/ let him fulfil the precepts.. . 78
  6. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I become a conqueror of discontent and delight, and may discontent and delight not conquer me; may I abide transcending discontent and delight whenever they arise/ let him fulfil the precepts…
  7. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I become a conqueror of fear and dread, and may fear and dread not conquer me; may I

i 34

abide transcending fear and dread whenever they arise/ let him fulfil the precepts…

  1. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I become one to obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now/ let him fulfil the precepts…
  2. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I contact with the body and abide in those liberations that are peaceful and immaterial, transcending forms,’ let him fulfil the precepts…[34] 79
  3. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I, with the destruction of three fetters, become a stream-enterer, no longer subject to perdition, bound [for deliverance], headed for enlightenment/ let him fulfil the precepts… 80
  4. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I, with the destruction of three fetters and with the attenuation of lust, hate, and delusion, become a once-returner, returning once to this world to make an end of suffering,’ let him fulfil the precepts…
  5. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I, with the destruction of the five lower fetters, become due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana, without ever returning from that world/ let him fulfil the precepts.. , 81
  6. “If a bhikkhu should wish: 82 ‘May I wield the various kinds of supernormal power: having been one, may I become many; having been many, may I become one; may I appear and vanish; may I go unhindered through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain ps though through space; may I dive in and out of the earth as though it were water; may I walk on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, may I travel in space like a bird; with my hand may I touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; may I wield bodily mastery, even as far as the Brahma-world/ let him fulfil the precepts…
  7. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near,’ let him fulfil the precepts…
  8. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I understand the minds of other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. May I understand a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by

i 36

lust; may I understand a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; may I understand a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; may I understand a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; may I understand an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; may I understand a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed; may I understand a concentrated mind as concentrated [35] and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; may I understand a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated/ let him fulfil the precepts…

  1. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I recollect my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births…(as Sutta 4, §27)…Thus with their aspects and their particulars may I recollect my manifold past lives,’ let him fulfil the precepts…
  2. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate; may I understand how beings pass on according to their actions thus:’…(as Sutta 4, §29)…let him fulfil the precepts…
  3. “If a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I, by realising for myself with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints/ 83 [36] let him fulfil the precepts, be devoted to internal serenity of mind, not neglect meditation, be possessed of insight, and dwell in empty huts.
  4. “So it was with reference to this that it was said: ‘Bhikkhus, dwell possessed of virtue, possessed of the Patimo-kkha, restrained with the restraint of the Patimokkha, perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, train by undertaking the training precepts.'”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

7 Vatthupama Sutta The Simile of the Cloth

 

  1. Thus have I heard . 84 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, suppose a cloth were defiled and stained, and a dyer dipped it in some dye or other, whether blue or yellow or red or pink; it would look poorly dyed and impure in colour. Why is that? Because of the impurity of the cloth. So too, when the mind is defiled, an unhappy destination may be expected. 85 Bhikkhus, suppose a cloth were pure and bright, and a dyer dipped it in some dye or other, whether blue or yellow or red or pink; it would look well-dyed and pure in colour. Why is that? Because of the purity of the cloth. So too, when the mind is undefiled, a happy destination may be expected.
  3. “What, bhikkhus, are the imperfections that defile the mind? 86 Covetousness and, unrighteous greed is an imperfection that defiles the mind. 87 Ill will…anger…revenge…contempt…a domineering attitude…envy…avarice…deceit…fraud…obstinacy.. .presumption.. .conceit. .. arrogance.. .vanity… [37].. .negligence is an imperfection that defiles the mind.
  4. “Knowing that covetousness and unrighteous greed is an imperfection that defiles the mind, a bhikkhu abandons it. 88 Knowing that ill will…negligence is an imperfection that defiles the mind, a bhikkhu abandons it.
  5. “When a bhikkhu has known that covetousness and unrighteous greed is an imperfection that defiles the mind and has abandoned it; when a bhikkhu has known that ill will.. .negligence is an imperfection that defiles the mind and has abandoned it, he acquires perfect confidence in the Buddha thus: 89 ‘The Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in

The Simile of the Cloth 119

true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed.’

  1. “He acquires perfect confidence in the Dhamma thus: ‘The Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, visible here and now, immediately effective, inviting inspection, onward leading, to be experienced by the wise for themselves.’
  2. “He acquires perfect confidence in the Sangha thus: ‘The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is practising the good way, practising the straight way, practising the true way, practising the proper way, that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals; this Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.’
  3. “When he has given up, expelled, released, abandoned, and relinquished [the imperfections of the mind] in part, 90 he considers thus: ‘I am possessed of perfect confidence in the Buddha,’ and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, 91 gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. When he is glad, rapture is born in him; in one who is rapturous, the body becomes tranquil; one whose body is tranquil feels pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated. 92
  4. “He considers thus: ‘I am possessed of perfect confidence in the Dhamma,’ and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. When he is glad.. .the mind becomes concentrated. [38]
  5. “He considers thus: ‘I am possessed of perfect confidence in the Sangha,’ and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. When he is glad…the mind becomes concentrated.
  6. “He considers thus: ‘[The imperfections of the mind] have in part been given up, expelled, released, abandoned, and relinquished by me,’ and he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. When he is glad, rapture is born in him; in one who is rapturous, the body becomes tranquil; one whose body is tranquil feels pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the mmd becomes concentrated.

i 39

  1. “Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu of such virtue, such a state [of concentration], and such wisdom 93 eats almsfood consisting of choice hill rice along with various sauces and curries, even that will be no obstacle for him. 94 Just as a cloth that is defiled and stained becomes pure and bright with the help of clear water, or just as gold becomes pure and bright with the help of a furnace, so too, if a bhikkhu of such virtue…eats almsfood…that will be no obstacle for him.
  2. “He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, 95 likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.

14-16. “He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion…with a mind imbued with appreciative joy…with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.

  1. “He understands thus: ‘There is this, there is the inferior, there is the superior, and beyond there is an escape from this whole field of perception.’ 96
  2. “When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’ [39] Bhikkhus, this bhikkhu is called one bathed with the inner bathing.” 97
  3. Now on that occasion the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja was sitting not far from the Blessed One. Then he said to the Blessed One: “But does Master Gotama go to the Bahuka River to bathe?”

“Why, brahmin, go to the Bahuka River? What can the Bahuka River do?”

The Simile of the Cloth 121

“Master Gotama, the Bahuka River is held by many to give liberation, it is held by many to give merit, and many wash away their evil actions in the Bahuka River.”

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja in stanzas:

“Bahuka and Adhikakka,

Gaya and Sundarika too,

Payaga and Sarassatl,

And the stream Bahumatl 98 A fool may there forever bathe Yet will not purify dark deeds.

What can the Sundarika bring to pass?

What the Payaga? What the Bahuka?

They cannot purify an evil-doer,

A man who has done cruel and brutal deeds.

One pure in heart has evermore The Feast of Spring, the Holy Day; 99 One fair in act, one pure in heart Brings his virtue to perfection.

It is here, brahmin, that you should bathe.

To make yourself a refuge for all beings.

And if you speak no falsehood Nor work harm for living beings.

Nor take what is offered not.

With faith and free from avarice.

What need for you to go to Gaya?

For any well will be your Gaya.”

  1. When this was said, the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja said: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to

i 40

n

I the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I would receive the

going forth under Master Gotama, I would receive the full admission.” 100

  1. And the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja received the going forth under the Blessed One, and he received the full admission.

[40] And soon, not long after his full admission, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, the venerable Bharadvaja, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here and now entered upon and abided in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. He directly knew: “Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.” And the venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.

 

 

 

8 Sallekha Sutta Effacement

 

  1. Thus have I heard. 101 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Maha Cunda rose from meditation and went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to the Blessed One he sat down at one side and said to him:
  3. “Venerable sir, various views arise in the world associated either with doctrines of a self or with doctrines about the world. 102 Now does the abandoning and relinquishing of those views come about in a bhikkhu who is attending only to the beginning [of his meditative training]?” 103

“Cunda, as to those various views that arise in the world associated either with doctrines of a self or with doctrines about the world: if [the object] in relation to which those views arise, which they underlie, and which they are exercised upon 104 is seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is npt my self,’ then the abandoning and relinquishing of those views comes about. 105

(the eight attainments)

  1. “It is possible here, Cunda, that quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in efface-ment.’ But it is not these attainments that are called ‘effacement’ in the Noble One’s Discipline: these are called ‘pleasant abidings here and now’ [41] in the Noble One’s Discipline. 106

 

i 41

  1. “It is possible here that with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ But…these are called ‘pleasant abidings here and now’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.
  2. “It is possible here that with the fading away as well of rapture, some bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ But…these are called ‘pleasant abidings here and now’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.
  3. “It is possible here that with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ But it is not these attainments that are called ‘effacement’ in the Noble One’s Discipline, these are called ‘pleasant abidings here and now’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.
  4. “It is possible here that with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite/ some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space. He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ But it is not these attainments that are called ‘effacement’ in the Noble One’s Discipline: these are called ‘peaceful abidings’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.
  5. “It is possible here that by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ But…these are called ‘peaceful abidings’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.
  6. “It is possible here that by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. He

Effacement 125

 

might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ But…these are called ‘peaceful abidings’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.

  1. “It is possible here that by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, some bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. He might think thus: ‘I am abiding in effacement.’ [42] But these attainments are not called ‘effacement’ in the Noble One’s Discipline: these are called ‘peaceful abidings’ in the Noble One’s Discipline.

(effacement)

  1. “Now, Cunda, here effacement should be practised by you: 107

(1) ‘Others will be cruel; we shall not be cruel here’: effacement should be practised thus. 108

(2) ‘Others will kill living beings; we shall abstain from killing living beings here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(3) ‘Others will take what is not given; we shall abstain from taking what is not given here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(4) ‘Others will be uncelibate; we shall be celibate here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(5) ‘Others will speak falsehood; we shall abstain from false speech here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(6) ‘Others will speak maliciously; we shall abstain from malicious speech here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(7) ‘Others will speak harshly; we shall abstain from harsh speech here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(8) ‘Others will gossip; we shall abstain from gossip here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(9) ‘Others will be covetous; we shall be uncovetous here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(10) ‘Others will have ill will; we shall be without ill will here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(11) ‘Others will be of wrong view; we shall be of right view here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(12) ‘Others will be of wrong intention; we shall be of right intention here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(13) ‘Others will be of wrong speech; we shall be of right speech here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(14) ‘Others will be of wrong action; we shall be of right action

here’: effacement should be practised thus. V

 

i 43

(15) ‘Others will be of wrong livelihood; we shall be of right livelihood here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(16) ‘Others will be of wrong effort; we shall be of right effort here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(17) ‘Others will be of wrong mindfulness; we shall be of right mindfulness here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(18) ‘Others will be of wrong concentration; we shall be of right concentration here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(19) ‘Others will be of wrong knowledge; we shall be of right knowledge here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(20) ‘Others will be of wrong deliverance; we shall be of right deliverance here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(21) ‘Others will be overcome by sloth and torpor; we shall be free from sloth and torpor here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(22) ‘Others will be restless; we shall not be restless here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(23) ‘Others will be doubters; we shall go beyond doubt here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(24) ‘Others will be angry; we shall not be angry here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(25) ‘Others will be revengeful; we shall not be revengeful here’: effacement should be practised thus. [43]

(26) ‘Others will be contemptuous; we shall not be contemptuous here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(27) ‘Others will be domineering; we shall not be domineering here’: effacement should Be practised thus.

(28) ‘Others will be envious; we shall not be envious here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(29) ‘Others will be avaricious; we shall not be avaricious here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(30) ‘Others will be fraudulent; we shall not be fraudulent here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(31) ‘Others will be deceitful; we shall not be deceitful here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(32) ‘Others will be obstinate; we shall not be obstinate here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(33) ‘Others will be arrogant; we shall not be arrogant here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(34) ‘Others will be difficult to admonish; we shall be easy to admonish here’: effacement should be practised thus.

Effacement 127

(35) ‘Others will have bad friends; we shall have good friends here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(36) ‘Others will be negligent; we shall be diligent here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(37) ‘Others will be faithless; we shall be faithful here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(38) ‘Others will be shameless; we shall be shameful here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(39) ‘Others will have no fear of wrongdoing; we shall be afraid of wrongdoing here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(40) ‘Others will be of little learning; we shall be of great learning here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(41) ‘Others will be lazy; we shall be energetic here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(42) ‘Others will be unmindful; we shall be established in mindfulness here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(43) ‘Others will lack wisdom; we shall possess wisdom here’: effacement should be practised thus.

(44) ‘Others will adhere to their own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them with difficulty; 109 we shall not adhere to our own views or hold on to them tenaciously, but shall relinquish them easily’: effacement should be practised thus.

(inclination of mind)

  1. “Cunda, I say that even the inclination of mind towards wholesome states is of great benefit, so what should be said of bodily and verbal acts conforming [to such a state of mind]? 110 Therefore, Cunda:

(1) Mind should be inclined thus: ‘Others will be cruel; we shall not be cruel here.’

(2) Mind should be inclined thus: ‘Others will kill living beings; we shall abstain from killing living beings here.’

(3-43) Mind should be inclined thus:…

(44) Mind should be inclined thus: ‘Others will adhere to their own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them with difficulty; we shall not adhere to our own views or hold on to them tenaciously, but shall relinquish thenteasily.’

144

(avoidance)

  1. “Cunda, suppose there were an uneven path and another even path by which to avoid it; and suppose there were an uneven ford and another even ford by which to avoid it. [44] So too:

(1) A person given to cruelty has non-cruelty by which to avoid it.

(2) One given to killing living beings has abstention from killing living beings by which to avoid it.

(3) One given to taking what is not given has abstention from taking what is not given by which to avoid it.

(4) One given to be uncelibate has celibacy by which to avoid it.

(5) One given to false speech has abstention from false speech by which to avoid it.

(6) One given to malicious speech has abstention from malicious speech by which to avoid it.

(7) One given to harsh speech has abstention from harsh speech by which to avoid it.

(8) One given to gossip has abstention from gossip by which to avoid it.

(9) One given to covetousness has uncovetousness by which to avoid it.

(10) One given to ill will has non-ill will by which to avoid it.

(11) One given to wrong view has right view by which to avoid it.

(12) One given to wrong intention has right intention by

which to avoid it. ‘

(13) One given to wrong speech has right speech by which to avoid it.

(14) One given to wrong action has right action by which to avoid it.

(15) One given to wrong livelihood has right livelihood by which to avoid it.

(16) One given to wrong effort has right effort by which to avoid it.

(17) One given to wrong mindfulness has right mindfulness by which to avoid it.

(18) One given to wrong concentration has right concentration by which to avoid it.

 

Effacement 129

(19) One given to wrong knowledge has right knowledge by which to avoid it.

(20) One given to wrong deliverance has right deliverance by which to avoid it.

(21) One given to sloth and torpor has freedom from sloth and torpor by which to avoid it.

(22) One given to restlessness has non-restlessness by which to avoid it.

(23) One given to doubt has the state beyond doubt by which to avoid it.

(24) One given to anger has non-anger by which to avoid it.

(25) One given to revenge has non-revenge by which to avoid it.

(26) One given to contempt has non-contempt by which to avoid it.

(27) One given to a domineering attitude has a non-domineering attitude by which to avoid it.

(28) One given to envy has non-envy by which to avoid it.

(29) One given to avarice has non-avarice by which to avoid it.

(30) One given to fraud has non-fraud by which to avoid it.

(31) One given to deceit has non-deceit by which to avoid it.

(32) One given to obstinacy has non-obstinacy by which to avoid it.

(33) One given to arrogance has non-arrogance by which to avoid it.

(34) One given to being difficult to admonish has being easy to admonish by which to avoid it.

(35) One given to making bad friends has making good friends by which to avoid it.

(36) One given to negligence has diligence by which to avoid it.

(37) One given to faithlessness has faith by which to avoid it.

(38) One given to shamelessness has shame by which to avoid it.

(39) One given to fearlessness of wrongdoing has fear of wrongdoing by which to avoid it.

(40) One given to little learning has great learning by which to avoid it.

(41) One given to laziness has the arousal of energy by which to avoid it.

(42) One given to unmindfulness ha^the’ establishment of mindfulness by which to avoid it.

 

i 46

(43) One given to lack of wisdom has the acquisition of wisdom by which to avoid it.

(44) One given to adhere to his own views, who holds on to them tenaciously and relinquishes them with difficulty, has nonadherence to his own views, not holding on to them tenaciously and relinquishing them easily, by which to avoid it.

(the way leading upwards)

  1. “Cunda, just as all unwholesome states lead downwards and all wholesome states lead upwards, so too:

(1) A person given to cruelty has non-cruelty to lead him upwards.

(2) One given to killing living beings has abstention from killing living beings to lead him upwards.

(3~43) One given to.. .to lead him upwards.

(44) One given to adhere to his own views, who holds on to them tenaciously [45] and relinquishes them with difficulty, has non-adherence to his own views, not holding on to them tenaciously and relinquishing them easily, to lead him upwards.

(the way of extinguishing)

  1. “Cunda, that one who is himself sinking in the mud should pull out another who is sinking in the mud is impossible; that one who is not himself sinking in the mud should pull out another who is sinking in the mud is possible. That one who is himself untamed, undisciplined, [with defilements] unextinguished, should tame another, discipline him, and help extinguish [his defilements] is impossible; that one who is himself tamed, disciplined, [with defilements] extinguished, should tame another, discipline him, and help extinguish [his defilements] is possible. 111 So too:

(1) A person given to cruelty has non-cruelty by which to extinguish it. 112

(2) One given to killing living beings has abstention from killing living beings by which to extinguish it.

(3~43) One given to… [46].. .by which to extinguish it.

(44) One given to adhere to his own views, who holds on to them tenaciously and relinquishes them with difficulty, has

Effacement 131

non-adherence to his own views, not holding on to them tenaciously and relinquishing them easily, by which to extinguish it.

(conclusion)

  1. “So, Cunda, the way of effacement has been taught by me, the way of inclining the mind has been taught by me, the way of avoidance has been taught by me, the way leading upwards has been taught by me, and the way of extinguishing has been taught by me.
  2. “What should be done for his disciples out of compassion by a teacher who seeks their welfare and has compassion for them, that I have done for you, Cunda. 113 There are these roots of trees, these empty huts. Meditate, Cunda, do not delay or else you will regret it later. This is our instruction to you.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Maha Cunda was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

9 Sammaditthi Sutta Right View

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Friends, bhikkhus.” – “Friend,” they replied. The venerable Sariputta said this:
  2. “‘One of right view, one of right view/ is said, friends. In what way is a noble disciple one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” 114

“Indeed, friend, we would come from far away to learn from the venerable Sariputta the meaning of this statement. It would be good if the venerable Sariputta would explain the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will remember it.”

“Then, friends, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, friend,” the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Sariputta said this:

(the wholesome and the unwholesome)

  1. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands the unwholesome and the root of the unwholesome, the wholesome and the root of the wholesome, [47] in that way he is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma and has arrived at this tine Dhamma.
  2. “And what, friends, is the unwholesome, what is the root of the unwholesome, what is the wholesome, what is the root of the wholesome? Killing living beings is unwholesome; taking what is not given is unwholesome; misconduct in sensual pleasures is unwholesome; false speech is unwholesome; malicious

Right View 133

speech is unwholesome; harsh speech is unwholesome; gossip is unwholesome; covetousness is unwholesome; ill will is unwholesome; wrong view is unwholesome. This is called the unwholesome. 115

  1. “And what is the root of the unwholesome? Greed is a root of the unwholesome; hate is a root of the unwholesome; delusion is a root of the unwholesome. This is called the root of the unwholesome. 116
  2. “And what is the wholesome? Abstention from killing living beings is wholesome; abstention from taking what is not given is wholesome; abstention from misconduct in sensual pleasures is wholesome; abstention from false speech is wholesome; abstention from malicious speech is wholesome; abstention from harsh speech is wholesome; abstention from gossip is wholesome; uncovetousness is wholesome; non-ill will is wholesome; right view is wholesome. This is called the wholesome. 117
  3. “And what is the root of the wholesome? Non-greed is a root of the wholesome; non-hate is a root of the wholesome; non-delusion is a root of the wholesome. This is called the root of the wholesome.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood the unwholesome and the root of the unwholesome, the wholesome and the root of the wholesome, 118 he entirely abandons the underlying tendency to lust, he abolishes the underlying tendency to aversion, he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and conceit ‘I am/ and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true knowledge he here and now makes an end of suffering. 119 In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(nutriment)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends. ‘
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understandsmutriment, the origin of nutriment, the cessation of nutriment, and the way

i 48

leading to the cessation of nutriment, in that way he is one of right view.. .and has arrived [48] at this true Dhamma.

  1. “And what is nutriment, what is the origin of nutriment, what is the cessation of nutriment, what is the way leading to the cessation of nutriment? There are four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that already have come to be and for the support of those seeking a new existence. What four? They are: physical food as nutriment, gross or subtle; contact as the second; mental volition as the third; and consciousness as the fourth. 120 With the arising of craving there is the arising of nutriment. With the cessation of craving there is the cessation of nutriment. The way leading to the cessation of nutriment is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
  2. “When a noble disciple has thus understood nutriment, the origin of nutriment, the cessation of nutriment, and the way leading to the cessation of nutriment, he entirely abandons the underlying tendency to greed, he abolishes the underlying tendency to aversion, he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and conceit T am/ and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true knowledge he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(the four noble truths)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way leading to the cessation of suffering, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is suffering, what is the origin of suffering, what is the cessation of suffering, what is the way leading to the cessation of suffering? Birth is suffering; ageing is suffering;

Right View 135

sickness is suffering; death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are suffering; not to obtain what one wants is suffering; in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering. This is called suffering.

  1. “And what is the origin of suffering? It is craving, which brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that; that is, craving for sensual pleasures [49], craving for being, and craving for non-being. This is called the origin of suffering.
  2. “And what is the cessation of suffering? It is the remainderless fading away and ceasing, the giving up, relinquishing, letting go, and rejecting of that same craving. This is called the cessation of suffering.
  3. “And what is the way leading to the cessation of suffering? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view…right concentration. This is called the way leading to the cessation of suffering.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way leading to the cessation of suffering.. .he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(ageing and death)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands ageing and death, the origin of ageing and death, the cessation of ageing and death, and the way leading to the cessation of ageing and death, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 121
  3. “And what is ageing and death, what is the origin of ageing and death, what is the cessation of ageing and death, what is the way leading to the cessation of ageing and death? The ageing of beings in the various orders of /beings, their old age, brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of life, weakness of faculties – this is called ageing. The passing of beings out

i 50

of the various orders of beings, their passing away, dissolution, disappearance, dying, completion of time, dissolution of the aggregates, 122 laying down of the body – this is called death. So this ageing and this death are what is called ageing and death. With the arising of birth there is the arising of ageing and death. With the cessation of birth there is the cessation of ageing and death. The way leading to the cessation of ageing and death is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.

  1. “When a noble disciple has thus understood ageing and death, the origin of ageing and death, the cessation of ageing and death, and the way leading to the cessation of ageing and death…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(birth)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question; “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – [50] “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands birth, the origin of birth, the cessation of birth, and the way leading to the cessation of birth, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is birth. What is the origin of birth, what is the cessation of birth, what is the way leading to the cessation of birth? The birth of beings in the various orders of beings, their coming to birth, precipitation [in a womb], generation, manifestation of the aggregates, obtaining the bases for contact 123 – this is called birth. With the arising of being there is the arising of birth. With the cessation of being there is the cessation of birth. The way leading to the cessation of birth is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood birth, the origin of birth, the cessation of birth, and the way leading to the cessation of birth…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

Right View 137

(being)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands being, the origin of being, the cessation of being, and the way leading to the cessation of being, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is being, what is the origin of being, what is the cessation of being, what is the way leading to the cessation of being? There are these three kinds of being: sense-sphere being, fine-material being, and immaterial being. 124 With the arising of clinging there is the arising of being. With the cessation of clinging there is the cessation of being. The way leading to the cessation of being is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood being, the origin of being, the cessation of being, and the way leading to the cessation of being.. .he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(clinging)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands clinging, the origin of clinging, the cessation of clinging, and the way leading to the cessation of clinging, in that way he is one of right view… and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is clinging, what is the origin of clinging, what is the cessation of clinging, what is the way leading to the cessation of clinging? There are these four [51] kinds of clinging: clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to rules

i 51

and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. 125 With the arising of craving there is the arising of clinging. With the cessation of craving there is the cessation of clinging. The way leading to the cessation of clinging is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view…right concentration.

  1. “When a noble disciple has thus understood clinging, the origin of clinging, the cessation of clinging, and the way leading to the cessation of clinging…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view… and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(craving)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands craving, the origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading to the cessation of craving, in that way he is one of right view… and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is craving, what is the origin of craving, what is the cessation of craving, what is the way leading to the cessation of craving? There are these six classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odours, craving for flavours, craving for tangibles, craving for mind-objects. 126 With the arising of feeling there is the arising of craving. With the cessation of feeling there is the cessation of craving. The way leading to the cessation of craving is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood craving, the origin of craving, the cessation of craving, and the way leading to the cessation of craving…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view… and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

I

; j

Right View 139

(feeling)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands feeling, the origin of feeling, the cessation of feeling, and the way leading to the cessation of feeling, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is feeling, what is the origin of feeling, what is the cessation of feeling, what is the way leading to the cessation of feeling? There are these six classes of feeling: feeling born of eye-contact, feeling born of ear-contact, feeling born of nose-contact, feeling born of tongue-contact, feeling born of body-contact, feeling born of mind-contact. With the arising of contact there is the arising of feeling. With the cessation of contact there is the cessation of feeling. The way leading to the cessation of feeling is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view… right concentration. [52]
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood feeling, the origin of feeling, the cessation of feeling, and the way leading to the cessation of feeling…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(contact)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands contact, the origin of contact, the cessation of contact, and the way leading to the cessation of contact, in that way he is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is contact, what is the origin of contact, what is the cessation of contact, what is the way leading to the-eesSation

i 53

of contact? There are these six classes of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact. 127 With the arising of the sixfold base there is the arising of contact. With the cessation of the sixfold base there is the cessation of contact. The way leading to the cessation of contact is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view…right concentration.

  1. “When a noble disciple has thus understood contact, the origin of contact, the cessation of contact, and the way leading to the cessation of contact…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(the sixfold base)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands the sixfold base, the origin of the sixfold base, the cessation of the sixfold base, and the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base, in that way he is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is the sixfold base, what is the origin of the sixfold base, what is the .cessation of the sixfold base, what is the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base? There are these six bases: the eye-base, the ear-base, the nose-base, the tongue-base, the body-base, the mind-base. 128 With the arising of mentality-materiality there is the arising of the sixfold base. With the cessation of mentality-materiality there is the cessation of the sixfold base. The way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood the sixfold base, the origin of the sixfold base, the cessation of the sixfold base, and [53] the way leading to the cessation of the sixfold base…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

Right View 141

(mentality-materiality)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands mentality-materiality, the origin of mentality-materiality, the cessation of mentality-materiality, and the way leading to the cessation of mentality-materiality, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma. 129
  3. “And what is mentality-materiality, what is the origin of mentality-materiality, what is the cessation of mentality-materiality, what is the way leading to the cessation of mentality-materiality? Feeling, perception, volition, contact, and attention – these are called mentality. The four great elements and the material form derived from the four great elements – these are called materiality. So this mentality and this materiality are what is called mentality-materiality. With the arising of consciousness there is the arising of mentality-materiality. With the cessation of consciousness there is the cessation of mentality-materiality. The way leading to the cessation of mentality-materiality is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood mentality-materiality, the origin of mentality-materiality, the cessation of mentality-materiality, and the way leading to the cessation of mentality-materiality…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(consciousness)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands consciousness, the origin of consciousness, the cessation of consciousness, and

142 Sammaditthi Sutta: Sutta 9

the way leading to the cessation of consciousness, in that way he is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.

  1. “And what is consciousness, what is the origin of consciousness, what is the cessation of consciousness, what is the way leading to the cessation of consciousness? There are these six classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousness. 130 With the arising of formations there is the arising of consciousness. With the cessation of formations there is the cessation of consciousness. The way leading to the cessation of consciousness is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  2. “When a noble disciple has thus understood consciousness, the origin of consciousness, the cessation of consciousness, and the way leading to the cessation of consciousness [54]…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(formations)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands formations, the origin of formations, the cessation of formations, and the way leading to the cessation of formations, in that way he is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what are formations, what is the origin of formations, what is the cessation of formations, what is the way leading to the cessation of formations? There are these three kinds of formations: the bodily formation, the verbal formation, the mental formation. 131 With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of formations. With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of formations. The way leading to the cessation of formations is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood formations, the origin of formations, the cessation of formations, and the way leading to the cessation of formations…he here and now

 

i 54

Right View 143

makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(ignorance)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another way in which a noble disciple is one of right view.. .and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands ignorance, the origin of ignorance, the cessation of ignorance, and the way leading to the cessation of ignorance, in that way he is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.
  3. “And what is ignorance, what is the origin of ignorance, what is the cessation of ignorance, what is the way leading to the cessation of ignorance? Not knowing about suffering, not knowing about the origin of suffering, not knowing about the cessation of suffering, not knowing about the way leading to the cessation of suffering – this is called ignorance. With the arising of the taints there is the arising of ignorance. With the cessation of the taints there is the cessation of ignorance. The way leading to the cessation of ignorance is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view.. .right concentration.
  4. “When a noble disciple has thus understood ignorance, the origin of ignorance, the cessation of ignorance, and the way leading to the cessation of ignorance…he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view…and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

(taints)

  1. Saying, “Good, friend,” the bhikkhus delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then they asked him a further question: “But, friend, might there be another [55] way in which a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma?” – “There might be, friends.
  2. “When, friends, a noble disciple understands the taints, the origin of the taints, the cessation of the taints, and the way

i 55

leading to the cessation of the taints, in that way he is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma.

  1. “And what are the taints, what is the origin of the taints, what is the cessation of the taints, what is the way leading to the cessation of the taints? There are these three taints: the taint of sensual desire, the taint of being, and the taint of ignorance. With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of the taints. 132 With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of the taints. The way leading to the cessation of the taints is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
  2. “When a noble disciple has thus understood the taints, the origin of the taints, the cessation of the taints, and the way leading to the cessation of the taints, he entirely abandons the underlying tendency to lust, he abolishes the underlying tendency to aversion, he extirpates the underlying tendency to the view and conceit 1 am/ and by abandoning ignorance and arousing true knowledge he here and now makes an end of suffering. In that way too a noble disciple is one of right view, whose view is straight, who has perfect confidence in the Dhamma, and has arrived at this true Dhamma.”

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta’s words.

 

 

10 Satipatthana Sutta The Foundations of Mindfulness

 

  1. Thus have I heard . 133 On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Kuru country at a town of the Kurus named Kamma-sadhamma. 134 There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhik-khus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, this is the direct path 135 for the purification of beings [56], for the surmounting of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the true way, for the realisation of Nibbana – namely, the four foundations of mindfulness. 136
  3. “What are the four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu 137 abides contemplating the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. 138 He abides contemplating feelings as feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. He abides contemplating mind as mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. He abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. 139

(contemplation of the body)

(2. Mindfulness of Breathing)

  1. “And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating the body as a body? Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, sits down; having folded his legs crosswise, set his body erect, and established mindfulness in front of him, ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. Breathing in long, he understand^/! breathe in long’; or

157

breathing out long, he understands: ‘I breathe out long.’ Breathing in short, he understands: ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, he understands: ‘I breathe out short.’ 140 He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body [of breath]’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body [of breath].’ 141 He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in tranquillizing the bodily formation’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out tranquillizing the bodily formation.’ 142 Just as a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, understands: ‘I make a long turn’; or, when making a short turn, understands: ‘I make a short turn’; so too, breathing in long, a bhikkhu understands: 1 breathe in long’…he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out tranquillizing the bodily formation.’

(insight)

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body externally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body both inter-naljy-and externally. 143 Or else he abides contemplating in the body its arising factors, or he abides contemplating in the body its vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in the body both its arising and vanishing factors. 144 Or else mindfulness that ‘there is a body’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. 145 And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

(2. The Four Postures)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, when walking, a bhikkhu understands: ‘I am walking’; when standing, he understands: ‘I am standing’; when sitting, [57] he understands: ‘I am sitting’; when lying down, he understands: ‘I am lying down’; or he understands accordingly however his body is disposed. 146
  2. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, externally, and both internally and externally…And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

The Foundations of Mindfulness 147

(3. Full Awareness)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is one who acts in full awareness when going forward and returning; 147 who acts in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flexing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and urinating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.
  2. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, externally, and both internally and externally.. .And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

(4. Foulness – The Bodily Parts)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reviews this same body up from the soles of the feet and down from the top of the hair, bounded by skin, as full of many kinds of impurity thus: ‘In this body there are head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, contents of the stomach, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil of the joints, and urine.’ 148 Just as though there were a bag with an opening at both ends full of many sorts of grain, such as hill rice, red rice, beans, peas, millet, and white rice, and a man with good eyes were to open it and review it thus: ‘This is hill rice, this is red rice, these are beans, these are peas, this is millet, this is white rice’; so too, a bhikkhu reviews this same body…as full of many kinds of impurity thus: ‘In this body there are head-hairs…and urine.’
  2. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, externally, and both internally and externally.. .And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

i 58

I

l

f

 

Is

(5. Elements)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reviews this same body, however it is placed, however disposed, as consisting of elements thus: ‘In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’ 149 [58] Just as though a skilled butcher or his apprentice had killed a cow and was seated at the crossroads with it cut up into pieces; so too, a bhikkhu reviews this same body…as consisting of elements thus: ‘In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’
  2. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, externally, and both internally and externally.. .And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

(6-14. The Nine Charnel Ground Contemplations)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, one, two, or three days dead, bloated, livid, and oozing matter, a bhikkhu compares this same body with it thus: ‘This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’ 150
  2. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, externally, and both internally and externally.. .And he abides independent, not (Tinging to anything in the world. That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.
  3. “Again, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being devoured by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals, or various kinds of worms, a bhikkhu compares this same body with it thus: ‘This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’
  4. “…That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

18-24. “Again, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a skeleton with flesh and blood, held together with sinews…a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, held together with sinews…a skeleton without flesh and blood, held together with sinews…disconnected bones scattered in all directions – here a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a shin-bone.

The Foundations of Mindfulness 149

there a thigh-bone, here a hip-bone, there a back-bone, here a rib-bone, there a breast-bone, here an arm-bone, there a shoulder-bone, here a neck-bone, there a jaw-bone, here a tooth, there the skull – a bhikkhu compares this same body with it thus: ‘This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’ 151

  1. “…That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

26-30. “Again, as though he were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones bleached white, the colour of shells… bones heaped up, more than a year old.. .bones rotted and crumbled to dust [59], a bhikkhu compares this same body with it thus: ‘This body too is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

(insight)

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body externally, or he abides contemplating the body as a body both internally and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in the body its arising factors, or he abides contemplating in the body its vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in the body both its arising and vanishing factors. Or else mindfulness that ‘there is a body’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That too is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

(contemplation of feeling)

  1. “And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating feelings as feelings? 152 Here, when feeling a pleasant feeling, a bhikkhu understands: ‘I feel a pleasant feeling’; when feeling a painful feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a painful feeling’; when feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he understands: T feel a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.’ When feeling a worldly pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a worldly pleasant feeling’; when feeling an unworldly pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘I feel an unworldly pleasant feeling’; when feeling

i 59

a worldly painful feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a worldly painful feeling’; when feeling an unworldly painful feeling, he understands: ‘I feel an unworldly painful feeling’; when feeling a worldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a worldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling’; when feeling an unworldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘I feel an unworldly neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.’

(insight)

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating feelings as feelings internally, or he abides contemplating feelings as feelings externally, or he abides contemplating feelings as feelings both internally and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in feelings their arising factors, or he abides contemplating in feelings their vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in feelings both their arising and vanishing factors. 153 Or else mindfulness that ‘there is feeling’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating feelings as feelings.

(contemplation of mind)

  1. “And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind as mind? 154 Here a bhikkhu understands mind affected by lust as mind affected by lust, and mind unaffected by lust as mind unaffected by lust. He understands mind affected by hate as mind affected by hate, and mind unaffected by hate as mind unaffected by hate. He understands mind affected by delusion as mind affected by delusion, and mind unaffected by delusion as mind unaffected by delusion. He understands contracted mind as contracted mind, and distracted mind as distracted mind. He understands exalted mind as exalted mind, and unexalted mind as unexalted mind. He understands surpassed mind as surpassed mind, and unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed mind. He understands concentrated mind as concentrated mind, and unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated mind. He understands liberated mind as liberated mind, and unliberated

The Foundations of Mindfulness 151

mind as unliberated mind. 155 (insight)

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating mind as mind internally, or he abides contemplating mind as mind externally, or he abides contemplating mind as mind both internally and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in mind its arising factors, [60] or he abides contemplating in mind its vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in mind both its arising and vanishing factors. 156 Or else mindfulness that ‘there is mind’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind as mind.

(CONTEMPLATION OF MIND-OBJECTS)

(1. The Five Hindrances)

  1. “And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects? 157 Here a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five hindrances. 158 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five hindrances? Here, there being sensual desire in him, a bhikkhu understands: ‘There is sensual desire in me’; or there being no sensual desire in him, he understands: ‘There is no sensual desire in me’; and he also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen sensual desire, and how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen sensual desire, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned sensual desire.’

“There being ill will in him…There being sloth and torpor in him.. .There being restlessness and remorse in him.. .There being doubt in him, a bhikkhu understands: ‘There is doubt in me’; or there being no doubt in him, he understands: ‘There is no doubt in me’; and he understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen doubt, and how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen doubt, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned doubt.

i 61

(insight)

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally, or he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally, or be abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in mind-objects their arising factors, or he abides contemplating in mind-objects their vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in mind-objects both their arising and vanishing factors. Or else mindfulness that ‘there are mind-objects’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five hindrances.

(2. The Five Aggregates)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects [61] in terms of the five aggregates affected by clinging. 159 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five aggregates affected by clinging? Here a bhikkhu understands: ‘Such is material form, such its origin, such its disappearance; such is feeling, such its origin, such its disappearance; such is perception, such its origifi, such its disappearance; such are the formations, such their origin, such their disappearance; such is consciousness, such its origin, such its disappearance.’
  2. “In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally, externally, and both internally and externally…And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the five aggregates affected by clinging.

(3. The Six Bases)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the six internal and external bases. 160 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating

The Foundations of Mindfulness 153

mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the six internal and external bases? Here a bhikkhu understands the eye, he understands forms, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both; and he also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, and how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

“He understands the ear, he understands sounds…He understands the nose, he understands odours…He understands the tongue, he understands flavours…He understands the body, he understands tangibles…He understands the mind, he understands mind-objects, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both; and he also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, and how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally, externally, and both internally and externally…And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the six internal and external bases.

(4. The Seven Enlightenment Factors)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the seven enlightenment factors. 161 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the seven enlightenment factors? Here, there being the mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, a bhikkhu understands: ‘There is the mindfulness enlightenment factor in me’; or there being no mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, he understands: [62] ‘There is no mindfulness enlightenment factor in me’; and he also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen mindfulness enlightenment factor, and how the arisen mindfulness enlightenment factor comes to fulfilment by development.

“There being the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor in him 162 …There being the energy enlightenment factor kf

i 62

him…There being the rapture enlightenment factor in him…There being the tranquillity enlightenment factor in him…There being the concentration enlightenment factor in him.. .There being the equanimity enlightenment factor in him, a bhikkhu understands: ‘There is the equanimity enlightenment factor in me’; or there being no equanimity enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no equanimity enlightenment factor in me’; and he also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen equanimity enlightenment factor, and how the arisen equanimity enlightenment factor comes to fulfilment by development. 163

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally, externally, and both internally and externally…And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the seven enlightenment factors.

t

(5. The Four Noble Truths)

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the Four Noble Truths. 164 And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the Four Noble Truths? Here a bhikkhu understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is thfe origin of suffering’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’

(insight)

  1. “In this way he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally, or he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally, or he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally. Or else he abides contemplating in mind-objects their arising factors, or he abides contemplating in mind-objects their vanishing factors, or he abides contemplating in mind-objects both their arising and van-

l

The Foundations of Mindfulness 155

i 63

ishing factors. Or else mindfulness that ‘there are mind-objects’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare ]<nowledge and mindfulness. And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world. That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in terms of the Four Noble Truths.

(conclusion)

  1. “Bhikkhus, if anyone should develop these four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for seven years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of clinging left, non-return. 165

“Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. [63] If anyone should develop these four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for six years…for five years…for four years…for three years…for two years.. .for one year, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of clinging left, non-return.

“Let alone one year, bhikkhus. If anyone should develop these four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for seven months.. .for six months.. .for five months.. .for four months.. .for three months…for two months…for one month…for half a month, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of clinging left, non-return.

“Let alone half a month, bhikkhus. If anyone should develop these four foundations of mindfulness in such a way for seven days, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final knowledge here and now, or if there is a trace of clinging left, non-return.

  1. “So it was with reference to this that it was said: ‘Bhikkhus, this is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the surmounting of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the true way, for the realisation of Nibbana – namely, the four foundations of mindfulness.

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied ■md delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

The Division of the Lion’s Roar

(Slhanadavagga)

 

 

 

 

11 Culasthanada Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Lion’s Roar

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, only here is there a recluse, only here a second recluse, only here a third recluse, only here a fourth recluse. The doctrines of others are devoid [64] of recluses: that is how you should rightly roar your lion’s roar. 166
  3. “It is possible, bhikkhus, that wanderers of other sects might ask: ‘But on the strength of what [argument] or with the support of what [authority] do the venerable ones say thus?’ Wanderers of other sects who ask thus may be answered in this way: ‘Friends, four things have been declared to us by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened; on seeing these in ourselves we say thus: “Only here is there a recluse, only here a second recluse, only here a third recluse, only here a fourth recluse. The doctrines of others are devoid of recluses.” What are the four? We have confidence in the Teacher, we have confidence in the Dhamma, we have fulfilled the precepts, and our companions in the Dhamma are dear and agreeable to us whether they are laymen or those gone forth. These are the four things declared to us by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, on seeing which in ourselves we say as we do.’
  4. “It is possible, bhikkhus, that wanderers of other sects might say thus: ‘Friends, we too have confidence in the Teacher, that is, in our Teacher; we too have confidence in the Dhamma, that is, in our Dhamma; we too have fulfilled the precepts, that is, our precepts; and our companions in the Dhamma are dear and agreeable to us too whether they are laymen or those gone

forth. What is the distinction here, friends, what is the variance, what is the difference between you and us?’

  1. “Wanderers of other sects who ask thus may be answered in this way: ‘How then, friends, is the goal one or many?’ Answering rightly, the wanderers of other sects would answer thus: ‘Friends, the goal is one, not many.’ 167 – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one affected by lust or free from lust?’ Answering rightly, the wanderers of other sects would answer thus: ‘Friends, that goal is for one free from lust, not for one affected by lust.’ – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one affected by hate or free from hate?’ Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one free from hate, not for one affected by hate.’ – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one affected by delusion or free from delusion?’ Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one free from delusion, not for one affected by delusion.’ – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one affected by craving or free from craving?’ [65] Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one free from craving, not for one affected by craving.’ – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one affected by clinging or free from clinging?’ Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one free from clinging, not for one affected by clinging.’ – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one who has vision or for one without vision?’ Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one with vision, not for one without vision.’ – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one who favours and opposes, or for one who does not favour and oppose?’ Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one who does not favour and oppose, not for one who favours and opposes.’ 168 – ‘But, friends, is that goal for one who delights in and enjoys proliferation, or for one who does not delight in and enjoy proliferation?’ Answering rightly, they would answer: ‘Friends, that goal is for one who does not delight in and enjoy proliferation, not for one who delights in and enjoys proliferation.’ 169
  2. “Bhikkhus, there are these two views: the view of being and the view of non-being. Any recluses or brahmins who rely on the view of being, adopt the view of being, accept the view of being, are opposed to the view of non-being. Any recluses or brahmins who rely on the view of non-being, adopt the view of

 

f

 

The Shorter Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 161

i 66

non-being, accept the view of non-being, are opposed to the view of being. 170

  1. “Any recluses or brahmins who do not understand as they actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger, and the escape 171 in the case of these two views are affected by lust, affected by hate, affected by delusion, affected by craving, affected by clinging, without vision, given to favouring and opposing, and they delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are not freed from birth, ageing, and death; from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; they are not freed from suffering, I say.
  2. “Any recluses or brahmins who understand as they actually are the origin, the disappearance, the gratification, the danger, and the escape in the case of these two views are without lust, without hate, without delusion, without craving, without clinging, with vision, not given to favouring and opposing, and they do not delight in and enjoy proliferation. They are freed from birth, ageing, and death; from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; they are freed from suffering, I say. [66]
  3. “Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of clinging. What four? Clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to rules and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self.
  4. “Though certain recluses and brahmins claim to propound the full understanding of all kinds of clinging, they do not completely describe the full understanding of all kinds of clinging. 172 They describe the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures without describing the full understanding of clinging to views, clinging to rules and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. Why is that? Those good recluses and brahmins do not understand these three instances of clinging as they actually are. Therefore, though they claim to propound the full understanding of all kinds of clinging, they describe only the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures without describing the full understanding of clinging to views, clinging to rules and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self.
  5. “Though certain recluses and brahmins claim to propound the full understanding of all kinds of clinging…they describe the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures and clinging to views without describing the full understanding of clinging

i 67

to rules and observances and clinging to a doctrine of self. Why is that? They do not under stand two instances… therefore they describe only the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures and clinging to views without describing the full understanding of clinging to rules and observances and clinging to a doctrine of self.

  1. “Though certain recluses and brahmins claim to propound the full understanding of all kinds of clinging…they describe the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, and clinging to rules and observances without describing the full understanding of clinging to a doctrine of self. They do not understand one instance…therefore they describe only the full understanding of dinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, and clinging to rules and observances without describing the full understanding of clinging to a doctrine of self. 173
  2. “Bhikkhus, in such a Dhamma and Discipline as that, it is plain that confidence in the Teacher is not rightly directed, that confidence in the Dhamma is not rightly directed, that fulfilment of the precepts is not rightly directed, and that the affection among companions in the Dhamma is not rightly directed. Why is that? Because that is how it is when the Dhamma and Discipline is [67] badly proclaimed and badly expounded, unemancipating, unconducive to peace, expounded by one who is not fully enlightened.
  3. “Bhikkhus, when a Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, claims to propound the full understanding of all kinds of clinging, he completely describes the full understanding of all kinds of clinging: he describes the full understanding of clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to rules and observances, and clinging to a doctrine of self. 174
  4. “Bhikkhus, in such a Dhamma and Discipline as that, it is plain that confidence in the Teacher is rightly directed, that confidence in the Dhamma is rightly directed, that fulfilment of the precepts is rightly directed, and that the affection among companions in the Dhamma is rightly directed. Why is that? Because that is how it is when the Dhamma and Discipline is well-proclaimed and well-expounded, emancipating, conducive to peace, expounded by one who is fully enlightened.
  5. “Now these four kinds of clinging have what as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born and produced?

 

  • frg The Shorter Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 163

These four kinds of clinging have craving as their source, craving as their origin, they are bom and produced from craving. 175 Craving has what as its source…? Craving has feeling as its source…Feeling has what as its source…? Feeling has contact as its source…Contact has what as its source…? Contact has the sixfold base as its source…The sixfold base has what as its source…? The sixfold base has mentality-materiality as its source.. .Mentality-materiality has what as its source…? Mentality-materiality has consciousness as its source…Consciousness has what as its source…? Consciousness has formations as its source…Formations have what as their source…? Formations have ignorance as their source, ignorance as their origin, they are born and produced from ignorance.

  1. “Bhikkhus, when ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge has arisen in a bhikkhu, then with the fading away of ignorance and tire arising of true knowledge he no longer clings to sensual pleasures, no longer clings to views, no longer clings to rules and observances, no longer clings to a doctrine of self. 176 When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. Fie understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.'” [68]

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

12 Mahasthanada Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Vesall in the grove outside the city to the west.
  2. Now on that occasion Sunakkhatta, son of the Licchavis, had recently left this Dhamma and Discipline. 177 He was making this statement before the Vesall assembly: “The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. 178 The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma [merely] hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him, and when he teaches the Dhamma to anyone, it leads him when he practises it to the complete destruction of suffering.” 179
  3. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Sariputta dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Vesall for alms. Then he heard Sunakkhatta, son of the Licchavis, making this statement before the Vesall assembly. When he had wandered for alms in Vesall and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to ’the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the Blessed One what Sunakkhatta was saying.
  4. [The Blessed One said:] “Sariputta, the misguided man Sunakkhatta is angry and his words are spoken out of anger. Thinking to discredit the Tathagata, he actually praises him; [69] for it is praise of the Tathagata to say of him: ‘When he teaches the Dhamma to anyone, it leads him when he practises it to the complete destruction of suffering/
  5. “Sariputta, this misguided man Sunakkhatta will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘That Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 165

of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed.’ 180

  1. “And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘That Blessed One enjoys the various kinds of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain, as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he wields bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world.’
  2. “And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, that Blessed One hears both kinds of sounds, the heavenly and the human, those that are far as well as near.’
  3. “And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘That Blessed One encompasses with his own mind the minds of other beings, other persons. He understands a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust; he understands a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; he understands a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; he understands a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; he understands an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; he understands a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed; he understands a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; he understands a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated.’

(ten powers of a tathAgata)

  1. “Sariputta, the Tathagata has these ten Tathagata’s powers, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. 181 What are the ten?

i 71

  1. (1) “Here, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the possible as possible and the impossible as impossible. 182 And that [70] is a Tathagata’s power that the Tathagata has, by virtue of which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.
  2. (2) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the results of actions undertaken, past, future, and present, with possibilities and with causes. That too is a Tathagata’s power.. , 183
  3. (3) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the ways leading to all destinations. That too is a Tathagata’s power… 184
  4. (4) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the world with its many and different elements. That too is a Tathagata’s power… 185
  5. (5) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is how beings have different inclinations. That too is a Tathagata’s power.. , 186
  6. (6) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the disposition of the faculties of other beings, other persons. That too is a Tathagata’s power.. , 187
  7. (7) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the defilement, the cleansing, and the emergence in regard to the jhanas, liberations, concentrations, and attainments. That too is a Tathagata’s power.. , 188
  8. (8) “Again, the Tathagata recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two birthp…(os Sutta 4, §27 )…Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. That too is a Tathagata’s power…
  9. (9) “Again, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, the Tathagata sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate …(as Sutta 4, §29) [71],..and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. That too is a Tathagata’s power…
  10. (10) “Again, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, the Tathagata here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. That too is a Tathagata’s power that the Tathagata has, by virtue of which he claims the

i

 

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 167

herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.

  1. “The Tathagata has these ten Tathagata’s powers, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.
  2. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me: ‘The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma [merely] hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him’ – unless he abandons that assertion and that state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. 189 Just as a bhikkhu possessed of virtue, concentration, and wisdom would here and now enjoy final knowledge, so it will happen in this case, I say, that unless he abandons that assertion and that state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell.

(FOUR KINDS OF INTREPIDITY)

  1. “Sariputta, the Tathagata has these four kinds of intrepidity, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. What are the four?
  2. “Here, I see no ground on which any recluse or brahmin or god or Mara or Brahma or anyone else at all in the world could, in accordance with the Dhamma, accuse me thus: ‘While you claim full enlightenment, you are not fully enlightened in regard to certain things.’ [72] And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity.
  3. “I see no ground on which any recluse…or anyone at all could accuse me thus: ‘While you claim to have destroyed the taints, these taints are undestroyed by you.’ And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity.
  4. “I see no ground on which any recluse…or anyone at all could accuse me thus: ‘Those things called obstructions by you are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.’ And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity.

i 73

  1. “I see no ground on which any recluse…or anyone at all could accuse me thus: ‘When you teach the Dhamma to someone, it does not lead him when he practises it to the complete destruction of suffering.’ And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity.
  2. “A Tathagata has these four kinds of intrepidity, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.
  3. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me.. .he will wind up in hell.

(the eight assemblies)

  1. “Sariputta, there are these eight assemblies. What are the eight? An assembly of nobles, an assembly of brahmins, an assembly of householders, an assembly of recluses, an assembly of gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings, an assembly of gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three, an assembly of Mara’s retinue, an assembly of Brahmas. Possessing these four kinds of intrepidity, the Tathagata approaches and enters these eight assemblies.
  2. “I recall having approached many hundred assemblies of nobles…many hundred assemblies of brahmins…many hundred assemblies of householders…many hundred assemblies of recluses…many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings…many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three.. .many hundred assemblies of Mara’s retinue…many hundred assemblies of Brahmas. And formerly I had sat with them there and talked with them and held conversations with them, yet I see no ground for thinking that fear or timidity might come upon me there. And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness, and intrepidity. [73]
  3. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me.. .he will wind up in hell.

(four kinds of generation)

  1. “Sariputta, there are these four kinds of generation. What are the four? Egg-born generation, womb-bom generation, moisture-bom generation, and spontaneous generation.

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 169

33 . “What is egg-born generation? There are these beings born by breaking out of the shell of an egg; this is called egg-born generation. What is womb-born generation? There are these beings born by breaking out from the caul; this is called womb-bom generation. What is moisture-born generation? There are these beings born in a rotten fish, in a rotten corpse, in rotten dough, in a cesspit, or in a sewer; this is called moisture-bom generation. What is spontaneous generation? There are gods and denizens of hell and certain human beings and some beings in the lower worlds; this is called spontaneous generation. These are the four kinds of generation.

  1. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me.. .he will wind up in hell.

(THE FIVE DESTINATIONS AND NIBBANA)

  1. “Sariputta, there are these five destinations. What are the five? Hell, the animal realm, the realm of ghosts, human beings, and gods. 190
  2. (1) “I understand hell, and the path and way leading to hell. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell.

(2) “I understand the animal realm, and the path and way leading to the animal realm. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the animal realm.

(3) “I understand the realm of ghosts, and the path and way leading to the realm of ghosts. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the realm of ghosts.

(4) “1 understand human beings, and the path and way leading to the human world. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear among human beings.

(5) “I understand the gods, and the path and way leading to the world of the gods. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, in the heavenly world.

i 75

(6) “I understand Nibbana, and the path and way leading to Nibbana. [74] And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.

  1. (1) “By encompassing mind with mind I understand a cer-

tain person thus: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell.’ And then later on, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I see that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he has reappeared in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell, and is experiencing extremely 191 painful, racking, piercing feelings. Suppose there were a charcoal pit deeper than a man’s height full of glowing coals without flame or smoke; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same charcoal pit. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path, that he will come to this same charcoal pit’; and then later on he sees that he has fallen into that charcoal pit and is experiencing extremely painful, racking, piercing feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… piercing feelings. 1

  1. (2) “By encompassing mind with mind I understand a certain person thus: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in the animal realm.’ And then later on, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I see that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he has reappeared in the animal realm and is experiencing extremely painful, racking, piercing feelings. Suppose there were a cesspit deeper than a man’s height full of filth; and then a man [75] scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same cesspit. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves…that he will come to this same cesspit’; and then later on he sees that he has fallen into

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 171

that cesspit and is experiencing extremely painful, racking, piercing feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… piercing feelings.

  1. (3) “By encompassing mind with mind I understand a certain person thus: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in the realm of ghosts.’ And then later on…I see that…he has reappeared in the realm of ghosts and is experiencing much painful feeling. Suppose there were a tree growing on uneven ground with scanty foliage casting a dappled shadow; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same tree. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves… that he will come to this same tree’; and then later on he sees that he is sitting or lying in the shade of that tree experiencing much painful feeling. So too, by encompassing mind with mind .. .much painful feeling.
  2. (4) “By encompassing mind with mind I understand a certain person thus: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear among human beings.’ And then later on…I see that…he has reappeared among human beings and is experiencing much pleasant feeling. Suppose there were a tree growing on even ground with thick foliage casting a deep shade; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same tree. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves…that he will come to this same tree’; and then later on he sees that he is sitting or lying in the shade of that tree experiencing much pleasant feeling. So too, by encompassing mind with mind…much pleasant feeling. [76]
  3. (5) “By encompassing mind with mind I understand a certain person thus: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, in the heavenly world.’ And then later on…I see that…he has reappeared in a happy destination, in the heavenly world, and is experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. Suppose there were a mansion, and

 

i 77

1

it had an upper chamber plastered within and without, shut off, secured by bars, with shuttered windows, and in it there was a couch spread with rugs, blankets, and sheets, with a deerskin coverlet, with a canopy as well as crimson pillows for both [head and feet]; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same mansion. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves.. .that he will come to this same mansion’; and then later on he sees that he is sitting or lying in that upper chamber in that mansion experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind.. .extremely pleasant feelings.

  1. (6) “By encompassing mind with mind I understand a certain person thus: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path that by realising for himself with direct knowledge, he here and now will enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.’ And then later on I see that by realising for himself with direct knowledge, he here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints, and is experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. 192 Suppose there were a pond with clean, agreeable, cool water, transparent, with smooth banks, delightful, and nearby a dense wood; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only towards that same pond. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves…that he will come to this same pond’; and then later on he sees that he has plunged into the pond, bathed, drunk, and relieved all his distress, fatigue, and fever and has come out again and is sitting or lying in the wood [77] experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind…extremely pleasant feelings. These are the five destinations.
  2. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me: ‘The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma [merely] hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him’ – unless he abandons that assertion and that

 

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 173

state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. Just as a bhikkhu possessed of virtue, concentration, and wisdom would here and now enjoy final knowledge, so it will happen in this case, I say, that unless he abandons that assertion and that state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as [surely as if he had been] carried off and put there he will wind up in hell.

(the bodhisatta’s austerities)

  1. “Sariputta, I recall having lived a holy life possessing four factors. I have practised asceticism – the extreme of asceticism; I have practised coarseness – the extreme of coarseness; I have practised scrupulousness – the extreme of scrupulousness; I have practised seclusion – the extreme of seclusion. 193
  2. “Such was my asceticism, Sariputta, that I went naked, rejecting conventions, licking my hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked; I did not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; I received nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman lying with a man, from where food was advertised to be distributed, from where a dog was waiting, from where flies were buzzing; I accepted no fish or meat, I drank no liquor, wine, or fermented brew. I kept to one house, to one morsel; I kept to two [78] houses, to two morsels;…I kept to seven houses, to seven morsels. I lived on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a day…on seven saucerfuls a day; I took food once a day, once every two days…once every seven days, and so on up to once every fortnight; I dwelt pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals. I was an eater of greens or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or ricebran or rice-scum or sesamum flour or grass or cowdung. I lived on forest roots and fruits; I fed on fallen fruits. I clothed myself in hemp, in hemp-mixed cloth, in shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope hide, in strips of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fabric, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, in owls’ wings. I was one who pulled out hair and beard, pursuing the practice of pulling out hair and beard. I was one who stood

i 79

continuously, rejecting seats. I was one who squatted continuously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. I was one who used a mattress of spikes; I made a mattress of spikes my bed. I dwelt pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways I dwelt pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. Such was my asceticism.

  1. “Such was my coarseness, Sariputta, that just as the bole of a tinduka tree, accumulating over the years, cakes and flakes off, so too, dust and dirt, accumulating over the years, caked off my body and flaked off. It never occurred to me: ‘Oh, let me rub this dust and dirt off with my hand, or let another rub this dust and dirt off with his hand’ – it never occurred to me thus. Such was my coarseness.
  2. “Such was my scrupulousness, Sariputta, that I was always mindful in stepping forwards and stepping backwards. I was full of pity even for [the beings in] a drop of water thus: ‘Let me not hurt the tiny creatures in the crevices of the ground.’ Such was my scrupulousness.
  3. “Such was my seclusion, Sariputta, that [79] I would plunge into some forest and dwell there. And when I saw a cowherd or a shepherd or someone gathering grass or sticks, or a woodsman, I would flee from grove to grove, from thicket to thicket, from hollow to hollow, from hillock to hillock. Why was that? So that they should not see me or I see them. Just as a forest-bred deer, on seeing human beings, flees from grove to grove, from thicket to thicket, from hollow to hollow, from hillock to hillock, so too, when I saw a cowherd or a shepherd.. .Such was my seclusion.
  4. “I would go on all fours to the cow-pens when the cattle had gone out and the cowherd had left them, and I would feed on the dung of the young suckling calves. As long as my own excrement and urine lasted, I fed on my own excrement and urine. Such was my great distortion in feeding.
  5. “I would plunge into some awe-inspiring grove and dwell there – a grove so awe-inspiring that normally it would make a man’s hair stand up if he were not free from lust. When those cold wintry nights came during the ‘eight-days interval of frost,’ I would dwell by night in the open and by day in the grove. 194 In the last month of the hot season I would dwell by day in the

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 175

open and by night in the grove. And there came to me spontaneously this stanza never heard before:

‘Chilled by night and scorched by day.

Alone in awe-inspiring groves.

Naked, no fire to sit beside.

The sage yet pursues his quest/

  1. “I would make my bed in a charnel ground with the bones of the dead for a pillow. And cowherd boys came up and spat on me, urinated on me, threw dirt at me, and poked sticks into my ears. Yet I do not recall that I ever aroused an evil mind [of hate] against them. Such was my abiding in equanimity. [80]
  2. “Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes about through food.’ 195 They say: ‘Let us live on kola-fruits,’ and they eat kola-fruits, they eat kola-fruit powder, they drink kola-fruit water, and they make many kinds of kola-fruit concoctions. Now I recall having eaten a single kola-fruit a day. Sariputta, you may think that the kola-fruit was bigger at that time, yet you should not regard it so: the kola-fruit was then at most the same size as now. Through feeding on a single kola-fruit a day, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of eating so little my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or bamboo stems. Because of eating so little my backside became like a camel’s hoof. Because of eating so little the projections on my spine stood forth like corded beads. Because of eating so little my ribs jutted out as gaunt as the crazy rafters of an old roofless barn. Because of eating so little the gleam of my eyes sank far down in their sockets, looking like a gleam of water that has sunk far down in a deep well. Because of eating so little my scalp shrivelled and withered as a green bitter gourd shrivels and withers in the wind and sun. Because of eating so little my belly skin adhered to my backbone; thus if I touched my belly skin I encountered my backbone, and if I touched my backbone I encountered my belly skin. Because of eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair, rotted at its roots, fell from my body as I rubbed.

53-55. “Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes about

i 82

through food.’ They say: ‘Let us live on beans/…’Let us live on sesamum/…’Let us live on rice/ and they eat rice, they eat rice powder, [81] they drink rice water, and they make many kinds of rice concoctions. Now I recall having eaten a single rice grain a day. Sariputta, you may think that the rice grain was bigger at that time, yet you should not regard it so: the rice grain was then at most the same size as now. Through feeding on a single rice grain a day, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of eating so little…the hair, rotted at its roots, fell from my body as I rubbed.

  1. “Yet, Sariputta, by such conduct, by such practice, by such performance of austerities, I did not attain any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. Why was that? Because I did not attain that noble wisdom which when attained is noble and emancipating and leads the one who practises in accordance with it to the complete destruction of suffering.
  2. “Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes about through the round of rebirths.’ But it is impossible to find a realm in the round that I have not already [82] passed through in this long journey, except for the gods of the Pure Abodes; and had I passed through the round as a god in the Pure Abodes, I would never have returned to this world. 196
  3. “There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes about through [some particular kind of] rebirth/ But it is impossible to find a kind of rebirth that I have not been reborn in already in this long journey, except for the gods of the Pure Abodes…
  4. “There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes about through [some particular] abode.’ But it is impossible to find a kind of abode that I have not already dwelt in…except for the gods of the Pure Abodes…
  5. “There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes about through sacrifice.’ But it is impossible to find a kind of sacrifice that has not already been offered up by me in this long journey, when I was either a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin.
  6. “There are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘Purification comes through fire-worship.’ But

 

The Greater Discourse on the Lion’s Roar 177

it is impossible to find a kind of fire that has not already been worshipped by me in this long journey, when I was either a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin.

  1. “Sariputta, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘As long as this good man is still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, so long is he perfect in his lucid wisdom. But when this good man is old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, and come to the last stage, being eighty, ninety, or a hundred years old, then the lucidity of his wisdom is lost.’ But it should not be regarded so. I am now old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, and come to the last stage: my years have turned eighty. Now suppose that I had four disciples with a hundred years’ lifespan, perfect in mindfulness, retentiveness, memory, and lucidity of wisdom. 197 Just as a skilled archer, trained, practised, and tested, could easily shoot a light arrow across the shadow of a palm tree, suppose that they were even to that extent perfect in mindfulness, retentiveness, [83] memory, and lucidity of wisdom. Suppose that they continuously asked me about the four foundations of mindfulness and that I answered them when asked and that they remembered each answer of mine and never asked a subsidiary question or paused except to eat, drink, consume food, taste, urinate, defecate, and rest in order to remove sleepiness and tiredness. Still the Tathagata’s exposition of the Dhamma, his explanations of factors of the Dhamma, and his replies to questions would not yet come to an end, but meanwhile those four disciples of mine with their hundred years’ lifespan would have died at the end of those hundred years. Sariputta, even if you have to carry me about on a bed, still there will be no change in the lucidity of the Tathagata’s wisdom.
  2. “Rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: ‘A being not subject to delusion has appeared in the world for the welfare and happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans,’ it is of me indeed that rightly speaking this should be said.”
  3. Now on that occasion the venerable Nagasamala was standing behind the Blessed One fanning him. 198 Then he said to the Blessed One: “It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous! As I listened to this discourse on the Dhamma, the hairs of my

i 83

body stood up. Venerable sir, what is the name of this discourse on the Dhamma?”

“As to that, Nagasamala, you may remember this discourse on the Dhamma as ‘The Hair-raising Discourse/” 199

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Nagasamala was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

13 Mahadukkhakkhandha Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Then, when it was morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed, and taking their bowls and outer robes, [84] went into SavatthI for alms. Then they thought: “It is still too early to wander for alms in SavatthI. Suppose we went to the park of the wanderers of other sects.” So they went to the park of the wanderers of other sects and exchanged greetings with the wanderers. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, they sat down at one side. The wanderers said to them:
  3. “Friends, the recluse Gotama describes the full understanding of sensual pleasures, and we do so too; the recluse Gotama describes the full understanding of material form, and we do so too; the recluse Gotama describes the full understanding of feelings, and we do so too. What then is the distinction here, friends, what is the variance, what is the difference between the recluse Gotama’s teaching of the Dhamma and ours, between his instructions and ours?” 200
  4. Then those bhikkhus neither approved nor disapproved of the wanderers’ words. Without doing either they rose from their seats and went away, thinking: “We shall come to understand the meaning of these words in the Blessed One’s presence.”
  5. When they had wandered for alms in SavatthI and had returned from their almsround, after the meal they went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down at one side and told him what had taken place. [The Blessed One said:] [85]
  6. “Bhikkhus, wanderers of other sects who speak thus should be questioned thus: ‘But, friends, what is the gratification, what

i 86

is the danger, and what is the escape in the case of sensual pleasures? What is the gratification, what is the danger, and what is the escape in the case of material form? What is the gratification, what is the danger, and what is the escape in the case of feelings?’ Being questioned thus, wanderers of other sects will fail to account for the matter, and what is more, they will get into difficulties. Why is that? Because it is not their province. Bhikkhus, I see no one in the world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, in this generation with its recluses and brahmins, with its princes and its people, who could satisfy the mind with a reply to these questions, except for the Tathagata or his disciple or one who has learned it from them.

(sensual pleasures)

  1. (i) “And what, bhikkhus, is the gratification in the case of sensual pleasures? Bhikkhus, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure. What are the five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the ear…Odours cognizable by the nose…Flavours cognizable by the tongue…Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sensual pleasure. Now the pleasure and joy that arise dependent on these five cords of seqsual pleasure are the gratification in the case of sensual pleasures.
  2. (ii) “And what, bhikkhus, is the danger in the case of sensual pleasures? Here, bhikkhus, on account of the craft by which a clansman makes a living – whether checking or accounting or calculating or farming or trading or husbandry or archery or the royal service, or whatever craft it may be – he has to face cold, he has to face heat, he is injured by contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, and creeping things; he risks death by hunger and thirst. Now this is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures, a mass of suffering visible here and now, having sensual pleasures as its cause, sensual pleasures as its source, sensual pleasures as its basis, [86] the cause being simply sensual pleasures.
  3. “If no property comes to the clansman while he works and

 

The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 181

strives and makes an effort thus, he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught, crying: “My work is in vain, my effort is fruitless!’ Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures…the cause being simply sensual pleasures.

  1. “If property comes to the clansman while he works and strives and makes an effort thus, he experiences pain and grief in protecting it: ‘How shall neither kings nor thieves make off with my property, nor fire burn it, nor water sweep it away, nor hateful heirs make off with it?’ And as he guards and protects his property, kings or thieves make off with it, or fire burns it, or water sweeps it away, or hateful heirs make off with it. And he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught, crying: ‘What I had I have no longer!’ Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures…the cause being simply sensual pleasures.
  2. “Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause, sensual pleasures as the source, sensual pleasures as the basis, the cause being simply sensual pleasures, kings quarrel with kings, nobles with nobles, brahmins with brahmins, householders with householders; mother quarrels with child, child with mother, father with child, child with father; brother quarrels with brother, brother with sister, sister with brother, friend with friend. And here in their quarrels, brawls, and disputes they attack each other with fists, clods, sticks, or knives, whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures…the cause being simply sensual pleasures.
  3. “Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause…men take swords and shields and buckle on bows and quivers, and they charge into battle massed in double array with arrows and spears flying and swords flashing; and there they are wounded by arrows and spears, and their heads are cut off by swords, whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures…the cause being simply sensual pleasures.
  4. “Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause…men take swords and shields and buckle on bows and quivers, and they charge slippery bastions, with arrows and spears flying [87] and swords flashing; and there they are wounded by arrows

i 87

and spears and splashed with boiling liquids and crushed under heavy weights, and their heads are cut off by swords, whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures.. .the cause being simply sensual pleasures.

  1. “Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause…men break into houses, plunder wealth, commit burglary, ambush highways, seduce others’ wives, and when they are caught, kings have many kinds of torture inflicted on them. The kings have them flogged with whips, beaten with canes, beaten with clubs; they have their hands cut off, their feet cut off, their hands and feet cut off; their ears cut off, their noses cut off, their ears and noses cut off; they have them subjected to the ‘porridge pot,’ to the ‘polished-shell shave,’ to the ‘Rahu’s mouth,’ to the ‘fiery wreath,’ to the ‘flaming hand,’ to the ‘blades of grass,’ to the ‘bark dress/ to the ‘antelope,’ to the ‘meat hooks,’ to the ‘coins,’ to the ‘lye pickling,’ to the ‘pivoting pin,’ to the ‘rolled-up palliasse’; 201 and they have them splashed with boiling oil, and they have them thrown to be devoured by dogs, and they have them impaled alive on stakes, and they have their heads cut off with swords – whereby they incur death or deadly suffering. Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures…the cause being simply sensual pleasures.
  2. “Again, with sensual pleasures as the cause, sensual pleasures as the source, sensual pleasures as the basis, the cause being simply sensual pleasures, people indulge in misconduct of body, speech, and mind. Having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after death, they reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures, a mass of suffering in the life to come, 202 having sensual pleasures as its cause, sensual pleasures as its source, sensual pleasures as its basis, the cause being simply sensual pleasures.
  3. (iii) “And what, bhikkhus, is the escape in the case of sensual pleasures? It is the removal of desire and lust, the abandonment of desire and lust for sensual pleasures. 203 This is the escape in the case of sensual pleasures.
  4. “That those recluses and brahmins who do not understand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of sensual

The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 183

pleasures, can either themselves fully understand sensual pleasures or instruct another so that he can fully understand sensual pleasures – that is impossible. That those recluses and brahmins w ho understand as it actually is [88] the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of sensual pleasures, can either themselves fully understand sensual pleasures or instruct another so that he can fully understand sensual pleasures – that is possible.

(material form)

  1. (i) “And what, bhikkhus, is the gratification in the case of material form? Suppose there were a girl of the noble class or the brahmin class or of householder stock, in her fifteenth or sixteenth year, neither too tall nor too short, neither too thin nor too fat, neither too dark nor too fair. Is her beauty and loveliness then at its height?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Now the pleasure and joy that arise in dependence on that beauty and loveliness are the gratification in the case of material form.
  2. (ii) “And what, bhikkhus, is the danger in the case of material form? Later on one might see that same woman here at eighty, ninety, or a hundred years, aged, as crooked as a roof bracket, doubled up, supported by a walking stick, tottering, frail, her youth gone, her teeth broken, grey-haired, scanty-haired, bald, wrinkled, with limbs all blotchy. What do you think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished and the danger become evident?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” -“Bhikkhus, this is a danger in the case of material form.
  3. “Again, one might see that same woman afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill, lying fouled in her own excrement and urine, lifted up by some and set down by others. What do you think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished and the danger become evident?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” -“Bhikkhus, this too is a danger in the case of material form.
  4. “Again, one might see that same woman as a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, one, two, or three days dead, bloated, livid, and oozing matter. What do you think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished and the danger become evident?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, this too is a danger in the case of material form.

i 90

22-29. “Agai^ one might see that same woman as a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being devoured by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals, or various kinds of worms… [89]…a skeleton with flesh and blood, held together with sinews…a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, held together with sinews.. .disconnected bones scattered in all directions – here a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a thigh-bone, there a rib-bone, here a hip-bone, there a back-bone, here the skull.. .bones bleached white, the colour of shells…bones heaped up, more than a year old…bones rotted and crumbled to dust. What do you think, bhikkhus? Has her former beauty and loveliness vanished and the danger become evident?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” -“Bhikkhus, this too is a danger in the case of material form.

  1. (iii) “And what, bhikkhus, is the escape in the case of material form? It is the removal of desire and lust, the abandonment of desire and lust for material form. This is the escape in the case of material form.
  2. “That those recluses and brahmins who do not understand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of material form, can either themselves fully understand material form or instruct another so that he can fully understand material form -that is impossible. That those recluses and brahmins who understand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of material form, can either themselves fully understand material form or instruct another so that he can fully understand material form – that is possible.

(feelings)

  1. (i) “And what, bhikkhus, is the gratification in the case of feelings? Here, bhikkhus, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 204 On such an occasion he does not choose for his own affliction, or for another’s affliction, or for the affliction of both. [90] On that occasion he feels only feeling that is free from affliction. The highest gratification in the case of feelings is freedom from affliction, I say.

 

The Greater Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 185

33-35. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana…With the fading away as well of rapture…he enters upon and abides in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana…On such an occasion he does not choose for his own affliction, or for another’s affliction, or for the affliction of both. On that occasion he feels only feeling that is free from affliction. The highest gratification in the case of feelings is freedom from affliction, I say.

  1. (ii) “And what, bhikkhus, is the danger in the case of feelings? Feelings are impermanent, suffering, and subject to change. This is the danger in the case of feelings.
  2. (iii) “And what, bhikkhus, is the escape in the case of feelings? It is the removal of desire and lust, the abandonment of desire and lust for feelings. This is the escape in the case of feelings.
  3. “That those recluses and brahmins who do not understand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of feelings, can either themselves fully understand feelings or instruct another so that he can fully understand feelings – that is impossible. That those recluses and brahmins who understand as it actually is the gratification as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape as escape in the case of feelings, can either themselves fully understand feelings or instruct another so that he can fully understand feelings – that is possible.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

14 Culadukkhakkhandha Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering

 

[91] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha’s Park.

  1. Then Mahanama the Sakyan 205 went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and said: “Venerable sir, I have long understood the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One thus: ‘Greed is an imperfection that defiles the mind, hate is an imperfection that defiles the mind, delusion is an imperfection that defiles the mind.’ Yet while I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One thus, at times states of greed, hate, and delusion invade my mind and remain. I have wondered, venerable sir, what state is still unabandoned by me internally, owing to which at times these states of greed, hate, and delusion invade my mind and remain.” 206
  2. “Mahanama, there is still a state unabandoned by you internally, owing to which at times states of greed, hate, and delusion invade your mind and remain; for were that state already abandoned by you internally you would not be living the home life, you would not be enjoying sensual pleasures. 207 It is because that state is unabandoned by you internally that you are living the home life and enjoying sensual pleasures.
  3. “Even though a noble disciple has seen clearly as it actually is with proper wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them, as long as he still does not attain to the rapture and pleasure that are apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states, or to something more peaceful than that, he may still be attracted to sensual pleasures. 208 But when a noble disciple has seen clearly as it actually is with proper wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much

The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 187

suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them, and he attains to the rapture and pleasure that are apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states, or to something more peaceful than that, then he is no longer attracted to sensual pleasures. [92]

  1. “Before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I too clearly saw as it actually is with proper wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them, but as long as I still did not attain to the rapture and pleasure that are apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states, or to something more peaceful than that, I recognised that I still could be attracted to sensual pleasures. But when I clearly saw as it actually is with proper wisdom how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them, and I attained to the rapture and pleasure that are apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states, or to something more peaceful than that, I recognised that I was no longer attracted to sensual pleasures.

6-14. “And what is the gratification in the case of sensual pleasures? Mahanama, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure …(as Sutta 13, §§7-15 )…Now this too is a danger in the case of sensual pleasures, a mass of suffering in the life to come, having sensual pleasures as its cause, sensual pleasures as its source, sensual pleasures as its basis, the cause being simply sensual pleasures.

  1. “Now, Mahanama, on one occasion I was living at Raja-gaha on the mountain Vulture Peak. On that occasion a number of Niganthas living on the Black Rock on the slopes of Isigili were practising continuous standing, rejecting seats, and were experiencing painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion. 209
  2. “Then, when it was evening, I rose from meditation and went to the Niganthas there. I asked them: ‘Friends, why do you practise continuous standing, rejecting seats, and experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion?’
  3. “When this was said, they replied: ‘Friend, the Nigantha Nataputta is omniscient and all-seeing and claims to have complete knowledge and vision thus: “Whether I am walking or

I

standing or asleep or awake, [93] knowledge and vision are continuously and uninterruptedly present to me.” He says thus: “Niganthas, you have done evil actions in the past; exhaust them with the performance of piercing austerities. And when you are here and now restrained in body, speech, and mind, that is doing no evil actions for the future. So by annihilating with asceticism past actions and by doing no fresh actions, there will be no consequence in the future. With no consequence in the future, there is the destruction of action. With the destruction of action, there is the destruction of suffering. With the destruction of suffering, there is the destruction of feeling. With the destruction of feeling, all suffering will be exhausted.” This is [the doctrine] we approve of and accept, and we are satisfied with it.’

  1. “When this was said, I told them: ‘But, friends, do you know that you existed in the past, and that it is not the case that you did not exist?’ – ‘No, friend.’ – ‘But, friends, do you know that you did evil actions in the past and did not abstain from them?’ – ‘No, friend.’ – ‘But, friends, do you know that you did such and such evil actions?’ – ‘No, friend.’ – ‘But, friends, do you know that so much suffering has already been exhausted, or that so much suffering has still to be exhausted, or that when so much suffering has been exhausted all suffering will have been exhausted?’ – ‘No, friend.’ – ‘But, friends, do you know what the abandoning of unwholesome states is and what the cultivation of wholesome states is here and now?’ – ‘No, friend.’
  2. “‘So, friends, it seems that you do not know that you existed in the past and that it iJ not the case that you did not exist; or that you did evil actions in the past and did not abstain from them; or that you did such and such evil actions; or that so much suffering has already been exhausted, or that so much suffering has still to be exhausted, or that when so much suffering has been exhausted all suffering will have been exhausted; or what the abandoning of unwholesome states is and what the cultivation of wholesome states is here and now. That being so, those who are murderers, bloody-handed evil-doers in the world, when they are reborn among human beings, go forth into homelessness as Niganthas.’ 210
  3. “‘Friend Gotama, pleasure is not to be gained through pleasure; pleasure is to be gained through pain. [94] For were pleasure to be gained through pleasure, then King Seniya

The Shorter Discourse on the Mass of Suffering 189

Bimbisara of Magadha would gain pleasure, since he abides in greater pleasure than the venerable Gotama.’

‘”Surely the venerable Niganthas have uttered those words rashly and without reflection. Rather it is I who ought to be asked: “Who abides in greater pleasure. King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha or the venerable Gotama?”‘

‘”Surely, friend Gotama, we uttered those words rashly and without reflection. But let that be. Now we ask the venerable Gotama: Who abides in greater pleasure. King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha or the venerable Gotama?’

  1. “‘Then, friends, I shall ask you a question in return. Answer it as you like. What do you think, friends? Can King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha abide without moving his body or uttering a word, experiencing the peak of pleasure for seven days and nights?’ – ‘No, friend.’ – ‘Can King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha abide without moving his body or uttering a word, experiencing the peak of pleasure for six, five, four, three, or two days and nights?.. .for one day and night?’ – ‘No, friend.’
  2. “‘But, friends, I can abide without moving my body or uttering a word, experiencing the peak of pleasure for one day and night…for two, three, four, five, and six days and nights…for seven days and nights. 211 What do you think, friends? That being so, who dwells in greater pleasure. King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha or I?’

“‘That being so, [95] the venerable Gotama abides in greater pleasure than King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha.'”

That is what the Blessed One said. Mahanama the Sakyan was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

15 Anumana Sutta Inference

 

1 . Thus have I heard. On one occasion the venerable Maha Moggallana was living in the Bhagga country at Sumsumaragira in the Bhesakala Grove, the Deer Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Friends, bhikkhus.” – “Friend,” they replied. The venerable Maha Moggallana said this:

  1. “Friends, though a bhikkhu asks thus: ‘Let the venerable ones admonish me, 212 1 need to be admonished by the venerable ones,’ yet if he is difficult to admonish and possesses qualities that make him difficult to admonish, if he is impatient and does not take instruction rightly, then his companions in the holy life think that he should not be admonished or instructed, they think of him as a person not to be trusted.
  2. “What qualities make him difficult to admonish?

(1) Here a bhikkhu has evil wishes and is dominated by evil wishes; 213 this is a quality that makes him difficult to admonish.

(2) Again, a bhikkhu lauds himself and disparages others; this is a quality that makes him’ difficult to admonish.

(3) Again, a bhikkhu is angry and is overcome by anger; this is a quality…

(4) Again, a bhikkhu is angry, and revengeful because of anger…

(5) Again, a bhikkhu is angry, and stubborn because of anger…

(6) Again, a bhikkhu is angry, and he utters words bordering on anger…

(7) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he resists the reprover…

(8) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he denigrates the reprover…

(9) Again, [96] a bhikkhu is reproved, and he counter-reproves the reprover…

190

Inference 191

(10) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he prevaricates, leads the talk aside, and shows anger, hate, and bitterness…

(11) Again, a bhikkhu is reproved, and he fails to account for his conduct…

(12) Again, a bhikkhu is contemptuous and domineering…

(13) Again, a bhikkhu is envious and avaricious…

(14) Again, a bhikkhu is fraudulent and deceitful…

(15) Again, a bhikkhu is obstinate and arrogant…

(16) Again, a bhikkhu adheres to his own views, holds on to them tenaciously, and relinquishes them with difficulty; this is a quality that makes him difficult to admonish. 214

“Friends, these are called the qualities that make him difficult to admonish.

  1. “Friends, though a bhikkhu does not ask thus: ‘Let the venerable ones admonish me; I need to be admonished by the venerable ones,’ yet if he is easy to admonish and possesses qualities that make him easy to admonish, if he is patient and takes instruction rightly, then his companions in the holy life think that he should be admonished and instructed, and they think of him as a person to be trusted.
  2. “What qualities make him easy to admonish?

(1) Here a bhikkhu has no evil wishes and is not dominated by evil wishes; this is a quality that makes him easy to admonish.

(2) Again, a bhikkhu does not laud himself nor disparage others; this is a quality…

(3) He is not angry nor allows anger to overcome him…

(4) He is not angry or revengeful because of anger…

(5) He is not angry or stubborn because of anger…

(6) He is not angry, and he does not utter words bordering on anger…

(7) He is reproved, and he does not resist the reprover…

(8) He is reproved, and he does not denigrate the reprover…[97]

(9) He is reproved, and he does not counter-reprove the reprover…

(10) He is reproved, and he does not prevaricate, lead the talk aside, and show anger, hate, and bitterness…

(11) He is reproved, and he does not fail to account for his conduct…

(12) He is not contemptuous or domineering…

(13) He is not envious or avaricious…

ilOO

(14) He is not fraudulent or deceitful…

(15) He is not obstinate or arrogant…

(16) Again, a bhikkhu does not adhere to his own views or hold on to them tenaciously, and he relinquishes them easily; this is a quality that makes him easy to admonish.

“Friends, these are called the qualities that make him easy to admonish.

  1. “Now, friends, a bhikkhu ought to infer about himself in the following way: 215

(1) ‘A person with evil wishes and dominated by evil wishes is displeasing and disagreeable to me. If I were to have evil wishes and be dominated by evil wishes, I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ A bhikkhu who knows this should arouse his mind thus: ‘I shall not have evil wishes and be dominated by evil wishes.’

(2-16) ‘A person who lauds himself and disparages others… [98 ]…A person who adheres to his own views, holds on to them tenaciously, and relinquishes them with difficulty is displeasing and disagreeable to me. If I were to adhere to my own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them with difficulty, I would be displeasing and disagreeable to others.’ A bhikkhu who knows this should arouse his mind thus: ‘I shall not adhere to my own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and I shall relinquish them easily.’

  1. “Now, friends, a bhikkhu should review himself thus:

(1) ‘Do I have evil wishes-and am I dominated by evil wishes?’ If, when he reviews himself, he knows: ‘I have evil wishes, I am dominated by evil wishes,’ then he should make an effort to abandon those evil unwholesome states. But if, when he reviews himself, he knows: ‘I have no evil wishes, I am not dominated by evil wishes,’ then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.

(2-16) Again, a bhikkhu should review himself thus: ‘Do I praise myself and disparage others?’…[99]…’Do I adhere to my own views, hold on to them tenaciously, and relinquish them with difficulty?’ If, when he reviews himself, he knows: ‘I adhere to my own views…,’ then [100] he should make an effort to abandon those evil unwholesome states. But if, when he reviews himself, he knows: ‘I do not adhere to my own

Inference 193

views…/ then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.

  1. “Friends, when a bhikkhu reviews himself thus, if he sees that these evil unwholesome states are not all abandoned in himself, then he should make an effort to abandon them all. But if, when he reviews himself thus, he sees that they are all abandoned in himself, then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states. 216

“Just as when a woman – or a man – young, youthful, fond of ornaments, on viewing the image of her own face in a clear bright mirror or in a basin of clear water, sees a smudge or a blemish on it, she makes an effort to remove it, but if she sees no smudge or blemish on it, she becomes glad thus: ‘It is a gain for me that it is clean’; so too when a bhikkhu reviews himself thus…then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.”

That is what the venerable Maha Moggallana said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Maha Moggallana’s words.

l

 

 

1

 

 

 

16 Cetokhila Sutta The Wilderness in the Heart

 

[101] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” -“Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has not abandoned five wildernesses in the heart and not severed five shackles in the heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dharruna and Discipline – that is impossible. 217
  2. “What, bhikkhus, are the five wildernesses in the heart that he has not abandoned? Here a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and unconfident about the Teacher, and thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, that is the first wilderness in the heart that he has not abandoned.
  3. “Again, a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and unconfident about the Dhamma 218 …As his mind does not incline to ardour…that is the second wilderness in the heart that he has not abandoned.
  4. “Again, a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and unconfident about the Sangha…As his mind does not incline to ardour.. .that is the third wilderness in the heart that he has not abandoned.
  5. “Again, a bhikkhu is doubtful, uncertain, undecided, and unconfident about the training…As his mind does not incline to ardour.. .that is the fourth wilderness in the heart that he has not abandoned.
  6. “Again, a bhikkhu is angry and displeased with his companions in the holy life, resentful and callous towards them, and thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance.

The Wilderness in the Heart 195

i 102

and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, that is the fifth wilderness in the heart that he has not abandoned.

“These are the five wildernesses in the heart that he has not abandoned.

  1. “What, bhikkhus, are the five shackles in the heart that he has not severed? Here a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever, and craving for sensual pleasures, and thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, that is the first shackle in the heart that he has not severed.
  2. “Again, a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever, and craving for the body 219 …As his mind does not incline to ardour…that is the second shackle in the heart that he has not severed. [102]
  3. “Again, a bhikkhu is not free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever, and craving for form…As his mind does not incline to ardour…that is the third shackle in the heart that he has not severed.
  4. “Again, a bhikkhu eats as much as he likes until his belly is full and indulges in the pleasures of sleeping, lolling, and drowsing…As his mind does not incline to ardour…that is the fourth shackle in the heart that he has not severed.
  5. “Again, a bhikkhu lives the holy life aspiring to some order of gods thus: ‘By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life, I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god,’ and thus his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his mind does not incline to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, this is the fifth shackle in the heart that he has not severed.

“These are the five shackles in the heart that he has not severed.

  1. “Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has not abandoned these five wildernesses in the heart and severed these five shackles in the heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline – that is impossible.
  2. “Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has abandoned five wildernesses in the heart and severed five shackles in the heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline – that is possible.

i 103

  1. “What, bhikkhus, are the five wildernesses in the heart that he has abandoned? Here a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, or unconfident about the Teacher, and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, the first wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him.
  2. “Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, or unconfident about the Dhamma…As his mind inclines to ardour…the second wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him.
  3. “Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, or unconfident about the Sangha…As his mind inclines to ardour…the third wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him.
  4. “Again, a bhikkhu is not doubtful, uncertain, undecided, or unconfident about the training…As his mind inclines to ardour…the fourth wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him.
  5. “Again, a bhikkhu is not angry and displeased with his companions in the holy life, nor resentful and callous towards them, and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. [103] As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, the fifth wilderness in the heart has been abandoned by him.

“These are the five wildernesses in the heart that he has abandoned.

  1. “What, bhikkhus, are the five shackles in the heart that he has severed? Here a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever, and craving for sensual pleasures, and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, the first shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  2. “Again, a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever, and craving for the body…As his mind inclines to ardour.. .the second shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  3. “Again, a bhikkhu is free from lust, desire, affection, thirst, fever, and craving for form.. .As his mind inclines to ardour.. .the third shackle in the heart has been severed by him.
  4. “Again, a bhikkhu does not eat as much as he likes until his belly is full and does not indulge in the pleasures of sleeping.

 

The Wilderness in the Heart 197

lolling, and drowsing…As his mind inclines to ardour…the fourth shackle in the heart has been severed by him.

  1. “Again, a bhikkhu does not live the holy life aspiring to some order of gods thus: ‘By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life, I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god/ and thus his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving. As his mind inclines to ardour, devotion, perseverance, and striving, the fifth shackle in the heart has been severed by him.

“These are the five shackles in the heart that he has severed.

  1. “Bhikkhus, that any bhikkhu who has abandoned these five wildernesses in the heart and severed these five shackles in the heart should come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline – that is possible.
  2. “He develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to zeal and determined striving; he develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to energy and determined striving; he develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to [purity of] mind and determined striving; he develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to investigation and determined striving. And enthusiasm is the fifth. 220
  3. “A bhikkhu who thus possesses the fifteen factors including enthusiasm is [104] capable of breaking out, capable of enlightenment, capable of attaining the supreme security from bondage. 221

“Suppose there were a hen with eight, ten, or twelve eggs, which she had covered, incubated, and nurtured properly. Even though she did not wish: ‘Oh, that my chicks might pierce their shells with the points of their claws and beaks and hatch out safely!’ yet the chicks are capable of piercing their shells with the points of their claws and beaks and hatching out safely. 222 So too, a bhikkhu who thus possesses the fifteen factors including enthusiasm is capable of breaking out, capable of enlightenment, capable of attaining the supreme security from bondage.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

17 Vanapattha Sutta Jungle Thickets

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on jungle thickets. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:
  3. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. 223 While he is living there his unestablished mindfulness does not become established, his unconcentrated mind does not become concentrated, his undestroyed taints do not come to destruction, he does not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage; and also the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth – robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites – are hard to come by. The bhikkhu [105] should consider thus: ‘I am living in this jungle thicket. While I am living here my unestablished imindfulness does not become established…! do not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage; and also the requisites of life…are hard to come by.’ That bhikkhu should depart from that jungle thicket that very night or that very day; he should not continue living there.
  4. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. While he is living there Iris unestablished mindfulness does not become established, his unconcentrated mind does not become concentrated, his undestroyed taints do not come to destruction, he does not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage; yet the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth…are easy to come by. The bhikkhu should consider thus: ‘I am living in this jungle thicket. While I am living here my unestablished mindfulness does not become established…! do

Jungle Thickets 199

1106

not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage; yet the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth…are easy to come by. However, I did not go forth from the home life into homelessness for the sake of robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites. Moreover, while I am living here my unestablished mindfulness does not become established…I do not attain the unattained supreme security from bondage.’ Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu should depart from that jungle thicket; he should not continue living there.

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. While he is living there his unestablished mindfulness becomes established, his unconcentrated mind becomes concentrated, his undestroyed taints come to destruction, he attains the unat-tained supreme security from bondage; yet the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth.. .are hard to come by. The bhikkhu should consider thus: [106] ‘I am living in this jungle thicket. While I am living here my unestablished mindfulness has become established…I have attained the unattained supreme security from bondage; yet the requisites of life…are hard to come by. However, I did not go forth from the home life into homelessness for the sake of robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites. Moreover, while I am living here my unestablished mindfulness has become established…I have attained the unattained supreme security from bondage.’ Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu should continue living in that jungle thicket; he should not depart.
  2. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in some jungle thicket. While he is living there his unestablished mindfulness becomes established, his unconcentrated mind becomes concentrated, his undestroyed taints come to destruction, he attains the unattained supreme security from bondage; and also the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth – robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites – are easy to come by. The bhikkhu should consider thus: ‘I am living in this jungle thicket. While I am living here my unestablished mindfulness has become established…I have attained the unattained supreme security from bondage; and also the requisites of life…are easy to come by.’ That bhikkhu should continue living in that jungle thicket as long as life lasts; he should not depart.

i 108

7-10. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain village.. , 224

11-14. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain town…

15-18. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain city…

19-22. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain country…

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain person…(as in §3) [107]…That bhikkhu should depart from that person without taking leave; he should not continue following him.
  2. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain person…(as in §4 )…Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu should depart from that person after taking leave; 225 he should not continue following him.
  3. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain person …(as in §5)…Having reflected thus, that bhikkhu should continue following that person; he should not depart from him.
  4. “Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain person…(as in §6) [108]…That bhikkhu should continue following that person as long as life lasts; he should not depart from him even if told to go away.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

18 Madhupindika Sutta The Honeyball

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha’s Park.
  2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Kapilavatthu for alms. When he had wandered for alms in Kapilavatthu and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to the Great Wood for the day’s abiding, and entering the Great Wood, sat down at the root of a bilva sapling for the day’s abiding.
  3. Dandapani the Sakyan, while walking and wandering for exercise, also went to the Great Wood, and when he had entered the Great Wood, he went to the bilva sapling where the Blessed One was and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he stood at one side leaning on his stick and asked the Blessed One: “What does the recluse assert, what does he proclaim?” 226
  4. “Friend, I assert and proclaim such [a teaching] that one does not quarrel with anyone in the world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, in this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people; such [a teaching] that perceptions no more underlie that brahmin who abides detached from sensual pleasures, without perplexity, shorn of worry, free from craving for any kind of being.” 227
  5. When this was said, Dandapani the Sakyan shook his head, [109] wagged his tongue, and raised his eyebrows until his forehead was puckered in three lines. 228 Then he departed, leaning on his stick.
  6. Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from meditation and went to Nigrodha’s Park, where he sat down on a seat made ready for him and told the bhikkhus what had taken place. Then a certain bhikkhu asked the Blessed One:

i 111

  1. “But, venerable sir, what is [the teaching] that the Blessed One asserts whereby one does not quarrel with anyone in the world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, in this genera-tion with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people? And, venerable sir, how is it that perceptions no more underlie that brahmin who abides detached from sensual pleasures, without perplexity, shorn of worry, free from craving for any kind of being?”
  2. “Bhikkhus, as to the source through which perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man: if nothing is found there to delight in, welcome and hold to, this is the end of the underlying tendency to lust, of the underlying tendency to aversion, [110] of the underlying tendency to views, of the underlying tendency to doubt, of the underlying tendency to conceit, of the underlying tendency to desire for being, of the underlying tendency to ignorance; this is the end of resorting to rods and weapons, of quarrels, brawls, disputes, recrimination, malice, and false speech; here these evil unwholesome states cease without remainder.” 229
  3. That is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the Sublime One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling.
  4. Then, soon after the Blessed One had gone, the bhikkhus considered: “Now, friends, the Blessed One has risen from his seat and gone into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief without expounding the detailed meaning. Now who will expound this in detail?” Then they considered: “The venerable Maha Kaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise companions in the holy life. 230 He is capable of expounding the detailed meaning. Suppose we went to him and asked him the meaning of this.”
  5. Then the bhikkhus went to the venerable Maha Kaccana and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, they sat down to one side and told him what had taken place, [111] adding: “Let the venerable Maha Kaccana expound it to us.”
  6. [The venerable Maha Kaccana replied:] “Friends, it is as though a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, thought that heartwood should be sought for among the branches and leaves of a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, after he had passed over the root

The Honeyball 203

i 112

and the trunk. And so it is with you, venerable sirs, that you think that I should be asked about the meaning of this, after you passed the Blessed One by when you were face to face with the Teacher. For knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees; he is vision, he is knowledge, he is the Dhamma, he is the holy one; 231 he is the sayer, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the Deathless, the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathagata. That was the time when you should have asked the Blessed One the meaning. As he told you, so you should have remembered it.”

  1. “Surely, friend Kaccana, knowing, the Blessed One knows; seeing, he sees; he is vision…the Tathagata. That was the time when we should have asked the Blessed One the meaning. As he told us, so we should have remembered it. Yet the venerable Maha Kaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise companions in the holy life. The venerable Maha Kaccana is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this summary given in brief by the Blessed One without expounding the detailed meaning. Let the venerable Maha Kaccana expound it without finding it troublesome.”
  2. “Then listen, friends, and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, friend,” the bhikkhus replied. The venerable Maha Kaccana said this:
  3. “Friends, when the Blessed One rose from his seat and went into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, that is: ‘Bhikkhus, as to the source through which perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man: if nothing is found there to delight in, welcome, and hold to, this is the end of the underlying tendency to lust…this is the end of resorting to rods and weapons…here these evil unwholesome states cease without remainder/ I understand the detailed meaning of it to be as follows:
  4. “Dependent on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as condition there is feeling. What one feels, that one perceives. [112] What one perceives, that one thinks about. What one thinks about, that one mentally proliferates. With what one has mentally proliferated as the source, perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man with respect to past, future, and present forms cognizable through the eye. 232

i 112

j “Dependent on the ear and sounds…Dependent on the nose

| and odours…Dependent on the tongue and flavours…Dependent

on the body and tangibles…Dependent on the mind and mind-objects, mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as condition there is feeling. What one feels, that one perceives. What one perceives, that one thinks about. What one thinks about, that one mentally proliferates. With what one has mentally proliferated as the source, perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man with respect to past, future, and present mind-objects cognizable through the mind.

  1. “When there is the eye, a form, and eye-consciousness, it is possible to point out the manifestation of contact. 233 When there is the manifestation of contact, it is possible to point out the manifestation of feeling. When there is the manifestation of feeling, it is possible to point out the manifestation of perception. When there is the manifestation of perception, it is possible to point out the manifestation of thinking. When there is the manifestation of thinking, it is possible to point out the manifestation of being beset by perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation.

“When there is the ear, a sound, and ear-consciousness…When there is the nose, an odour, and nose-consciousness.. .When there is the tongue, a flavour, and tongue-consciousness…When there is the body, a tangible, and body-consciousness…When there is the mind, a mind-object, and mind-consciousness…it is possible to point out the manifestation of being beset by perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation.

  1. “When there is no eye, no form, and no eye-consciousness, it is impossible to point out the manifestation of contact. When there is no manifestation of contact, it is impossible to point out the manifestation of feeling. When there is no manifestation of feeling, it is impossible to point out the manifestation of perception. When there is no manifestation of perception, it is impossible to point out the manifestation of thinking. When there is no manifestation of thinking, it is impossible to point out the manifestation of being beset by perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation.

“When there is no ear, no sound, and no ear-consciousness… When there is no nose, no odour, and no nose-consciousness…

The Honeyball 205

i 114

\Vhen there is no tongue, no flavour, and no tongue-consciousness-.-When there is no body, no tangible, and no body-consciousness…When there is no mind, no mind-object, and no mind-consciousness…it is impossible to point out the manifestation of being beset by perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation.

  1. “Friends, when the Blessed One [113] rose from his seat and went into his dwelling after giving a summary in brief without expounding the detailed meaning, that is: ‘Bhikkhus, as to the source through which perceptions and notions tinged by mental proliferation beset a man: if nothing is found there to delight in, welcome, and hold to, this is the end of the underlying tendency to lust, of the underlying tendency to aversion, of the underlying tendency to views, of the underlying tendency to doubt, of the underlying tendency to conceit, of the underlying tendency to desire for being, of the underlying tendency to ignorance; this is the end of resorting to rods and weapons, of quarrels, brawls, disputes, recrimination, malice, and false speech; here these evil unwholesome states cease without remainder,’ I understand the detailed meaning of this summary to be thus. Now, friends, if you wish, go to the Blessed One and ask him about the meaning of this. As the Blessed One explains it to you, so you should remember it.”
  2. Then the bhikkhus, having delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Maha Kaccana’s words, rose from their seats and went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, they sat down at one side and told the Blessed One all that had taken place after he had left, adding: “Then, venerable sir, we went to the venerable Maha Kaccana and asked him about the meaning. [114] The venerable Maha Kaccana expounded the meaning to us with these terms, statements, and phrases.”
  3. “Maha Kaccana is wise, bhikkhus, Maha Kaccana has great wisdom. If you had asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you in the same way that Maha Kaccana has explained it. Such is the meaning of this, and so you should remember it.”
  4. When this was said, the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, just as if a man exhausted by hunger and weakness came upon a honeyball, 234 in the course of

 

 

i 114

| eating it he would find a sweet delectable flavour; so too, vener-

I able sir, any able-minded bhikkhu, in the course of scrutinising

I with wisdom the meaning of this discourse on the Dhamma,

J would find satisfaction and confidence of mind. Venerable sir,

f what is the name of this discourse on the Dhamma?”

i “As to that, Ananda, you may remember this discourse on the

! Dhamma as “The Honeyball Discourse.'”

I That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Ananda was

satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

19 Dvedhavitakka Sutta Two Kinds of Thought

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, it occurred to me: ‘Suppose that I divide my thoughts into two classes.’ 235 Then I set on one side thoughts of sensual desire, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of cruelty, and I set on the other side thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of non-ill will, and thoughts of non-cruelty. 236
  3. “As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, [115] a thought of sensual desire arose in me. I understood thus: ‘This thought of sensual desire has arisen in me. This leads to my own affliction, to others’ affliction, and to the affliction of both; it obstructs wisdom, causes difficulties, and leads away from Nibbana.’ When I considered: ‘This leads to my own affliction,’ it subsided in me; when I considered: ‘This leads to others’ affliction,’ it subsided in me; when I considered: ‘This leads to the affliction of both,’ it subsided in me; when I considered: ‘This obstructs wisdom, causes difficulties, and leads away from Nibbana,’ it subsided in me. Whenever a thought of sensual desire arose in me, I abandoned it, removed it, did away with it.

4-5. “As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, a thought of ill will arose in me.. .a thought of cruelty arose in me. I understood thus: ‘This thought of cruelty has arisen in me. This leads to my own affliction, to others’ affliction, and to the affliction of both; it obstructs wisdom, causes difficulties, and leads away from Nibbana.’ When I considered thus.. .it subsided in me. Whenever a thought of cruelty arose in me, I abandoned it, removed it, did away with it.

i 116

  1. “Bhikkhus, whatever a bhikkhu frequently thinks and ponders upon, that will become the inclination of his mind. If he frequently thinks and ponders upon thoughts of sensual desire, he has abandoned the thought of renunciation to cultivate the thought of sensual desire, and then his mind inclines to thoughts of sensual desire. If he frequently thinks and ponders upon thoughts of ill will…upon thoughts of cruelty, he has abandoned the thought of non-cruelty to cultivate the thought of cruelty, and then his mind inclines to thoughts of cruelty.
  2. “Just as in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, when the crops thicken, a cowherd would guard his cows by constantly tapping and poking them on this side and that with a stick to check and curb them. Why is that? Because he sees that he could be flogged, imprisoned, fined, or blamed [if he let them stray into the crops]. So too I saw in unwholesome states danger, degradation, and defilement, and in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing. [116]
  3. “As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, a thought of renunciation arose in me. I understood thus: ‘This thought of renunciation has arisen in me. This does not lead to my own affliction, or to others’ affliction, or to the affliction of both; it aids wisdom, does not cause difficulties, and leads to Nibbana. If I think and ponder upon this thought even for a night, even for a day, even for a night and day, I see nothing to fear from it. But with excessive thinking and pondering I might tire my body, and when the body is tired, the mind becomes disturbed, and when the mind is disturbed, it is far from concentration.’ So I steadied my mind internally, quieted it, brought it to singleness, and concentrated it. Why is that? So that my mind should not be disturbed. 237

9-10. “As I abided thus, diligent, ardent, and resolute, a thought of non-ill will arose in me…a thought of non-cruelty arose in me. I understood thus: ‘This thought of non-cruelty has arisen in me. This does not lead to my own affliction, or to others’ affliction, or to the affliction of both; it aids wisdom, does not cause difficulties, and leads to Nibbana. If I think and ponder upon this thought even for a night, even for a day, even for a night and day, I see nothing to fear from it. But with excessive thinking and pondering I might tire my body, and when the body is tired, the mind becomes disturbed, and when the mind

Two Kinds of Thought 209

ill 7

is disturbed, it is far from concentration.’ So I steadied my mind internally, quieted it, brought it to singleness, and concentrated it. Why is that? So that my mind should not be disturbed.

  1. “Bhikkhus, whatever a bhikkhu frequently thinks and ponders upon, that will become the inclination of his mind. If he frequently thinks and ponders upon thoughts of renunciation, he has abandoned the thought of sensual desire to cultivate the thought of renunciation, and then his mind inclines to thoughts of renunciation. If he frequently thinks and ponders upon thoughts of non-ill will…upon thoughts of non-cruelty, he has abandoned the thought of cruelty to cultivate the thought of noncruelty, and then his mind inclines to thoughts of non-cruelty.
  2. “Just as in the last month of the hot season, when all the crops have been brought inside the villages, [117] a cowherd would guard his cows while staying at the root of a tree or out in the open, since he needs only to be mindful that the cows are there; so too, there was need for me only to be mindful that those states were there.
  3. “Tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was tranquil and untroubled, my mind concentrated and unified.

14-23. “Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhana…(«s Sutta 4, §§23-32 )…I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

  1. “This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.
  2. “Suppose, bhikkhus, that in a wooded range there was a great low-lying marsh near which a large herd of deer lived. Then a man appeared desiring their ruin, harm, and bondage, and he closed off the safe and good path that led to their happiness, and he opened up a false path, and he put out a decoy and set up a dummy so that the large herd of deer might later come upon calamity, disaster, and loss. But another man came desiring their good, welfare, and protection, and he reopened the safe and good path that led to their happiness, and he closed off the false path, and he removed the decoy and destroyed the

i 118

dummy, so that the large herd of deer might later come to growth, increase, and fulfilment.

  1. “Bhikkhus, I have given this simile in order to convey a meaning. [118] This is the meaning: ‘The great low-lying marsh’ is a term for sensual pleasures. ‘The large herd of deer’ is a term for beings. ‘The man desiring their ruin, harm, and bondage’ is a term for Mara the Evil One. ‘The false path’ is a term for the wrong eightfold path, that is: wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, and wrong concentration. ‘The decoy’ is a term for delight and lust. ‘The dummy’ is a term for ignorance. ‘The man desiring their good, welfare, and protection’ is a term for the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened. ‘The safe and good path that led to their happiness’ is a term for the Noble Eightfold Path, that is: right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

“So, bhikkhus, the safe and good path that leads to happiness has been reopened by me, the wrong path has been closed off, the decoy removed, the dummy destroyed.

  1. “What should be done for his disciples out of compassion by a teacher who seeks their welfare and has compassion for them, that I have done for you, bhikkhus. There are these roots of trees, these empty huts. Meditate, bhikkhus, do not delay or else you will regret it later. This is our instruction to you.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

20 Vitakkasanthana Sutta The Removal of Distracting Thoughts

 

  1. Thus have I heard. 238 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed thebhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” [119] they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is pursuing the higher mind, from time to time he should give attention to five signs. 239 What are the five?
  3. (i) “Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is giving attention to some sign, and owing to that sign there arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should give attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome. 240 When he gives attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a skilled carpenter or his apprentice might knock out, remove, and extract a coarse peg by means of a fine one, so too…when a bhikkhu gives attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome…his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated.
  4. (ii) “If, while he is giving attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should examine the danger in those thoughts thus: ‘These thoughts are unwholesome, they are reprehensible, they result in suffering.’ 241 When he examines the danger in those thoughts, then any evil unwholesome thoughts

 

connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a man or a woman, young, youthful, and fond of ornaments, would be horrified, humiliated, and disgusted if the carcass of a snake or a dog or a human being [120] were hung around his or her neck, so too…when a bhikkhu examines the danger in those thoughts.. .his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated.

  1. (iii) “If, while he is examining the danger in those thoughts, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should try to forget those thoughts and should not give attention to them. When he tries to forget those thoughts and does not give attention to them, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a man with good eyes who did not want to see forms that had come within range of sight would either shut his eyes or look away, so too…when a bhikkhu tries to forget those thoughts and does not give attention to them…his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated.
  2. (iv) “If, while he is trying to forget those thoughts and is not giving attention to them, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then he should give attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts. 242 When he gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a man walking fast might consider: ‘Why am I walking fast? What if I walk slowly?’ and he would walk slowly; then he might consider: ‘Why am I walking slowly? What if I stand?’ and he would stand; then he might consider: ‘Why am I standing? What if I sit?’ and he would sit; then he might consider: ‘Why am I sitting? What if I lie down?’ and he would lie down. By doing so he would substitute for

The Removal of Distracting Thoughts 213

i 122

each grosser posture one that was subtler. So too…when a bhikkhu gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts…his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated.

  1. (v) “If, while he is giving attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts, there still arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he should beat down, constrain, and crush mind with mind. 243 [ 121 ] When, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, then any evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion are abandoned in him and subside. With the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. Just as a strong man might seize a weaker man by the head or shoulders and beat him down, constrain him, and crush him, so too…when, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, a bhikkhu beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind.. .his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated.
  2. “Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is giving attention to some sign, and owing to that sign there arise in him evil unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, with hate, and with delusion, then when he gives attention to some other sign connected with what is wholesome, any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in him and subside, and with the abandoning of them his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. When he examines the danger in those thoughts…When he tries to forget those thoughts and does not give attention to them…When he gives attention to stilling the thought-formation of those thoughts…When, with his teeth clenched and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth, he beats down, constrains, and crushes mind with mind, any such evil unwholesome thoughts are abandoned in him…and his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, [122] brought to singleness, and concentrated. This bhikkhu is then called a master of the courses of thought. He will think whatever thought he wishes to think and he will not think any

i 122

thought that he does not wish to think. He has severed craving, flung off the fetters, and with the complete penetration of conceit he has made an end of suffering.” 244

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

 

21 Kakacupama Sutta The Simile of the Saw

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Now on that occasion the venerable Moliya Phagguna was associating overmuch with bhikkhunls. 245 He was associating so much with bhikkhurus that if any bhikkhu spoke dispraise of those bhikkhunls in his presence, he would become angry and displeased and would rebuke him; and if any bhikkhu spoke dispraise of the venerable Moliya Phagguna in those bhikkhunls’ presence, they would become angry and displeased and would rebuke him. So much was the venerable Moliya Phagguna associating with bhikkhunls.
  3. Then a certain bhikkhu went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the Blessed One what was taking place.
  4. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: “Come, [123] bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Moliya Phagguna in my name that the Teacher calls him.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and he went to the venerable Moliya Phagguna and told him: “The Teacher calls you, friend Phagguna.” – “Yes, friend,” he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed One asked him:
  5. “Phagguna, is it true that you are associating overmuch with bhikkhunls, that you are associating so much with bhikkhunls that if any bhikkhu speaks dispraise of those bhikkhunls in your presence, you become angry and displeased and rebuke him; and if any bhikkhu speaks dispraise of you in those bhikkhunls’ presence, they become angry and displeased and rebuke him. Are you associating so much with bhikkhunls, as it seems?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Phagguna, are you not a

a

218 Kakacupama Sutta: Sutta 21 i 124

clansman who has gone forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

  1. “Phagguna, it is not proper for you, a clansman gone forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, to associate overmuch with bhikkhunls. Therefore, if anyone speaks dispraise of those bhikkhurus in your presence, you should abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the household life. And herein you should train thus: ‘My mind will be unaffected, and I shall utter no evil words; I shall abide compassionate for his welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate.’ That is how you should train, Phagguna.

“If anyone gives those bhikkhums a blow with his hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knif gJin your presence, you should abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the household life. And herein you should train thus: ‘My mind will be unaffected…’ If anyone speaks dispraise in your presence, you should abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the household life. And herein you should train thus: ‘My mind will be unaffected…’ If anyone should give you a blow with his hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife, [124] you should abandon any desires and any thoughts based on the household life. And herein you should train thus: ‘My mind will be unaffected, and I shall utter no evil words; I shall abide compassionate for his welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate.’ That is how you should train, Phagguna.

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, there was an occasion when the bhikkhus satisfied my mind. Here I addressed the bhikkhus thus: ‘Bhikkhus, I eat at a single session. By so doing, I am free from illness and affliction, and I enjoy health, strength, and a comfortable abiding. Come, bhikkhus, eat at a single session. By so doing, you will be free from illness and affliction, and you will enjoy health, strength, and a comfortable abiding.’ And I had no need to keep on instructing those bhikkhus; I had only to arouse mindfulness in them. 246 Suppose there were a chariot on even ground at the crossroads, harnessed to thoroughbreds, waiting with goad lying ready, so that a skilled trainer, a charioteer of horses to be tamed, might mount it, and taking the reins in his left hand and the goad in his right hand, might drive out and back by any road whenever he likes. So too, 1 had no need to

The Simile of the Saw 219

 

keep on instructing those bhikkhus; I had only to arouse mindfulness in them.

  1. “Therefore, bhikkhus, abandon what is unwholesome and devote yourselves to wholesome states, for that is how you will come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline. Suppose there were a big sala-tree grove near a village or town, and it was choked with castor-oil weeds, and some man would appear desiring its good, welfare, and protection. He would cut down and throw out the crooked saplings that robbed the sap, and he would clean up the interior of the grove and tend the straight well-formed saplings, so that the sala-tree grove later on would come to growth, increase, and fulfilment. So too, bhikkhus, abandon what is unwholesome and devote yourselves to wholesome states, [125] for that is how you will come to growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline.
  2. “Formerly, bhikkhus, in this same SavatthI there was a housewife named Vedehika. And a good report about Mistress Vedehika had spread thus: ‘Mistress Vedehika is kind. Mistress Vedehika i-s gentle. Mistress Vedehika is peaceful.’ Now Mistress Vedehika had a maicHnamed Kali, who was clever, nimble, and neat in her work./fhe maid Kali thought: ‘A good report about my lady has spread thus: “Mistress Vedehika is kind. Mistress Vedehika is gentle. Mistress Vedehika is peaceful.” How is it now, while she does not show anger, is it nevertheless actually present in her or is it absent? Or else is it just because my work is neat that my lady shows no anger though it is actually present in her? Suppose I test my lady.’

“So the maid Kali got up late. The Mistress Vedehika said: ‘Hey, Kali!’ – ‘What is it, madam?’ – ‘What is the matter that you get up so late?’ – ‘Nothing is the matter, madam.’ – ‘Nothing is the matter, you wicked girl, yet you get up so late!’ and she was angry and displeased, and she scowled. Then the maid Kali thought: ‘The fact is that while my lady does not show anger, it is actually present in her, not absent; and it is just because my work is neat that my lady shows no anger though it is actually present in her, not absent. Suppose I test my lady a little more.’

“So the maid Kali got up later in the day. Then Mistress Vedehika said: ‘Hey, Kali!’ – ‘What is it, madam?’ – ‘What is the matter that you get up later in the day?’ – ‘Nothing is the matter.

i 126

 

madam.’ – ‘Nothing is the matter, you wicked girl, yet you get up later in the day!’ and she was angry and displeased, and she spoke words of displeasure. Then the maid Kali thought: ‘The fact is that while my lady does not show anger, it is actually present in her, not absent. Suppose I test my lady a little more.’

“So the maid Kali got up still later in the day. Then Mistress Vedehika [126] said: ‘Hey, Kali!’ – ‘What is it, madam?’ – ‘What is the matter that you get up still later in the day?’ – ‘Nothing is the matter, madam.’ – ‘Nothing is the matter, you wicked girl, yet you get up still later in the day!’ and she was angry and displeased, and she took p. rolling-pin, gave her a blow on the head, and cut her head. y’

“Then the maid Kali, with blood running from her cut head, denounced her mistress to the neighbours: ‘See, ladies, the kind lady’s work! See, ladies, the gentle lady’s work! See, ladies, the peaceful lady’s work! How can she become angry and displeased with her only maid for getting up late? How can she take a rolling-pin, give her a blow on the head, and cut her head?’ Then later on a bad report about Mistress Vedehika spread thus: ‘Mistress Vedehika is rough, Mistress Vedehika is violent, Mistress Vedehika is merciless.’

  1. “So too, bhikkhus, some bhikkhu is extremely kind, extremely gentle, extremely peaceful, so long as disagreeable courses of speech do not touch him. But it is when disagreeable courses of speech touch him that it can be understood whether that bhikkhu is really kind, gentle, and peaceful. I do not call a bhikkhu easy to admonish who is easy to admonish and makes himself easy to admonish only for the sake of getting robes, almsfood, a resting place, and medicinal requisites. Why is that? Because that bhikkhu is not easy to admonish nor makes himself easy to admonish when he gets no robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites. But when a bhikkhu is easy to admonish and makes himself easy to admonish because he honours, respects, and reveres the Dhamma, him I call easy to admonish. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We shall be easy to admonish and make ourselves easy to admonish because we honour, respect, and revere the Dhamma.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.
  2. “Bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech that others may use when they address you: their speech may be timely

 

or untimely, true or untrue, gentle or harsh, connected with good or with harm, spoken with a mind of loving-kindness or » w ith inner hate. When others address you, their speech may be timely or untimely; when others address you, their speech may be true or untrue; when others address you, their speech may be gentle or harsh; when others address you, their speech may be connected with good [127] or with harm; when others address you, their speech may be spoken with a mind of loving-kindness or with inner hate. Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our minds will remain unaffected, and we shall utter no evil words; we shall abide compassionate for their welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate. We shall abide pervading that person with a mind imbued with lovingkindness, and starting with him, 247 we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with lovingkindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.

  1. “Bhikkhus, suppose a man came with a hoe and a basket and said: ‘I shall make this great earth to be without earth.’ He would dig here and there, strew the soil here and there, spit here and there, and urinate here and there, saying: ‘Be without earth, be without earth!’ What do you think, bhikkhus? Could that man make this great earth to be without earth?” – “No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because this great earth is deep and immense; it cannot possibly be made to be without earth. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”
  2. “So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech… (as in §11)… Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our minds will remain unaffected…and starting njith him, we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to the earth, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.
  3. “Bhikkhus, suppose a man came with crimson, turmeric, indigo, or carmine and said: ‘I shall draw pictures and make pictures appear on empty space.’ What do you think, bhikkhus? Could that man draw pictures and make pictures appear on empty space?” – “No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because empty space is formless and invisible; he cannot possibly draw pictures there or make pictures appear there. 1128] Eventually the man Would reap only weariness and disappointment.”

 

 

i 129

  1. “So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech…Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our minds will remain unaffected…and starting with him, we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to empty space, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.
  2. “Bhikkhus, suppose a man came with a blazing grass-torch and said: ‘I shall heat up and bum away the river Ganges with this blazing grass-torch.’ What do you think, bhikkhus? Could that man heat up and bum away the river Ganges with that blazing grass-torch?” – “No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because the river Ganges is deep and immense; it cannot possibly be heated up and burned away with a blazing grass-torch. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”
  3. “So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech…Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our minds will remain unaffected…and starting with him, we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to the river Ganges, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.
  4. “Bhikkhus, suppose there were a catskin bag that was rubbed, well-rubbed, thoroughly well-rubbed, soft, silky, rid of rustling, rid of crackling, and a man came with a stick or a potsherd and said: ‘There is this catskin bag that is rubbed…rid of rustling, rid of crackling. I shall make it rustle and crackle.’ What do you think, bhikkhus? Could that man make it rustle or crackle with the stick or the potsherd?” – “No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because that catskin bag being rubbed…rid of rustling, rid of crackling, cannot possibly be made to rustle or crackle with the stick or the potsherd. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”
  5. “So too, bhikkhus, there are these five courses of speech that others may use when they address you: their speech may be timely [129] or untimely, true or untrue, gentle or harsh, connected with good or with harm, spoken with a mind of lovingkindness or with inner hate. When others address you, their speech may be timely or untimely; when others address you, their speech may be true or untrue; when others address you, their speech may be gentle or harsh; when others address you, their speech may be connected with good or with harm; when

The Simile of the Saw 223

others address you, their speech may be spoken with a mind of loving-kindness or with inner hate. Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our minds will remain unaffected, and we shall utter no evil words; we shall abide compassionate for their welfare, with a mind of loving-kindness, without inner hate. We shall abide pervading that person with a mind imbued with loving-kindness; and starting with him, we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind similar to a catskin bag, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.

  1. “Bhikkhus, even if bandits were to sever you savagely limb by limb with a two-handled saw, he who gave rise to a mind of hate towards them would not be carrying out my teaching. Herein, bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our minds will remain unaffected, and we shall utter no evil words; we shall abide compassionate for their welfare, with a mind of lovingkindness, without inner hate. We shall abide pervading them with a mind imbued with loving-kindness; and starting with them, we shall abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.’ That is how you should train, bhikkhus.
  2. “Bhikkhus, if you keep this advice on the simile of the saw constantly in mind, do you see any course of speech, trivial or gross, that you could not endure?” – “No, venerable sir.” -“Therefore, bhikkhus, you should keep this advice on the simile of the saw constantly in mind. That will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

 

 

22 Alagaddupama Suit a The Simile of the Snake

 

(setting)

[130] 1. Thus have I heard . 248 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.

  1. Now on that occasion a pernicious view had arisen in a bhikkhu named Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, thus: “As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.” 249
  2. Several bhikkhus, having heard about this, went to the bhikkhu Arittha and asked him: “Friend Arittha, is it true that such a pernicious view has arisen in you?”

“Exactly so, friends. As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.”

Then these bhikkhus, desiring to detach him from that pernicious view, pressed and questioned and cross-questioned him thus: “Friend Arittha, do not say so. Do not misrepresent the Blessed One; it is not good to misrepresent the Blessed One. The Blessed One would not speak thus. For in many discourses the Blessed One has stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. The Blessed One has stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton…with the simile of the piece of meat…with the simile of the grass torch…with the simile of the pit of coals…with the simile of the dream…with the simile of the borrowed goods…with the simile of the tree laden with fruit…with the simile of the slaughterhouse…with the simile of the sword stake…with the simile of

The Simile of the Snake 225

i 132

the snake’s head, the Blessed One has stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them.” 250

Yet although pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by them in this way, the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, still obstinately adhered to that pernicious view and continued to insist upon it.

  1. Since the bhikkhus were unable to detach him [131] from that pernicious view, they went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down at one side and told him all that had occurred, adding: “Venerable sir, since we could not detach the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, from this pernicious view, we have reported this matter to the Blessed One.”
  2. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: “Come, bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, in my name that the Teacher calls him.” – [132] “Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and he went to the bhikkhu Arittha and told him: “The Teacher calls you, friend Arittha.”

“Yes, friend,” he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed One then asked him: “Arittha, is it true that the following pernicious view has arisen in you: ‘As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them’?”

“Exactly so, venerable sir. As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.”

  1. “Misguided man, to whom have you ever known me to teach the Dhamma in that way? Misguided man, in many discourses have I not stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them? I have stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton…with the simile of the piece of meat.. .with the simile of the grass torch.. .with the simile of the pit of coals…with the simile of the dream…with the simile of the borrowed goods…with the simile of the tree laden with fruit.. .with the simile of the slaughterhouse.. .with the simile of the sword stake…with the simile of the snake’s head, I have stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification,

i 133

much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them. But you, misguided man, have misrepresented us by your wrong grasp and injured yourself and stored up much demerit; for this will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time.” 251

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, what do you think? Has this bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, kindled even a spark of wisdom in this Dhamma and Discipline?”

“How could he, venerable sir? No, venerable sir.”

When this was said, the bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, sat silent, dismayed, with shoulders drooping and head down, glum, and without response. Then, knowing this, the Blessed One told him: “Misguided man, you will be recognised by your own pernicious view. I shall question the bhikkhus on this matter.”

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, [133] do you understand the Dhamma taught by me as this bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, does when he misrepresents us by his wrong grasp and injures himself and stores up much demerit?”

“No, venerable sir. For in many discourses the Blessed One has stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. The Blessed One has stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton…with the simile of the snake’s head, the blessed One has stated…how great is the danger in them.”

“Good, bhikkhus. It is good that you understand the Dhamma taught by me thus. For in many discourses I have stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. I have stated how sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering, and much despair, and how great is the danger in them. With the simile of the skeleton…with the simile of the snake’s head, I have stated…how great is the danger in them. But this bhikkhu Arittha, formerly of the vulture killers, misrepresents us by his wrong grasp and injures himself and stores up much demerit; for this will lead to this misguided man’s harm and suffering for a long time.

9

The Simile of the Snake 227

i 134

  1. “Bhikkhus, that one can engage in sensual pleasures without sensual desires, without perceptions of sensual desire, without thoughts of sensual desire – that is impossible. 252

(the simile of the snake)

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, some misguided men learn the Dhamma -discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, exclamations, sayings, birth stories, marvels, and answers to questions – but having learned the Dhamma, they do not examine the meaning of those teachings with wisdom. Not examining the meaning of those teachings with wisdom, they do not gain a reflective acceptance of them. Instead they learn the Dhamma only for the sake of criticising others and for winning in debates, and they do not experience the good for the sake of which they learned the Dhamma. Those teachings, being wrongly grasped by them, conduce to their harm and suffering for a long time. 253

“Suppose a man needing a snake, seeking a snake, wandering in search of a snake, saw a large snake and grasped its coils or its tail. It would turn back on him and bite his hand or his arm or one of his limbs, [134] and because of that he would come to death or deadly suffering. Why is that? Because of his wrong grasp of the snake. So too, here some misguided men learn the Dhamma…Those teachings, being wrongly grasped by them, conduce to their harm and suffering for a long time.

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, some clansmen learn the Dhamma -discourses…answers to questions – and having learned the Dhamma, they examine the meaning of those teachings with wisdom. Examining the meaning of those teachings with wisdom, they gain a reflective acceptance of them. They do not learn the Dhamma for the sake of criticising others and for winning in debates, and they experience the good for the sake of which they learned the Dhamma. Those teachings, being rightly grasped by them, conduce to their welfare and happiness for a long time.

“Suppose a man needing a snake, seeking a snake, wandering in search of a snake, saw a large snake and caught it rightly with a cleft stick, and having done so, grasped it rightly by the neck. Then although the snake might wrap its coils round his hand or his arm or his limbs, still he would not come to death or deadly

i 135

suffering because of that. Why is that? Because of his right grasp of the snake. So too, here some clansmen learn the Dhamma… Those teachings, being rightly grasped by them, conduce to their welfare and happiness for a long time.

  1. “Therefore, bhikkhus, when you understand the meaning of my statements, remember it accordingly; and when you do not understand the meaning of my statements, then ask either me about it or those bhikkhus who are wise.

(the simile of the raft)

‘ 13. “Bhikkhus, I shall show you how the Dhamma is similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the purpose of grasping. 254 Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

“Bhikkhus, suppose a man in the course of a journey saw a great expanse of water, whose near shore was dangerous and fearful and whose further shore was safe and free from fear, but there was no ferryboat or bridge going to the far shore. [135] Then he thought: ‘There is this great expanse of water, whose near shore is dangerous and fearful and whose further shore is safe and free from fear, but there is no ferryboat or bridge going to the far shore. Suppose I collect grass, twigs, branches, and leaves and bind them together into a raft, and supported by the raft and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shore.’ And then the man collected grass, twigs, branches, and leaves and bound them together into a raft, and supported by the raft and making an effort with his hands and feet, he got safely across to the far shore. Then, when he had got across and had arrived at the far shore, he might think thus: ‘This raft has been very helpful to me, since supported by it and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shoreiSuppose I were to hoist it on my head or load it on my shoulder, and then go wherever I want.’ Now, bhikkhus, what do you think? By doing so, would that man be doing what should be done with that raft?”

“No, venerable sir.”

“By doing what would that man be doing what should be done with that raft? Here, bhikkhus, when that man got across

 

 

The Simile of the Snake 229

and had arrived at the far shore, he might think thus: ‘This raft has been very helpful to me, since supported by it and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shore. Suppose I were to haul it onto the dry land or set it adrift in the water, and then go wherever I want.’ Now, bhikkhus, it is hy so doing that that man would be doing what should be done with that raft. So I have shown you how the Dhamma is similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the purpose of grasping.

  1. “Bhikkhus, when you know the Dhamma to be similar to a raft, you should abandon even good states, how much more so bad states. 255 /

(standpoints for views)

  1. “Bhikkhus, there are these six standpoints for views. 256 What are the six? Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ 257 He regards feeling thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ He regards perception thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ He regards formations thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, encountered, sought, mentally pondered thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ 258 And this standpoint for views, namely, “This is self, this the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; [136] I shall endure as long as eternity’ – this too he regards thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ 259
  2. “Bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards feeling thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards perception thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards formations thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized.

i 137

encountered, sought, mentally pondered thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ And this standpoint for views, namely, ‘This is self, this the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity’ – this too he regards thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’

  1. “Since he regards them thus, he is not agitated about what is non-existent.” 260

(agitation)

  1. When this was said, a certain bhikkhu asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, can there be agitation about what is nonexistent externally?”

“There can be, bhikkhu,” the Blessed One said. “Here, bhikkhu, someone thinks thus: ‘Alas, I had it! Alas, I have it no longer! Alas, may I have it! Alas, I do not get it!’ Then he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught. That is how there is agitation about what is non-existent externally.”

  1. “Venerable sir, can there be no agitation about what is non-existent externally?”

“There can be, bhikkhu,” the Blessed One said. “Here, bhikkhu, someone does not think thus: ‘Alas I had it! Alas, I have it no longer! Alas, may I have it! Alas, I do not get it!’ Then he does not sorrow, grieye, and lament, he does not weep beating his breast and become distraught. That is how there is no agitation about what is non-existent externally.”

  1. “Venerable sir, can there be agitation about what is nonexistent internally?”

“There can be, bhikkhu,” the Blessed One said. “Here, bhikkhu, someone has the view: ‘This is self, this the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity.’ He hears the Tathagata or a disciple of the Tathagata teaching the Dhamma for the elimination of all standpoints, decisions, obsessions, adherences, and underlying tendencies, for the stilling of all formations, for the relinquishing of all attachments, for the destruction of craving, for dispassion, for cessation, for Nibbana. He [137] thinks thus: ‘So I shall be annihilated! So I shall perish! So I

The Simile of the Snake 231

shall be no more!’ Then he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught. That is how there is agitation about what is non-existent internally.”

  1. “Venerable sir, can there be no agitation about what is non-existent internally?”

“There can be, bhikkhu,” the Blessed One said. “Here, bhikkhu, someone does not have the view: ‘This is self…I shall endure as long as eternity.’ He hears the Tathagata or a disciple of the Tathagata teaching the Dhamma for the elimination of all standpoints, decisions, obsessions, adherences, and underlying tendencies, for the stilling of all formations, for the relinquishing of all attachments, for the destruction of craving, for dispassion, for cessation, for Nibbana. He does not think thus: ‘So I shall be annihilated! So. I shall perish! So I shall be no more!’ Then he does not sorrow, grieve, and lament, he does not weep beating his breast and become distraught. That is how there is no agitation about what is non-existent internally.

(impermanence and not self)

  1. “Bhikkhus, you may well acquire that possession that is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and that might endure as long as eternity. 261 But do you see any such possession, bhikkhus?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Good, bhikkhus. I too do not see any possession that is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and that might endure as long as eternity.
  2. “Bhikkhus, you may well cling to that doctrine of self that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who clings to it. 262 But do you see any such doctrine of self, bhikkhus?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Good, bhikkhus. I too do not see any doctrine of self that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who clings to it.
  3. “Bhikkhus, you may well take as a support that view that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who takes it as a support. 263 But do you see any such support of views, bhikkhus?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Good, bhikkhus. I too do not see any support of views [138] that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who takes it as a support.

 

 

i 139

  1. “Bhikkhus, there being a self, would there be what belongs to my self?” 264 – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Or, there being what belongs to a self, would there be my self?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, since a self and what belongs to a self are not apprehended as true and established, then this standpoint for views, namely. This is self, this the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity’ – would it not be an utterly and completely foolish teaching?”

“What else could it be, venerable sir? It would be an utterly and completely foolish teaching.”

  1. “Bhikkhus, what do you think? Is material form permanent or impermanent?” – “Impermanent, venerable sir.” – “Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?” – “Suffering, venerable sir.” – “Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self’?” – “No, venerable sir.”

“Bhikkhus, what do you think? Is feeling…Is perception… Are formations…Is consciousness permanent or impermanent?” – “Impermanent, venerable sir.” – “Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?” – “Suffering, venerable sir.” – “Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self’?” – “No, venerable sir.”

  1. “Therefore, bhikkhus, any kind of material form whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, [139] gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all material form should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ Any kind of feeling whatever…Any kind of perception whatever…Any kind of formations whatever…Any kind of consciousness whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all consciousness should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’
  2. “Seeing thus, bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with material form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception, disenchanted with formations, disenchanted with consciousness.

The Simile of the Snake 233

i 140

  1. “Being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated. 265 When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated/ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

(THE ARAHANT)

  1. “Bhikkhus, this bhikkhu is called one whose shaft has been lifted, whose trench has been filled in, whose pillar has been uprooted, one who has no bar, a noble one whose banner is lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered.
  2. “And how is the bhikkhu one whose shaft has been lifted? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned ignorance, has cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, done away with it, so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one whose shaft has been lifted.
  3. “And how is the bhikkhu one whose trench has been filled in? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned the round of births that brings renewed being, has cut it off at the root…so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one whose trench has been filled in.
  4. “And how is the bhikkhu one whose pillar has been uprooted? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned craving, has cut it off at the root…so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one whose pillar has been uprooted.
  5. “And how is the bhikkhu one who has no bar? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned the five lower fetters, has cut them off at the root…so that they are no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one who has no bar.
  6. “And how is the bhikkhu a noble one whose banner is lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered? Here a bhikkhu has abandoned the conceit T am,’ has cut it off at the root [140]…so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is a noble one whose banner is lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered.
  7. “Bhikkhus, when the gods with Indra, with Brahma and with Pajapati seek a bhikkhu who is thus liberated in mind, they do not find [anything of which they could say]: “The consciousness

i 140

of one thus gone is supported by this.’ Why is that? One thus gone, I say, is untr ace able here and now. 266

(misrepresentation of the tathAgata)

  1. “So saying, bhikkhus, so proclaiming, I have been baselessly, vainly, falsely, and wrongly misrepresented by some recluses and brahmins thus: ‘The recluse Gotama is one who leads astray; he teaches the annihilation, the destruction, the extermination of an existing being.’ 267 As I am not, as I do not proclaim, so have I been baselessly, vainly, falsely, and wrongly misrepresented by some recluses and brahmins thus: ‘The recluse Gotama is one who leads astray; he teaches the annihilation, the destruction, the extermination of an existing being.’
  2. “Bhikkhus, both formerly and now what I teach is suffering and the cessation of suffering. 268 If others abuse, revile, scold, and harass the Tathagata for that, the Tathagata on that account feels no annoyance, bitterness, or dejection of the heart. And if others honour, respect, revere, and venerate the Tathagata for that, the Tathagata on that account feels no delight, joy, or elation of the heart. If others honour, respect, revere, and venerate the Tathagata for that, the Tathagata on that account thinks thus: ‘They perform such services as these for the sake of what had earlier come to be fully understood.’ 269
  3. “Therefore, bhikkhus, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass you, on that account you should not entertain any annoyance, bitterness, or dejection of the heart. And if others honour, respect, revere, and venerate you, on that account you should not entertain any delight, joy, or elation of the heart. If others honour, respect, revere, and venerate you, on that account you should think thus: ‘They perform such services as these for the sake of what had earlier come to be fully understood.’

(not yours)

  1. “Therefore, bhikkhus, whatever is not yours, abandon it; when you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. What is it that is not yours? Material form is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.

 

The Simile of the Snake 235

r

r i 141

peeling is not yours. [141] Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Perception is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Formations are not yours. Abandon them. When you have abandoned them, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Consciousness is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. 270

  1. “Bhikkhus, what do you think? If people carried off the grass, sticks, branches, and leaves in this Jeta Grove, or burned them, or did what they liked with them, would you think: ‘People are carrying us off or burning us or doing what they like with us’?” – “No, venerable sir. Why not? Because that is neither our self nor what belongs to our self.” – “So too, bhikkhus, whatever is not yours, abandon it; when you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. What is it that is not yours? Material form is not yours.. .Feeling is not yours…Perception is not yours…Formations are not yours.. .Consciousness is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.

(in this dhamma)

  1. “Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork. 271 In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork, there is no [future] round for manifestation in the case of those bhikkhus who are arahants with taints destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and are completely liberated through final knowledge. 272
  2. “Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear…free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by nre thus, which is clear.. .free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have abandoned the five lower fetters are all due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana, without ever returning from that world.

i 142

  1. “Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear…free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear.. .free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have abandoned the three lower fetters and attenuated lust, hate, and delusion are all once-returners, returning once to this world to make an end of suffering.
  2. “Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear…free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear.. .free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have abandoned three fetters are all stream-enterers, no longer subject to perdition, [142] bound [for deliverance] and headed for enlightenment.
  3. “Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear…free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear…free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who are Dhamma-followers or faith-followers are all headed for enlightenment. 273
  4. “Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have sufficient faith in me, sufficient love for me, are all headed for heaven.” 274

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

23 Vammika Sutta The Ant-hill

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. Now on that occasion the venerable Kumara Kassapa was living in the Blind Men’s Grove. 275

Then, when the night was well advanced, a certain deity of beautiful appearance who illuminated the whole of the Blind Men’s Grove approached the venerable Kumara Kassapa and stood at one side. 276 So standing, the deity said to him:

  1. “Bhikkhu, bhikkhu, this ant-hill fumes by night and flames by day. 277

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a bar: ‘A bar, O venerable sir.’

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Throw out the bar; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a toad: ‘A toad, O venerable sir.’

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Throw out the toad; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a fork: ‘A fork, O venerable sir.’

“Those spoke the brahmin: ‘Throw out the fork; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a sieve: ‘A sieve, O venerable sir.’

“Thus spoke the brahmin: [143] ‘Throw out the sieve; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a tortoise: ‘A tortoise, O venerable sir.’

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Throw out the tortoise; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw an axe and block: ‘An axe and block, O venerable sir.’

i 144

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Throw out the axe and block; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a piece of meat: ‘A piece of meat, O venerable sir.’

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Throw out the piece of meat; delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ Delving with the knife, the wise one saw a Naga serpent: ‘A Naga serpent, O venerable sir.’

“Thus spoke the brahmin: ‘Leave the Naga serpent; do not harm the Naga serpent; honour the Naga serpent.’

“Bhikkhu, you should go to the Blessed One and ask him about this riddle. As the Blessed One tells you, so should you remember it. Bhikkhu, other than the Tathagata or a disciple of the Tathagata or one who has learned it from them, I see no one in this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, in this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, whose explanation of this riddle might satisfy the mind.”

That is what was said by the deity, who thereupon vanished at once.

  1. Then, when the night was over, the venerable Kumara Kassapa went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the Blessed One what had occurred. Then he asked: “Venerable sir, what is the ant-hill, what the fuming by night, what the flaming by day? Who is the brahmin, who the wise one? What is the knife, what the delving, what the bar, what the toad, what the fork, what the sieve, what the tortoise, what the axe and block, what the piece of meat, what the Naga serpent?” [144]
  2. “Bhikkhu, the ant-hifl is a symbol for this body, made of material form, consisting of the four great elements, procreated by a mother and father, built up out of boiled rice and porridge, 278 and subject to impermanence, to being worn and rubbed away, to dissolution and disintegration.

“What one thinks and ponders by night based upon one’s actions during the day is the ‘fuming by night.’

“The actions one undertakes during the day by body, speech, and mind after thinking and pondering by night is the ‘flaming by day.’

“The brahmin is a symbol for the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened. The wise one is a symbol for a bhikkhu in higher training. The knife is a symbol for noble wisdom. The delving is a symbol for the arousing of energy.

The Ant-hill 239

i 145

“The bar is a symbol for ignorance. 279 ‘Throw out the bar: abandon ignorance. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The toad is a symbol for the despair due to anger. ‘Throw out the toad: abandon despair due to anger. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The fork is a symbol for doubt. 280 ‘Throw out the fork: abandon doubt. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The sieve is a symbol for the five hindrances, namely, the hindrance of sensual desire, the hindrance of ill will, the hindrance of sloth and torpor, the hindrance of restlessness and remorse, and the hindrance of doubt. ‘Throw out the sieve: abandon the five hindrances. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The tortoise is a symbol for the five aggregates affected by clinging, 281 namely, the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling aggregate affected by clinging, the perception aggregate affected by clinging, the formations aggregate affected by clinging, and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. ‘Throw out the tortoise: abandon the five aggregates affected by clinging. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The axe and block is a symbol for the five cords of sensual pleasure 282 – forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust; sounds cognizable by the ear…odours cognizable by the nose…flavours cognizable by the tongue… tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire, [145] and provocative of lust. ‘Throw out the axe and block: abandon the five cords of sensual pleasure. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The piece of meat is a symbol for delight and lust. 283 ‘Throw out the piece of meat: abandon delight and lust. Delve with the knife, thou wise one.’ This is the meaning.

“The Naga serpent is a symbol for a bhikkhu who has destroyed the taints. 284 ‘Leave the Naga serpent; do not harm the Naga serpent; honour the Naga serpent.’ This is the meaning.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Kumara Kassapa was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

n

 

 

24 Rathavinita Sutta The Relay Chariots

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.
  2. Then a number of bhikkhus from [the Blessed One’s] native land, 285 who had spent the Rams there, went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed One asked them: “Bhikkhus, who in [my] native land is esteemed by the bhikkhus there, by his companions in the holy life, in this way: ‘Having few wishes himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on fewness of wishes; content himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on contentment; secluded himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on seclusion; aloof from society himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on aloofness from society; energetic himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on arousing energy; attained to virtue himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of virtue; attained to concentration himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of concentration; attained to wisdom himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of wisdom; attained to deliverance himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of deliverance; attained to the knowledge and vision of deliverance himself, he talks to the bhikkhus on the attainment of the knowledge and vision of deliverance; 286 he is one who advises, informs, instructs, urges, [146] rouses, and encourages his companions in the holy life’?”

“Venerable sir, the venerable Punna Mantaniputta is so esteemed in the [Blessed One’s] native land by the bhikkhus there, by his companions in the holy life.” 287

  1. Now on that occasion the venerable Sariputta was seated near the Blessed One. Then it occurred to the venerable Sariputta: “It is a gain for the venerable Punna Mantaniputta, it is a great gain for him that his wise companions in the holy life

The Relay Chariots 241

i 147

praise him point by point in the Teacher’s presence. Perhaps sometime or other we might meet the venerable Punna Mantaniputta and have some conversation with him.”

  1. Then, when the Blessed One had stayed at Rajagaha as long as he chose, he set out to wander by stages to Savatthl. Wandering by stages, he eventually arrived at Savatthl, and there he lived in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. The venerable Punna Mantaniputta heard: “The Blessed One has arrived at Savatthl and is living in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.” Then the venerable Punna Mantaniputta set his resting place in order, and taking his outer robe and bowl, set out to wander by stages to Savatthl Wandering by stages, he eventually arrived at Savatthl and went to Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park, to see the Blessed One. After paying homage to the Blessed One, he sat down at one side and the Blessed One instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged him with talk on the Dhamma. Then the venerable Punna Mantaniputta, instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the Blessed One’s talk on the Dhamma, delighting and rejoicing in the Blessed One’s words, rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he went to the Blind Men’s Grove for the day’s abiding.
  3. Then a certain bhikkhu went to the venerable Sariputta and said to him: “Friend Sariputta, the bhikkhu Punna Mantaniputta of whom you have always spoken highly [147] has just been instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the Blessed One with talk on the Dhamma; after delighting and rejoicing in the Blessed One’s words, he rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he has gone to the Blind Men’s Grove for the day’s abiding.”
  4. Then the venerable Sariputta quickly picked up a mat and followed close behind the venerable Purina Mantaniputta, keeping his head in sight. Then the venerable Punna Mantaniputta entered the Blind Men’s Grove and sat down for the day’s abiding at the root of a tree. The venerable Sariputta also entered the Blind Men’s Grove and sat down for the day’s abiding at the root of a tree.
  5. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Sariputta rose from meditation, went to the venerable Punna Mantaniputta, and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and

i 148

amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the venerable Punna Mantaniputta:

  1. “Is the holy life lived under our Blessed One, friend?” -“Yes, friend.” – “But, friend, is it for the sake of purification of virtue that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is it for the sake of purification of mind that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” -“Then is it for the sake of purification of view that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is it for the sake of purification by overcoming doubt that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is it for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is it for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision of the way that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is it for the sake of purification by knowledge and vision that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?” – “No, friend.” 288
  2. “Friend, when asked: ‘But, friend, is it for the sake of purification of virtue that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?’ you replied: ‘No, friend.’ When asked: ‘Then is it for the sake of purification of mind…purification of view…purification by overcoming doubt.. .purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path…purification by knowledge and vision of the way…purification by knowledge and vision that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One?’ you replied: ‘No, friend.’ Foi; the sake of what then, friend, [148] is the holy life lived under the Blessed One?”

“Friend, it is for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One.” 289

  1. “But, friend, is purification of virtue final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is purification of mind final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is purification of view final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is purification by overcoming doubt final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is purification by knowledge and vision of the way final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “Then is purification by knowledge and

The Relay Chariots 243

 

vision final Nibbana without clinging?” – “No, friend.” – “But, friend, is final Nibbana without clinging to be attained without these states?” – “No, friend.”

  1. “When asked: ‘But, friend, is purification of virtue final Nibbana without clinging?’ you replied: ‘No, friend.’ When asked: ‘Then is purification of mind…purification of view…purification by overcoming doubt…purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path…purification by knowledge and vision of the way…purification by knowledge and vision final Nibbana without clinging?’ you replied: ‘No, friend.’ And when asked: ‘But, friend, is final Nibbana without clinging to be attained without these states?’ you replied: ‘No, friend.’ But how, friend, should the meaning of these statements be regarded?”
  2. “Friend, if the Blessed One had described purification of virtue as final Nibbana without clinging, he would have described what is still accompanied by clinging as final Nibbana without clinging. If the Blessed One had described purification of mind…purification of view…purification by overcoming doubt.. .purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path…purification by knowledge and vision of the way…purification by knowledge and vision as final Nibbana without clinging, he would have described what is still accompanied by clinging as final Nibbana without clinging. 290 And if final Nibbana without clinging were to be attained without these states, then an ordinary person would have attained final Nibbana, for an ordinary person is without these states.
  3. “As to that, friend, I shall give you a simile, for some wise men understand the meaning of a statement by means of a simile. Suppose that King Pasenadi of Kosala while living at Savatthl [149] had some urgent business to settle at Saketa, and that between Savatthl and Saketa seven relay chariots were kept ready for him. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala, leaving Savatthl through the inner palace door, would mount the first relay chariot, and by means of the first relay chariot he would arrive at the second relay chariot; then he would dismount from the first chariot and mount the second chariot, and by means of the second chariot, he would arrive at the third chariot.. .by means of the third chariot, he would arrive at the fourth chariot.. .by means of the fourth chariot, he would arrive at the fifth chariot…by

i 150

means of the fifth chariot, he would arrive at the sixth chariot. . .by means of the sixth chariot, he would arrive at the seventh chariot, and by means of the seventh chariot he would arrive at the inner palace door in Saketa. Then, when he had come to the inner palace door, his friends and acquaintances, his kinsmen and relatives, would ask him: ‘Sire, did you come from Savatthl to the inner palace door in Saketa by means of this relay chariot?’ How then should King Pasenadi of Kosala answer in order to answer correctly?”

“In order to answer correctly, friend, he should answer thus: ‘Here, while living at Savatthl I had some urgent business to settle at Saketa, and between Savatthl and Saketa seven relay chariots were kept ready for me. Then, leaving Savatthl through the inner palace door, I mounted the first relay chariot, and by means of the first relay chariot I arrived at the second relay chariot; then I dismounted from the first chariot and mounted the second chariot, and by means of the second chariot I arrived at the third…fourth…fifth…sixth…seventh chariot, and by means of the seventh chariot I arrived at the inner palace door in Saketa.’ In order to answer correctly he should answer thus.”

  1. “So too, friend, purification of virtue is for the sake of reaching purification of mind; purification of mind is for the sake of reaching purification of view; purification of view is for the sake of reaching purification by overcoming doubt; purification by overcoming doubt [150] is for the sake of reaching purification by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path; purificatiori by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path is for the sake of reaching purification by knowledge and vision of the way; purification by knowledge and vision of the way is for the sake of reaching purification by knowledge and vision; purification by knowledge and vision is for the sake of reaching final Nibbana without clinging. It is for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging that the holy life is lived under the Blessed One.”
  2. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta asked the venerable Punna Mantaniputta: “What is the venerable one’s name, and how do his companions in the holy life know the venerable one?” 291

“My name is Punna, friend, and my companions in the holy life know me as Mantaniputta.”

The Relay Chariots 245

i 151

“It is wonderful, friend, it is marvellous! Each profound question has been answered, point by point, by the venerable Punna jylantaniputta as a learned disciple who understands the Teacher’s Dispensation correctly. It is a gain for his companions ■ n the holy life, it is a great gain for them that they have the opportunity to see and honour the venerable Punna Mantaniputta. Even if it were by carrying the venerable Punna Mantaniputta about on a cushion on their heads that his companions in tire holy life would get the opportunity to see and honour him, it would be a gain for them, a great gain for them. And it is a gain for us, a great gain for us that we have the opportunity to see and honour the venerable Punna Mantaniputta.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Punna Mantaniputta asked the venerable Sariputta: “What is the venerable one’s name, and how do his companions in the holy life know the venerable one?”

“My name is Upatissa, friend, and my companions in the holy life know me as Sariputta.”

“Indeed, friend, we did not know that we were talking with the venerable Sariputta, the disciple who is like the Teacher himself. 292 If we had known that this was the venerable Sariputta, we should not have said so much. It is wonderful, friend, it is marvellous! Each profound question has been posed, point by point, by the venerable Sariputta as a learned disciple who understands the Teacher’s Dispensation correctly. It is a gain for his companions in the holy life, it is a great gain for them that they have the opportunity to see and honour the venerable Sariputta. Even if it were by carrying the venerable Sariputta about on a cushion on their heads that his companions in the holy life would get the opportunity to see and honour him, [151] it would be a gain for them, a great gain for them. And it is a gain for us, a great gain for us that we have the opportunity to see and honour the venerable Sariputta.”

Thus it was that these two great beings rejoiced in each other’s good words.

 

 

 

 

25 Nivapa Sutta The Bait

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, a deer-trapper does not lay down bait for a deer herd intending thus: ‘May the deer herd enjoy this bait that I have laid down and so be long-lived and handsome and endure for a long time.’ A deer-trapper lays down bait for a deer herd intending thus: ‘The deer herd will eat food unwarily by going right in amongst the bait that I have laid down; by so doing they will become intoxicated; when they are intoxicated, they will fall into negligence; when they are negligent, I can do with them as I like on account of this bait/
  3. “Now the deer of the first herd ate food unwarily by going right in amongst the bait that the deer-trapper had laid down; by so doing they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated, they fell into negligence,’* when they were negligent, the deer-trapper did with them as he liked on account of that bait. That is how the deer of the first herd failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control.
  4. “Now the deer of a second herd reckoned thus: ‘The deer of that first herd, by acting as they did without precaution, [152] failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control. Suppose we altogether shun that bait food; shunning that fearful enjoyment, let us go out into the forest wilds and live there.’ And they did so. But in the last month of the hot season when the grass and the water were used up, their bodies were reduced to extreme emaciation; with that they lost their strength and energy; when they had lost their strength and energy, they returned to that same bait that the deer-trapper had laid down.

 

The Bait 247

 

1154

Xhey ate food unwarily by going right in amongst it. By so doing they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated they fell into negligence; when they were negligent, the deer-trapper did with them as he liked on account of that bait. And that is how the deer of the second herd also failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control.

  1. “Now the deer of a third herd reckoned thus: ‘The deer of that first herd, by acting as they did without precaution, failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control. The deer of that second herd, by reckoning how the deer of the first herd had failed and by planning and acting as they did with the precaution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control. Suppose we make our dwelling place within range of the deer-trapper’s bait. [153] Then, having done so, we shall eat food not unwarily and without going right in amongst the bait that the deer-trapper has laid down; by doing so we shall not become intoxicated; when we are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; when we are not negligent, the deer-trapper shall not do with us as he likes on account of that bait.’ And they did so.

“But then the deer-trapper and his following considered thus: ‘These deer of this third herd are as cunning and crafty as wizards and sorcerers. They eat the bait laid down without our knowing how they come and go. Suppose we have the bait that is laid down completely surrounded all round over a wide area with wicker hurdles; then perhaps we might see the third deer herd’s dwelling place, where they go to hide.’ They did so, and they saw the third herd’s dwelling place, where they went to hide. And that is how the deer of the third herd also failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control.

  1. “Now the deer of a fourth herd reckoned thus: ‘The deer of that first herd, by acting as they did without precaution, failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control. The deer of that second herd, by reckoning how the deer of the first herd had failed and by planning and acting as they did with the precaution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control. And the deer of that third herd, by reckoning how the deer of the first herd [154] and also the deer of the second herd had failed, and by planning and acting as they did with the precaution of making their dwelling

place within range of the deer-trapper’s bait, also failed to get free from the deer-trapper’s power and control. Suppose we make our dwelling place where the deer-trapper and his following cannot go. Then, having done so, we shall eat food not unwarily and without going right in amongst the bait that the deer-trapper has laid down; by doing so we shall not become intoxicated; when we are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; when we are not negligent, [155] the deer-trapper shall not do with us as he likes on account of that bait.’ And they did so.

“But then the deer-trapper and his following considered thus: ‘These deer of this fourth herd are as cunning and crafty as wizards and sorcerers. They eat the bait laid down without our knowing how they come and go. Suppose we have the bait that is laid down completely surrounded all round over a wide area with wicker hurdles; then perhaps we might see the fourth deer herd’s dwelling place, where they go to hide.’ They did so, but they did not see the fourth deer herd’s dwelling place, where they went to hide. Then the deer-hunter and his following considered thus: ‘If we scare the fourth deer herd, being scared they will alert others, and so the deer herds will all desert this bait that we have laid down. Suppose we treat the fourth deer herd with indifference.’ They did so. And that was how the deer of the fourth deer herd got free from the deer-trapper’s power and control.

  1. “Bhikkhus, I have given this simile in order to convey a meaning. This is the meaning: ‘Bait’ is a term for the five cords of sensual pleasure. ‘Deer-trapper’ is a term for Mara the Evil One. ‘The deer-trapper’s following’ is a term for Mara’s following. ‘Deer herd’ is a term for recluses and brahmins.
  2. “Now recluses and brahmins of the first kind ate food unwarily by going right in amongst the bait and the material things of the world that Mara had laid down; [156] by so doing they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated, they fell into negligence; when they were negligent, Mara did with them as he liked on account of that bait and those material things of the world. That is how the recluses and brahmins of the first kind failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. Those recluses and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the first herd.
  3. “Now recluses and brahmins of the second kind reckoned thus: ‘Those recluses and brahmins of the first kind, by acting as they did without precaution, failed to get free from Mara’s

 

power and control. Suppose we altogether shun that bait food and those material things of the world; shunning that fearful enjoyment, let us go out into the forest wilds and live there.’ And they did so. There they were eaters of greens or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or rice-bran or the discarded scum of boiled rice or sesamum flour or grass or cowdung; they lived on forest roots and fruits, they fed on fallen fruits.

“But in the last month of the hot season when the grass and the water were used up, their bodies were reduced to extreme emaciation; with that they lost their strength and energy; when they had lost their strength and energy, they lost their deliverance of mind; 293 with the loss of their deliverance of mind, they returned to that same bait that Mara had laid down and those material things of the world; they ate food unwarily by going right in amongst it; by so doing they became intoxicated; when they were intoxicated, they fell into negligence; when they were negligent, Mara did with them as he liked on account of that bait and those material things of the world. That is how those recluses and brahmins of the second kind failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. [157] Those recluses and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the second herd.

  1. “Now recluses and brahmins of the third kind reckoned thus: “Those recluses and brahmins of the first kind, by acting as they did without precaution, failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. Those recluses and brahmins of the second kind, by reckoning how the recluses and brahmins of the first kind had failed, and then planning and acting as they did with the precaution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. Suppose we make our dwelling place within range of that bait that Mara has laid down and those material things of the world. Then, having done so, we shall eat food not unwarily and without going right in amongst the bait that Mara has laid down and the material things of the world. By doing so we shall not become intoxicated; when we are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; when we are not negligent, Mara shall not do with us as he likes on account of that bait and those material things of the world.’ And they did so.

“But then they came to hold views such as ‘the world is eternal’ and ‘the world is not eternal’ and ‘the world is finite’ and

i 159

‘the world is infinite’ and ‘the soul and the body are the same’ and ‘the soul is one thing and the body another’ and ‘after death a Tathagata exists’ and ‘after death a Tathagata does not exist’ and ‘after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’ and ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’ 294 [158] That is how those recluses and brahmins of the third kind failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. Those recluses and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the third herd.

  1. “Now recluses and brahmins of the fourth kind reckoned thus: ‘Those recluses and brahmins of the first kind, by acting as they did without precaution, failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. Those recluses and brahmins of the second kind, by reckoning how the recluses and brahmins of the first kind had failed, and by planning and acting as they did with the precaution of going to live in the forest wilds, also failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. And the recluses and brahmins of the third kind, by reckoning how the recluses and brahmins of the first kind and also the recluses and brahmins of the second kind had failed, and by planning and acting as they did with the precaution of making their dwelling place within range of the bait that Mara had laid down and the material things of the world, also failed to get free from Mara’s power and control. Suppose we make our dwelling place where Mara and his following cannot go. Then, having done so, we shall eat food not unwarily and without going right in amongst the bait that Mara has laid dbwn and the material things of the world. By doing so we shall not become intoxicated; when we are not intoxicated, we shall not fall into negligence; when we are not negligent, Mara shall not do with us as he likes on account of that bait and those material things of the world.’ And they did so. 1159] And that is how those recluses and brahmins of the fourth kind got free from Mara’s power and control. Those recluses and brahmins, I say, are just like the deer of the fourth herd.
  2. “And where is it that Mara and his following cannot go? Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This

I

The Bait 251

bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara’s eye of its opportunity. 295

  1. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  2. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which the noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  3. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  4. “Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite/ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  5. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  6. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, [160] aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  7. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara’s eye of its opportunity.
  8. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints are destroyed by his seeing with wisdom. This bhikkhu is said

 

 

 

i 160

to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara’s eye of its opportunity, and to have crossed beyond attachment to the world.” 296

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

26 Ariyapariyesana Sutta The Noble Search

 

  1. Thus have I heard. 297 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into SavatthI for alms. Then a number of bhikkhus went to the venerable Ananda and said to him: “Friend Ananda, it is long since we heard a talk on the Dhamma from the Blessed One’s own lips. It would be good if we could get to hear such a talk, friend Ananda.” – “Then let the venerable ones go to the brahmin Rammaka’s hermitage. Perhaps you will get to hear a talk on the Dhamma from the Blessed One’s own lips.” – “Yes, friend,” they replied.
  3. Then, when the Blessed One had wandered for alms in SavatthI and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he addressed the venerable Ananda: “Ananda, let us go to the Eastern Park, to the Palace of Migara’s Mother, for the day’s abiding.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the venerable Ananda replied. [161] Then the Blessed One went with the venerable Ananda to the Eastern Park, the Palace of Migara’s Mother, for the day’s abiding.

Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from meditation and addressed the venerable Ananda: “Ananda, let us go to the Eastern Bathing Place to bathe.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the venerable Ananda replied. Then the Blessed One went with the venerable Ananda to the Eastern Bathing Place to bathe. When he was finished, he came up out of the water and stood in one robe drying his limbs. Then the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, the brahmin Rammaka’s hermitage is nearby. That hermitage is agreeable and delightful. Venerable sir, it would be good if the Blessed One went there out of compassion.” The Blessed One consented in silence.

I

I

254 Anyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26

  1. Then the Blessed One went to the brahmin Rammaka’s hermitage. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were sitting together in the hermitage discussing the Dhamma. The Blessed One stood outside the door waiting for their discussion to end. When he knew that it was over, he coughed and knocked, and the bhikkhus opened the door for him. The Blessed One entered, sat down on a seat made ready, and addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, for what discussion are you sitting together here now? And what was your discussion that was interrupted?”

“Venerable sir, our discussion on the Dhamma that was interrupted was about the Blessed One himself. Then the Blessed One arrived.”

“Good, bhikkhus. It is fitting for you clansmen who have gone forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness to sit together to discuss the Dhamma. When you gather together, bhikkhus, you should do either of two things: hold discussion on the Dhamma or maintain noble silence. 298

(two kinds of search)

  1. “Bhikkhus, there are these two kinds of search: the noble search and the ignoble search. And what is the ignoble search? Here someone being himself subject to birth seeks what is also subject to birth; being himself subject to ageing, [162] he seeks what is also subject to agging; being himself subject to sickness, he seeks what is also subject to sickness; being himself subject to death, he seeks what is also subject to death; being himself subject to sorrow, he seeks what is also subject to sorrow; being himself subject to defilement, he seeks what is also subject to defilement.
  2. “And what may be said to be subject to birth? Wife and children are subject to birth, men and women slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares, gold and silver are subject to birth. These objects of attachment 299 are subject to birth; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to birth, seeks what it also subject to birth.
  3. “And what may be said to be subject to ageing? Wife and children are subject to ageing, men and women slaves, goats

 

The Noble Search 255

i 163

and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares, gold and silver are subject to ageing. These objects of attachment are subject to ageing; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to ageing, seeks what is also subject to ageing.

  1. “And what may be said to be subject to sickness? Wife and children are subject to sickness, men and women slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares are subject to sickness. These objects of attachment are subject to sickness; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to sickness, seeks what is also subject to sickness. 300
  2. “And what may be said to be subject to death? Wife and children are subject to death, men and women slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares are subject to death. These objects of attachment are subject to death; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to death, seeks what is also subject to death.
  3. “And what may be said to be subject to sorrow? Wife and children are subject to sorrow, men and women slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares are subject to sorrow. These objects of attachment are subject to sorrow; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to sorrow, seeks what is also subject to sorrow.
  4. “And what may be said to be subject to defilement? Wife and children are subject to defilement, men and women slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares, gold and silver are subject to defilement. These objects of attachment are subject to defilement; and one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, and utterly committed to them, being himself subject to defilement, seeks what is also subject to defilement. This is the ignoble search.
  5. “And what is the noble search? Here someone being himself subject to birth, having understood the danger in what is subject to birth, [163] seeks the unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to ageing, having understood the danger in what is subject to ageing, he seeks the unageing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being

i 163

himself subject to sickness, having understood the danger in what is subject to sickness, he seeks the unailing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to death, having understood the danger in what is subject to death, he seeks the deathless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to sorrow, having understood the danger in what is subject to sorrow, he seeks the sorrowless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being himself subject to defilement, having understood the danger in what is subject to defilement, he seeks the undefiled supreme security from bondage, Nibbana. This is the noble search.

(the search for enlightenment)

  1. “Bhikkhus, before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I too, being myself subject to birth, sought what was also subject to birth; being myself subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, I sought what was also subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement. Then I considered thus: ‘Why, being myself subject to birth, do I seek what is also subject to birth? Why, being myself subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, do I seek what is also subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement? Suppose that, being myself subject to birth, having understood the danger in what is subject to birth, I seek the unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana. Suppose that, being myself subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, having understood the danger in what is subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, I seek the unageing, unailing, deathless, sorrowless, and undefiled supreme security from bondage, Nibbana.’
  2. “Later, while still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, though my mother and father wished otherwise and wept with tearful faces, I shaved off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and went forth from the home life into homelessness.
  3. “Having gone forth, bhikkhus, in search of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Alara Kalama and said to him: ‘Friend Kalama, I want to lead the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.’ Alara Kalama

 

The Noble Search 257

re plied: ‘The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is g uch that a wise man [164J can soon enter upon and abide in it, realising for himself through direct knowledge his own teacher’s doctrine.’ I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far aS mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, ‘I know and see’ – and there were others who did likewise.

“I considered: ‘It is not through mere faith alone that Alara Kalama declares: “By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma.” Certainly Alara Kalama abides knowing and seeing this Dhamma.’ Then I went to Alara Kalama and asked him: ‘Friend Kalama, in what way do you declare that by realising for yourself with direct knowledge you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma?’ In reply he declared the base of nothingness. 301

“I considered: ‘Not only Alara Kalama has faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Alara Kalama declares he enters upon and abides in by realising for himself with direct knowledge?’

“I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge. Then I went to Alara Kalama and asked him: ‘Friend Kalama, is it in this way that you declare that you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for yourself with direct knowledge?’ – ‘That is the way, friend.’ – ‘It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.’ – ‘It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion in the holy life. So the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for myself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge. [165] And the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for myself with direct knowledge. So you know the Dhamma that I know and I know the Dhamma that you know. As I am, so are you; as you are, so am I. Come, friend, let us now lead this community together.’

i 166

“Thus Alara Kalama, my teacher, placed me, his pupil, on an equal footing with himself and awarded me the highest honour. But it occurred to me: “This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to reappearance in the base of nothingness.’ 302 Not being satisfied with that Dhamma, I left it and went away.

  1. “Still in search, bhikkhus, of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and said to him: ‘Friend, I want to lead the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.’ 303 Uddaka Ramaputta replied: ‘The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is such that a wise man can soon enter upon and abide in it, himself realising through direct knowledge his own teacher’s doctrine.’ I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far as mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, ‘I know and see’ – and there were others who did likewise.

“I considered: ‘It was not through mere faith alone that Rama declared: “By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma.” Certainly Rama abided knowing and seeing this Dhamma.’ Then I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and asked him: ‘Friend, in what way did Rama declare that by realising for himself with direct knowledge he entered upon and abided in this Dhamma?’ In reply Uddaka Ramaputta declared the base of neither-percej5tion-nor-non-perception.

“I considered: ‘Not only Rama had faith, [166] energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge.’

“I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge. Then I went to Uddaka Ramaputta and asked him: ‘Friend, was it in this way that Rama declared that he entered upon and abided in this Dhamma by realising for himself with direct knowledge?’ -‘That is the way, friend.’ – ‘It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.’ – ‘It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion

 

The Noble Search 259

 

in the holy life. So the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge. And the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge. So you know the Dhamma that Rama knew and Rama knew the Dhamma that you know. As Rama was, so are you; as you are, so was Rama. Come, friend, now lead this community.’

“Thus Uddaka Ramaputta, my companion in the holy life, placed me in the position of a teacher and accorded me the highest honour. But it occurred to me: ‘This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct j

knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to reappearance in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.’ Not j

being satisfied with that Dhamma, I left it and went away.

  1. “Still in search, bhikkhus, of what is wholesome, seeking 0 the supreme state of sublime peace, I wandered by stages / A through the Magadhan country until eventually I arrived at i Senanigama near Uruvela. [167] There I saw an agreeable piece of ground, a delightful grove with a clear-flowing river with j pleasant, smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. I , considered: ‘This is an agreeable piece of ground, this is a ! j

delightful grove with a clear^flowing river with pleasant, ■ smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. This will j j

serve for the striving of a clansman intent on striving.’ And I sat j

down there thinking: ‘This will serve for striving.’ 304 >

(enlightenment)

 

  1. “Then, bhikkhus, being myself subject to birth, having understood the danger in what is subject to birth, seeking the unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to ageing, having understood the danger in what is subject to ageing, seeking the unageing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the-unageing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to sickness, having understood the danger in what is subject to sickness, seeking the

260 Ariyapariyesana Sutta: Sutta 26

unailing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the unailing supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to death, having understood the danger in what is subject to death, seeking the deathless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the deathless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to sorrow, having understood the danger in what is subject to sorrow, seeking the sorrowless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the sorrowless supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being myself subject to defilement, having understood the danger in what is subject to defilement, seeking the undefiled supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, I attained the undefiled supreme security from bondage, Nibbana. The knowledge and vision arose in me: ‘My deliverance is unshakeable; this is my last birth; now there is no renewal of being.’

  1. “I considered: ‘This Dhamma that I have attained is profound, hard to see and hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, unattainable by mere reasoning, subtle, to be experienced by the wise. 305 But this generation delights in worldliness, takes delight in worldliness, rejoices in worldliness. 306 It is hard for such a generation to see this truth, namely, specific conditionality, dependent origination. And it is hard to see this truth, namely, the stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of all attachments, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbana. [168] If I were to teach the Dhamma, others would not understand me, and that would be wearying and*troublesome for me.’ Thereupon there came to me spontaneously these stanzas never heard before:

‘Enough with teaching the Dhamma That even I found hard to reach;

For it will never be perceived By those who live in lust and hate.

Those dyed in lust, wrapped in darkness Will never discern this abstruse Dhamma Which goes against the worldly stream.

Subtle, deep, and difficult to see.’

Considering thus, my mind inclined to inaction rather than to teaching the Dhamma. 307

The Noble Search 261

  1. “Then, bhikkhus, the Brahma Sahampati knew with his mind the thought in my mind and he considered: “The world will be lost, the world will perish, since the mind of the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, inclines to inaction rather than to teaching the Dhamma/ Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, the Brahma Sahampati vanished in the Brahma-world and appeared before me. He arranged his upper robe on one shoulder, and extending his hands in reverential salutation towards me, said: ‘Venerable sir, let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma, let the Sublime One teach the Dhamma. There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are wasting through not hearing the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma.’ The Brahma Sahampati spoke thus, and then he said further:

‘In Magadha there have appeared till now Impure teachings devised by those still stained.

Open the doors to the Deathless! Let them hear The Dhamma that the Stainless One has found.

Just as one who stands on a mountain peak Can see below the people all around.

So, O Wise One, All-seeing Sage,

Ascend the palace of the Dhamma.

Let the Sorrowless One survey this human breed. Engulfed in sorrow, overcome by birth and old age. [169]

Arise, victorious hero, caravan leader. Debtless one, and wander in the world. Let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma, There will be those who will understand.’

 

  1. “Then I listened to the Brahma’s pleading, and out of compassion for beings I surveyed the world with the eye of a Buddha. Surveying the world with the eye of a Buddha, I saw beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen faculties and with dull faculties, with good qualities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach, and some who dwelt seeing fear in blame and in the other world. Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses

i 170

that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and some other lotuses that are born and grow in the water rest on the water’s surface, and some other lotuses that are bom and grow in the water rise out of the water and stand clear, unwetted by it; so too, surveying the world with the eye of a Buddha, I saw beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen faculties and with dull faculties, with good qualities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach, and some who dwelt seeing fear in blame and in the other world. Then I replied to the Brahma Sahampati in stanzas:

‘Open for them are the doors to the Deathless,

Let those with ears now show their faith.

Thinking it would be troublesome, O Brahma,

I did not speak the Dhamma subtle and sublime.’

Then the Brahma Sahampati thought: ‘I have created the opportunity for the Blessed One to teach the Dhamma.’ And after paying homage to me, keeping me on the right, he thereupon departed at once.

  1. “I considered thus: ‘To whom should I first teach the Dhamma? Who will understand this Dhamma quickly?’ It then occurred to me: ‘Alara Kalama is wise, intelligent, and discerning; he has long had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I [170] taught the Dhamma first’to Alara Kalama. He will understand it quickly.’ Then deities approached me and said: ‘Venerable sir, Alara Kalama died seven days ago.’ And the knowledge and vision arose in me: ‘Alara Kalama died seven days ago.’ I thought: ‘Alara Kalama’s loss is a great one. If he had heard this Dhamma, he would have understood it quickly.’
  2. “I considered thus: ‘To whom should I first teach the Dhamma? Who will understand this Dhamma quickly?’ It then occurred to me: ‘Uddaka Ramaputta is wise, intelligent, and discerning; he has long had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I taught the Dhamma first to Uddaka Ramaputta. He will understand it quickly.’ Then deities approached me and said: ‘Venerable sir, Uddaka Ramaputta died last night.’ And the knowledge and vision arose in me: ‘Uddaka Ramaputta died last night.’ I thought: ‘Uddaka Ramaputta’s loss is a great one. If he had heard this Dhamma, he would have understood it quickly.’

E-

 

j YJ\ The Noble Search 263

  1. “I considered thus: ‘To whom should I first teach the Dhamma? Who will understand this Dhamma quickly?’ It then occurred to me: ‘The bhikkhus of the group of five who attended upon me while I was engaged in my striving were very helpful308 Suppose I taught the Dhamma first to them.’ Then I thought: ‘Where are the bhikkhus of the group of five now living?’ And with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw that they were living at Benares in the Deer Park at Isipatana.

(the teaching of the dhamma)

  1. “Then, bhikkhus, when I had stayed at Uruvela as long as I chose, I set out to wander by stages to Benares. Between Gaya and the Place of Enlightenment the Ajlvaka Upaka saw me on the road and said: ‘Friend, your faculties are clear, the colour of your skin is pure and bright. Under whom have you gone forth, friend? Who is your teacher? Whose Dhamma do you [171] profess?’ I replied to the Ajlvaka Upaka in stanzas:

‘I am one who has transcended all, a knower of all. Unsullied among all things, renouncing all.

By craving’s ceasing freed. Having known this all For myself, to whom should I point as teacher?

I have no teacher, and one like me Exists nowhere in all the world With all its gods, because I have No person for my counterpart.

I am the Accomplished One in the world,

I am the Teacher Supreme.

I alone am a Fully Enlightened One Whose fires are quenched and extinguished.

I go now to the city of Kasi

To set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma.

In a world that has become blind I go to beat the drum of the Deathless.’

i 172

‘The victors are those like me

Who have won to destruction of taints.

I have vanquished all evil states.

Therefore, Upaka, I am a victor.’

“When this was said, the Ajlvaka Upaka said: ‘May it be so, friend.’ Shaking his head, he took a bypath and departed. 310

  1. “Then, bhikkhus, wandering by stages, I eventually came to Benares, to the Deer Park at Isipatana, and I approached the bhikkhus of the group of five. The bhikkhus saw me coming in the distance, and they agreed among themselves thus: ‘Friends, here comes the recluse Gotama who lives luxuriously, who gave up his striving, and reverted to luxury. We should not pay homage to him or rise up for him or receive his bowl and outer robe. But a seat may be prepared for him. If he likes, he may sit down.’ However, as 1 approached, those bhikkhus found themselves unable to keep their pact. One came to meet me and took my bowl and outer robe, another prepared a seat, and another set out water for my feet; however, they addressed me by name and as ‘friend.’ 311
  2. “Thereupon I told them: ‘Bhikkhus, do not address the Tathagata by name and as “friend.” The Tathagata is an Accomplished One, [172] a Fully Enlightened One. Listen, bhikkhus, the Deathless has been attained. I shall instruct you, I shall teach you the Dhamma. Practising as you are instructed, by realising for yourselves here and now through direct knowledge you will soon enter upon and abide in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness.’

“When this was said, the bhikkhus of the group of five answered me thus: ‘Friend Gotama, by the conduct, the practice, and the performance of austerities that you undertook, you did not achieve any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. 312 Since you now live luxuriously, having given up your striving and reverted to luxury, how will you have achieved any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones?’ When this was said, I told them: ‘The Tathagata does not live luxuriously, nor has he given up his striving and reverted to

The Noble Search 265

il73

luxury. The Tathagata is an Accomplished One, a Fully j 7 n ljghtened One. Listen, bhikkhus, the Deathless has been attained…from the home life into homelessness.’

“A second time the bhikkhus of the group of five said to me: ‘Friend Gotama…how will you have achieved any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones?’ A second time I told them: ‘The Tathagata does not live luxuriously…from the home life into homelessness.’ A third time the bhikkhus of the group of five said to me: ‘Friend Gotama…how will you have achieved any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones?’

  1. “When this was said I asked them: ‘Bhikkhus, have you ever known me to speak like this before?’ – ‘No, venerable sir.’ 313 – ‘Bhikkhus, the Tathagata is an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One. Listen, bhikkhus, the Deathless has been attained. I shall instruct you, I shall teach you the Dhamma. Practising as you are instructed, by realising for yourselves here and now through direct knowledge you will soon enter upon and abide in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness.’ [173]
  2. “I was able to convince the bhikkhus of the group of five. 314 Then I sometimes instructed two bhikkhus while the other three went for alms, and the six of us lived on what those three bhikkhus brought back from their almsround. Sometimes I instructed three bhikkhus while the other two went for alms, and the six of us lived on what those two bhikkhus brought back from their almsround.
  3. “Then the bhikkhus of the group of five, thus taught and instructed by me, being themselves subject to birth, having understood the danger in what is subject to birth, seeking the unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, attained the unborn supreme security from bondage, Nibbana; being themselves subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, having understood the danger in what is subject to ageing, sickness, death, sorrow, and defilement, seeking the unageing, unailing, deathless, sorrowless, and undefiled supreme security from bondage, Nibbana, they attained the unageing, unailing, deathless, sorrowless, and undefiled supreme security from

i 174

I bondage, Nibbana. The knowledge and vision arose in them:

‘ ‘Our deliverance is unshakeable; this is our last birth; there is no

| renewal of being.’

I

(SENSUAL PLEASURE)

  1. “Bhikkhus, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure. 315 What are the five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the ear…Odours cognizable by the nose…Flavours cognizable by the tongue…Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sensual pleasure.
  2. “As to those recluses and brahmins who are tied to these five cords of sensual pleasure, infatuated with them and utterly committed to them, and who use them without seeing the danger in them or understanding the escape from them, it may be understood of them: ‘They have met with calamity, met with disaster, the Evil One may do with them as he likes.’ Suppose a forest deer who was bound lay down on a heap of snares; it might be understood of him: ‘He has met with calamity, met with disaster, the hunter can do with him as he likes, and when the hunter comes he cannot go where he wants.’ So too, as to those recluses and brahmins who are tied to these five cords of sensual pleasure…it may be understood of them: ‘They have met with calamity, met with disaster, the Evil One may do with them as he likes.’
  3. “As to those recluses and brahmins who are not tied to these five cords of sensual pleasure, who are not infatuated with them or utterly committed to them, and who use them seeing the danger in them and understanding the escape from them, [174] it may be understood of them: ‘They have not met with calamity, not met with disaster, the Evil One cannot do with them as he likes.’ 316 Suppose a forest deer who was unbound lay down on a heap of snares; it might be understood of him: ‘He has not met with calamity, not met with disaster, the hunter cannot do with him as he likes, and when the hunter comes he can go where he wants.’ So too, as to those recluses and brahmins who

 

The Noble Search 267

i 174

ar e not tied to these five cords of sensual pleasure…it may be understood of them: ‘They have not met with calamity, not met with disaster, the Evil One cannot do with them as he likes.’

  1. “Suppose a forest deer is wandering in the forest wilds: he walks without fear, stands without fear, sits without fear, lies down without fear. Why is that? Because he is out of the hunter’s range. So too, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara’s eye of its opportunity. 317
  2. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  3. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  4. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  5. “Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  6. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…
  7. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters

i 175

upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara…

  1. “Again, by completely surrounding the base of nothingness, [175] a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara’s eye of its opportunity.
  2. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints are destroyed by his seeing with wisdom. This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Mara, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Mara’s eye of its opportunity, and to have crossed beyond attachment to the world. 318 He walks without fear, stands without fear, sits without fear, lies down without fear. Why is that? Because he is out of the Evil One’s range.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

27 Culahatthipadopama Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint

 

  1. Thus have I heard. 319 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatth! in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Now on that occasion the brahmin Janussoni was driving out of Savatth! in the middle of the day in an all-white chariot drawn by white mares. He saw the wanderer Pilotika coming in the distance and asked him: “Now where is Master Vacchayana coming from in the middle of the day?” 320

“Sir, I am coming from the presence of the recluse Gotama.”

“What does Master Vacchayana think of the recluse Gotama’s lucidity of wisdom? He is wise, is he not?”

“Sir, who am I to know the recluse Gotama’s lucidity of wisdom? One would surely have to be his equal to know the recluse Gotama’s lucidity of wisdom.”

“Master Vacchayana praises the recluse Gotama with high praise indeed.”

“Sir, who am I to praise the recluse Gotama? The recluse Gotama is praised by the praised as best among gods and humans.”

“What reasons does Master Vacchayana see that he has such confidence in the recluse Gotama?”

  1. “Sir, suppose a wise elephant woodsman were to enter an elephant wood and were to see in the elephant wood [176] a big elephant’s footprint, long in extent and broad across. He would come to the conclusion: ‘Indeed, this is a big bull elephant.’ So too, when I saw four footprints of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.’ What are the four?
  2. “Sir, I have seen here certain learned nobles who were clever, knowledgeable about the doctrines of others, as sharp as

i 177

hairsplitting marksmen; they wander about, as it were, demolishing the views of others with their sharp wits. When they hear: ‘The recluse Gotama will visit such and such a village or town/ they formulate a question thus: ‘We will go to the recluse Gotama and ask him this question. If he is asked like this, he will answer like this, and so we will refute his doctrine in this way; and if he is asked like that, he will answer like that, and so we will refute his doctrine in that way.’

“They hear: ‘Tire recluse Gotama has come to visit such and such a village or town.’ They go to the recluse Gotama, and the recluse Gotama instructs, urges, rouses, and encourages them with a talk on the Dhamma. After they have been instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the recluse Gotama with a talk on the Dhamma, they do not so much as ask him the question, so how should they refute his doctrine? In actual fact, they become his disciples. When I saw this first footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.’

  1. “Again, I have seen certain learned brahmins who were clever.. .In actual fact, they too become his disciples. When I saw this second footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened…’
  2. “Again, I have seen certain learned householders who were clever…[177]…In actual fact, they too become his disciples. When I saw this third footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened…’
  3. “Again, I have seen certain learned recluses who were clever.. .They do not so much as ask him the question, so how should they refute his doctrine? In actual fact, they ask the recluse Gotama to allow them to go forth from the home life into homelessness, and he gives them the going forth. Not long after they have gone forth, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, by realising for themselves with direct knowledge they here and now enter upon and abide in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. They say thus: ‘We were very nearly lost, we very nearly perished, for formerly we claimed that we were recluses though we were not

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Shorter) 271

really recluses; we claimed that we were brahmins through we vvere not really brahmins; we claimed that we were arahants though we were not really arahants. But now we are recluses, n0 w we are brahmins, now we are arahants.’ When I saw this fourth footprint of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened…’

“When I saw these four footprints of the recluse Gotama, I came to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.'”

  1. When this was said, the brahmin Janussoni got down from his all-white chariot drawn by white mares, and arranging his upper robe on one shoulder, he extended his hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and uttered this exclamation three times: “Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened! Perhaps some time or other [178] we might meet Master Gotama and have some conversation with him.”
  2. Then the brahmin Janussoni went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and related to the Blessed One his entire conversation with the wanderer Pilotika. Thereupon the Blessed One told him: “At this point, brahmin, the simile of the elephant’s footprint has not yet been completed in detail. As to how it is completed in detail, listen and attend carefully to what I shall say.” – “Yes, sir,” the brahmin Janussoni replied. The Blessed One said this:
  3. “Brahmin, suppose an elephant woodsman were to enter an elephant wood and were to see in the elephant wood a big elephant’s footprint, long in extent and broad across. A wise elephant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: ‘Indeed, this is a big bull elephant.’ Why is that? In an elephant wood there are small she-elephants that leave a big footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it and sees in the elephant wood a big elephant’s footprint, long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up. A wise elephant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: ‘Indeed, this is a big bull elephant.’ Why is that? In an elephant wood there

i 179

are tall she-elephants that have prominent teeth and leave a big footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it further and sees in the elephant wood a big elephant’s footprint, long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up, and marks made by tusks. A wise elephant woodsman would not yet come to the conclusion: ‘Indeed, this is a big bull elephant.’ Why is that? In an elephant wood there are tall she-elephants that have tusks and leave a big footprint, and this might be one of their footprints. He follows it further and sees in the elephant wood a big elephant’s footprint, long in extent and broad across, and some scrapings high up, and marks made by tusks, and broken-off branches. And he sees that bull elephant at the root of a tree or in the open, walking about, sitting, or lying down. He comes to the conclusion: ‘This is that big bull elephant.’

  1. “So too, [179] brahmin, here a Tathagata appears in the world, accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realised with direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.
  2. “A householder or,householder’s son or one born in some other clan hears that Dhamma. On hearing the Dhamma he acquires faith in the Tathagata. Possessing that faith, he considers thus: ‘Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’ On a later occasion, abandoning a small or a large fortune, abandoning a small or a large circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from the home life into homelessness.
  3. “Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhu’s training and way of life, abandoning the killing of living beings, he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid

aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings- Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expecting only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity. Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one who is no deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those peoplej from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord. Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many [180] and agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial.

“He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He practises eating only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and outside the proper time. 321 He abstains from dancing, singing, music, and theatrical shows. He abstains from wearing garlands, smartening himself with scent, and embellishing himself with unguents. He abstains from high and large couches. He abstains from accepting gold and silver. He abstains from accepting raw grain. He abstains from accepting raw meat. He abstains from accepting women and girls. He abstains from accepting men and women slaves. He abstains from accepting goats and sheep. He abstains from accepting fowl and pigs. He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses, and mares. He abstains from accepting fields and land. He abstains from going errands and running messages. He abstains from buying and selling. He abstains from false weights, false metals, and false Pleasures. He abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding.

 

i 181

and trickery. He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence.

  1. “He becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too the bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless.
  2. “On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. 322 On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, [181] he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experiences within himself a bliss that is unsullied.
  3. “He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going forward and returning; who acts in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flexing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and urinating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.
  4. “Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, and this noble restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw.
  5. “On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and

 

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Shorter) 275

 

establishing mindfulness before him. Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. 323 Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill w ill and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.

  1. “Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata, something scraped by the Tathagata, something marked by die Tathagata, but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way/ 324
  2. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata… but a noble [182] disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened…’
  3. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata…but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: “The Blessed One is fully enlightened…’
  4. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and “dth the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu

 

i 183

enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata… but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened…’

  1. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: …(as Sutta 4, §27 )…Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata.. .but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened.. / [183]
  2. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. He understands how beings pass on according to their actions thus:… (as Sutta 4, §29 )…Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata…but a noble disciple does not yet come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened.. /
  3. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’;…’This is the origin of suffering’;…’This is the cessation of suffering’;…’This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’;…’These are the taints’;…’This is the origin of the

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Shorter) 277

taints’;-‘This is the cessation of the taints’;…’This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

“This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata,

something scraped by the Tathagata, something marked by the Tathagata, but a noble disciple still has not yet come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well

proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.’ Rather, he is in the process of coming to this conclusion. 325 26. “When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from

tire taint of sensual desire, [184] from the taint of being, and

from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the

knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

“This too, brahmin, is called a footprint of the Tathagata, something scraped by the Tathagata, something marked by the Tathagata. It is at this point that a noble disciple has come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.’ 326 And it is at this point, brahmin, that the simile of the elephant’s footprint has been completed in detail.”

  1. When this was said, the brahmin Janussoni said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with

eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

j

-I

ixk

 

 

28 Mahahatthipadopama Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint

 

  1. Thus have I heard . 327 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There the venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Friends, bhikkhus.” – “Friend,” they replied. The venerable Sariputta said this:
  2. “Friends, just as the footprint of any living being that walks can be placed within an elephant’s footprint, and so the elephant’s footprint is declared the chief of them because of its great size; so too, all wholesome states can be included in the Four Noble Truths. 328 In what four? In the noble truth of suffering, [185] in the noble truth of the origin of suffering, in the noble truth of the cessation of suffering, and in the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.
  3. “And what is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, ageing is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are suffering; not to obtain what one wants is suffering; in short, the five aggregates affected by clinging are suffering.
  4. “And what are the five aggregates affected by clinging? They are: the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling aggregate affected by clinging, the perception aggregate affected by clinging, the formations aggregate affected by clinging, and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging.
  5. “And what is the material form aggregate affected by clinging? It is the four great elements and the material form derived from the four great elements. And what are the four great elements? They are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.

 

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Greater) 279

(the earth element)

“What, friends, is the earth element? The earth element may be either internal or external. What is the internal earth element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is solid, solidified, and clung-to; that is, head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, contents of the stomach, feces, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is solid, solidified, and clung-to: this is called the internal earth element. 329 Now both the internal earth element and the external earth element are simply earth element. 330 And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the earth element and makes the mind dispassionate toward the earth element.

  1. “Now there comes a time when the water element is disturbed and then the external earth element vanishes. 331 When

even this external earth element, great as it is, is seen to be impermanent, subject to destruction, disappearance, and change, what of this body, which is clung to by craving and lasts but a while? There can be no considering that as T or mine’ or ‘I am.’ 332

  1. “So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he understands thus: ‘This painful feeling bom of ear-contact has arisen in me. That is dependent, not independent. Dependent on what? [186] Dependent on contact.’ 333 Then he sees that contact is impermanent, that feeling is impermanent, that perception is impermanent, that formations are impermanent, and that consciousness is impermanent. And his mind, having made an element its objective support, enters into [that new objective support] and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. 334
  2. “Now, if others attack that bhikkhu in ways that are unwished for, undesired, and disagreeable, by contact with fists, clods, sticks, or knives, he understands thus: ‘This body is of such a nature that contact with fists, clods, sticks, and knives assail it. 335 But this has been said by the Blessed One in his

advice on the simile of the saw”: “Bhikkhus, even if bandits

i 187

were to sever you savagely limb by limb with a two-handled saw, he who gave rise to a mind of hate towards them would not be carrying out my teaching.” 336 So tireless energy shall be aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness established, my body shall be tranquil and untroubled, my mind concentrated and unified. And now let contact with fists, clods, sticks, and knives assail this body; for this is just how the Buddha’s teaching is practised.’

  1. “When that bhikkhu thus recollects the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, if equanimity supported by the wholesome does not become established in him, then he arouses a sense of urgency thus: ‘It is a loss for me, it is no gain for me, it is bad for me, it is no good for me, that when I thus recollect the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, equanimity supported by the wholesome does not become established in me.’ 337 Just as when a daughter-in-law sees her father-in-law, she arouses a sense of urgency [to please him], so too, when that bhikkhu thus recollects the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, if equanimity supported by the wholesome does not become established in him, then he arouses a sense of urgency. But if, when he recollects the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, equanimity supported by the wholesome becomes established in him, [187] then he is satisfied with it. At that point, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

(the water element)

  1. “What, friends, is the water element? The water element may be either internal or external. What is the internal water element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is water, watery, and clung-to; that is, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil-of-the-joints, urine, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is water, watery, and clung-to: this is called the internal water element. Now both the internal water element and the external water element are simply water element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the water element and makes the mind dispassionate toward the water element.

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Greater) 281

  1. “Now there comes a time when the external water element is disturbed. It carries away villages, towns, cities, districts, and countries. There comes a time when the waters in the great ocean sink down a hundred leagues, two hundred leagues, three hundred leagues, four hundred leagues, five hundred leagues, six hundred leagues, seven hundred leagues. There comes a time when the waters in the great ocean stand seven palms deep, six palms deep.. .two palms deep, only a palm deep. There comes a time when the waters in the great ocean stand seven fathoms deep, six fathoms deep…two fathoms deep, only a fathom deep. There comes a time when the waters in the great ocean stand half a fathom deep, only waist deep, only knee deep, only ankle deep. There comes a time when the waters in the great ocean are not enough to wet even the joint of a finger. When even this external water element, great as it is, [188] is seen to be impermanent, subject to destruction, disappearance, and change, what of this body, which is clung to by craving and lasts but a while? There can be no considering that as T or ‘mine’ or ‘I am.’

13-15. “So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he understands thus :…(repeat §§8-10 )…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

(the fire element)

  1. “What, friends, is the fire element? The fire element may be either internal or external. What is the internal fire element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is fire, fiery, and clung-to; that is, that by which one is warmed, ages, and is consumed, and that by which what is eaten, drunk, consumed, and tasted gets completely digested, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is fire, fiery, and clung-to: this is called the internal fire element. Now both the internal fire element and the external fire element are simply fire element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the fire element and makes the mind dispassionate toward the fire element.

 

i 189

‘ 1

|! 17. “Now there comes a time when the external fire element is

disturbed. It burns up villages, towns, cities, districts, and countries. It goes out due to lack of fuel only when it comes to green grass, or to a road, or to a rock, or to water, or to a fair open space. There comes a time when they seek to make a fire even with cocks’ feathers and hide-parings. When even this external fire element, great as it is, is seen to be impermanent, subject to destruction, disappearance, and change, what of this body, which is clung to by craving and lasts but a while? There can be no considering that as T or ‘mine’ or ‘I am.’

18-20. “So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he understands thus:…(repeat §§8-10 )…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

(the air element)

  1. “What, friends, is the air element? The air element may be either internal or external. What is the internal air element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is air, airy, and clung-to; that is, up-going winds, down-going winds, winds in the belly, winds in the bowels, winds that course through the limbs, in-breath and out-breath, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is air, airy, and clung-to: this is called the internal air element. Now both the internal air element and the external air element are simply air element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the air element and makes the mind dispassionate toward the air element. [189]
  2. “Now there comes a time when the external air element is disturbed. It sweeps away villages, towns, cities, districts, and countries. There comes a time in the last month of the hot season when they seek wind by means of a fan or bellows and even the strands of straw in the drip-fringe of the thatch do not stir. When even this external air element, great as it is, is seen to be impermanent, subject to destruction, disappearance, and change, what of this body, which is clung to by craving and lasts but a while? There can be no considering that as T or ‘mine’ or ‘I am.’

I

j 191

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Greater) 283

23-25- “So then, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass a bhikkhu [who has seen this element as it actually is], he understands thus:…[190] (repeat §§8~10)…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

  1. “Friends, just as when a space is enclosed by timber and creepers, grass, and clay, it comes to be termed ‘house/ so too, when a space is enclosed by bones and sinews, flesh and skin, it comes to be termed ‘material form.’ 338
  2. “If, friends, internally the eye is intact but no external forms come into its range, and there is no corresponding [conscious] engagement, then there is no manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness. 339 If internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its range, but there is no corresponding, [conscious] engagement, then there is no manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness. But when internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its range and there is the corresponding [conscious] engagement, then there is the manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness.
  3. “The rnaterial form in what has thus come to be is included in the material form aggregate affected by clinging. 340 The feeling in what has thus come to be is included in the feeling aggregate affected by clinging. The perception in what has thus come to be is included in the perception aggregate affected by clinging. The formations in what has thus come to be are included in the formations aggregate affected by clinging. The consciousness in what has thus come to be is included in the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. He understands thus: ‘This, indeed, is how there comes to be the inclusion, gathering, and amassing of things into these five aggregates affected by clinging. Now this has been said by the Blessed One: “One who sees [191] dependent origination sees the Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees dependent origination.” 341 And these five aggregates affected by clinging are dependently arisen. The desire, indulgence, inclination, and holding based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is the origin of suffering. 342 The removal of desire and lust, the abandonment of desire and lust for these five aggregates affected by clinging is the cessation of suffering.’ At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu. 343

i 191

29-30. “If, friends, internally the ear is intact but no external sounds come into its range…(as in §§27-28)…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

31-32. “If, friends, internally the nose is intact but no external smells come into its range…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

33-34. “If, friends, internally the tongue is intact but no external flavours come into its range…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

35-36. “If, friends, internally the body is intact but no external tangibles come into its range…At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.

  1. “If, friends, internally the mind is intact but no external mind-objects come into its range, and there is no corresponding [conscious] engagement, then there is no manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness. 344 If internally the mind is intact and external mind-objects come into its range, but there is no corresponding [conscious] engagement, then there is no manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness. 345 But when internally the mind is intact and external mind-objects come into its range and there is the corresponding [conscious] engagement, then there is the manifestation of the corresponding class of consciousness.
  2. “The material form in what has thus come to be is included in the material form aggregate affected by clinging. The feeling in what has thus come to be is included in the feeling aggregate affected by clinging. The perception in what has thus come to be is included in the perception aggregate affected by clinging. The formations in what has thus come to be are included in the formations aggregate affected by clinging. The consciousness in what has thus come to be is included in the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. He understands thus: ‘This, indeed, is how there comes to be the inclusion, gathering, and amassing of things into these five aggregates affected by clinging. Now this has been said by the Blessed One: “One who sees dependent origination sees the Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees dependent origination.” And these five aggregates affected by clinging are dependently arisen. The desire, indulgence, inclination, and holding based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is the origin of suffering. The removal of desire and

The Simile of the Elephant’s Footprint (Greater) 285

just, the abandonment of desire and lust for these five aggregates affected by clinging is the cessation of suffering.’ At that point too, friends, much has been done by that bhikkhu.”

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta’s words.

 

 

29 Mahasaropama Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood

 

[192] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rajagaha on the mountain Vulture Peak; it was soon after Devadatta had left. 346 There, referring to Devadatta, the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus:

  1. “Bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I have gain, honour, and renown, but these other bhikkhus are unknown, of no account.’ He becomes intoxicated with that gain, honour, and renown, grows negligent, falls into negligence, and being negligent, he lives in suffering.

“Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, its sap-wood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he would cut off its twigs and leaves and take them away thinking they were heart-wood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, he came to a great tree standing possessed of heart-wood, and passing over its heartwood, its sapwood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he cut off its twigs and leaves and took them away thinking they were heartwood. Whatever it was this

The Greater Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 287

 

ood man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’ So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith—[193]…he lives in suffering. This bhikkhu is called one vvho has taken the twigs and leaves of the holy life and stopped short with that.

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known/ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He does not become intoxicated with that gain, honour, and renown; he does not grow negligent and fall into negligence. Being diligent, he achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I am virtuous, of good character, but these other bhikkhus are immoral, of evil character.’ He becomes intoxicated with that attainment of virtue, grows negligent, falls into negligence, and being negligent, he lives in suffering.

“Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, its sap-wood, and its inner bark, he would cut off its outer bark and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood…or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heart-wood. . .he cut off its outer bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’ So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith…he lives in suffering. [194] This bhikkhu is called one who has taken the outer bark of the holy life and stopped short with that.

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: 1 am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain.

i 195

grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled…Being diligent, he achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He does not become intoxicated with that attainment of virtue; he does not grow negligent and fall into negligence. Being diligent, he achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I am concentrated, my mind is unified, but these other bhikkhus are unconcentrated, with their minds astray.’ He becomes intoxicated with that attainment of concentration, grows negligent, falls into negligence, and being negligent, he lives in suffering.

“Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood and its sap-wood, he would cut off its inner bark and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood…or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood…he cut off its inner bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’ So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith.. .he lives in suffering. [195] This bhikkhu is called one who has taken the inner bark of the holy life and stopped short with that.

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: 1 am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled…Being diligent, he achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled…Being diligent, he

achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He does not become intoxicated with that attainment of concentration; he does not grow negligent and fall into negligence. Being diligent, he achieves knowledge and vision. 347 He is pleased with that knowledge and vision and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I live knowing and seeing, but these other bhikkhus live unknowing and unseeing.’ He becomes intoxicated with that knowledge and vision, grows negligent, falls into negligence, and being negligent, he lives in suffering,

“Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, he would cut off its sapwood and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood…or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood…he cut off its sapwood and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’ [196] So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith…he lives in suffering. This bhikkhu is called one who has taken the sapwood of the holy life and stopped short with that.

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled…When he is diligent, he achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled…When he is diligent, he achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration, but his intention is not fulfilled…When he is diligent, he achieves knowledge and vision. He is pleased with that knowledge and vision, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud

 

i 197

himself and disparage others. He does not become intoxicated with that knowledge and vision; he does not grow negligent and fall into negligence. Being diligent, he attains perpetual liberation. And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall away from that perpetual deliverance. 348

“Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only its heartwood, he would take it away knowing it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man knew the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, and the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, [197] he came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only its heartwood, he took it away knowing it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will be served.’ So too, bhikkhus, here some clansman goes forth out of faith.. .When he is diligent, he attains perpetual liberation. And it is impossible for that bhikkhu to fall away from that perpetual deliverance.

  1. “So this holy life, bhikkhus, does not have gain, honour, and renown for its benefit, or the attainment of virtue for its benefit, or the attainment of concentration for its benefit, or knowledge and vision for its benefit. But it is this unshakeable deliverance of mind that is the goal of this holy life, its heart-wood, and its end.” 349

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

30 Culasaropama Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood

 

[198] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.

  1. Then the brahmin Pingalakoccha went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the Blessed One:

“Master Gotama, there are these recluses and brahmins, each the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, a well-known and famous founder of a sect regarded by many as a saint – that is, Parana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajita Kesakambalin, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, and the Nigantha Nataputta. 350 Have they all had direct knowledge as they claim, or have none of them had direct knowledge, or have some of them had direct knowledge and some not?”

“Enough, brahmin! Let this be! – ‘Have they all had direct knowledge as they claim, or have none of them had direct knowledge, or have some of them had direct knowledge and some not?’ I shall teach you the Dhamma, brahmin. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” 351

“Yes, sir,” the brahmin Pingalakoccha replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Suppose, brahmin, a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heart-wood, its sapwood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he would cut off its twigs and leaves and take them away thinking they were heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, or the twigs and leaves.

i 199

Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, he came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and passing over its heartwood, its sap-wood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, he cut off its twigs and leaves and took them away thinking they were heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served/

  1. “Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, its sap-wood [199] and its inner bark, he would cut off its outer bark and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood…or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood…he cut off its outer bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’
  2. “Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood and its sap-wood, he would cut off its inner bark and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood…or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood…he cut off its inner bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man, had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’
  3. “Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood. Passing over its heartwood, he would cut off its sapwood and take it away thinking it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man did not know the heartwood…or the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood…he cut off its sapwood and took it away thinking it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not be served.’
  4. “Suppose a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, came to a great tree standing

 

The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 293

possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only its heartwood, he would take it away knowing it was heartwood. Then a man with good sight, seeing him, might say: ‘This good man knew the heartwood, the sapwood, the inner bark, the outer bark, and the twigs and leaves. Thus, while needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, he came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and cutting off only its heartwood, [200] he took it away knowing it was heartwood. Whatever it was this good man had to make with heartwood, his purpose will be served.’

  1. “So too, brahmin, here some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I have gain, honour, and renown, but these other bhikkhus are unknown, of no account.’ So he arouses no desire to act, he makes no effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than gain, honour, and renown; he hangs back and slackens. 352 I say that this person is like the man needing heartwood, who came to a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, and passing over its heart-wood, its sapwood, its inner bark, and its outer bark, cut off its twigs and leaves and took them away thinking they were heart-wood; and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not have been served.
  2. “Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he makes an effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher

 

i 201

and more sublime than gain, honour, and renown; he does not hang back and slacken. He achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I am virtuous, of good character, but these other bhikkhus are immoral, of evil character.’ So he arouses no desire to act, he makes no effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than the attainment of virtue; [201] he hangs back and slackens. I say that this person is like the man needing heartwood…who passing over its heartwood, its sap-wood, and its inner bark, cut off its outer bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood; and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not have been served.

  1. “Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled. He achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he makes an effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than,the attainment of virtue; he does not hang back and slacken. He achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I am concentrated, my mind is unified, but these other bhikkhus are unconcentrated, with their minds astray.’ So he arouses no desire to act, he makes no effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than the attainment of concentration; he hangs back and slackens. I say that this person is like the man needing heart-wood… who passing over its heartwood and its sap wood, cut off its inner bark and took it away thinking it was heartwood; and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not have been served.
  2. “Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith

i 203 Tfc Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 295

from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, [202] of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled…He achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled…He achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account of it, laud himself and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he makes an effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than the attainment of concentration; he does not hang back and slacken. He achieves knowledge and vision. He is pleased with that knowledge and vision and his intention is fulfilled. On account of it he lauds himself and disparages others thus: ‘I live knowing and seeing, but these other bhikkhus live unknowing and unseeing.’ So he arouses no desire to act, he makes no effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision; he hangs back and slackens. I say that this person is like the man needing heartwood…who passing over its heartwood, cut off its sapwood and took it away thinking it was heartwood; and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his purpose will not have been served.

  1. “Here, brahmin, some clansman goes forth out of faith from the home life into homelessness, considering: ‘I am a victim of birth, ageing, and death, of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; I am a victim of suffering, a prey to suffering. Surely an ending of this whole mass of suffering can be known.’ When he has gone forth thus, [203] he acquires gain, honour, and renown. He is not pleased with that gain, honour, and renown, and his intention is not fulfilled… He achieves the attainment of virtue. He is pleased with that attainment of virtue, but his intention is not fulfilled…He achieves the attainment of concentration. He is pleased with that attainment of concentration, but his intention is not fulfilled…He achieves knowledge and vision. He is pleased with that knowledge and vision, but his intention is not fulfilled. He does not, on account

i 204

 

of it, laud himself and disparage others. He arouses desire to act and he makes an effort for the realisation of those other states that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision; he does not hang back and slacken.

“But what, brahmin, are the states that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision?

  1. “Here, brahmin, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. This is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision. 353
  2. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of concentration. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  3. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ This too [204] is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  4. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  5. “Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite’, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  6. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite/ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  7. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite

. 205 The Shorter Discourse on the Simile of the Heartwood 297

consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This too is a state jygher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.

  1. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  2. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. And his taints are destroyed by seeing with wisdom. This too is a state higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision. These are the states that are higher and more sublime than knowledge and vision.
  3. “I say that this person, brahmin, is like a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heart-wood, who came to a great tree standing possessed of heart-wood, and cutting off its heartwood, took it away knowing it was heartwood; and so whatever it was he had to make with heartwood, his purpose will have been served.
  4. “So this holy life, brahmin, does not have gain, honour, and renown for its benefit, or the attainment of virtue for its benefit, or the attainment of concentration for its benefit, or knowledge and vision for its benefit. But it is [205] this unshake-able deliverance of mind that is the goal of this holy life, its heartwood, and its end.”
  5. When this was said, the brahmin Pingalakoccha said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Great Division of Pairs

(Mahayamakavagga)

 

 

31 Culagosinga Sutta The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Nadika in the Brick House.
  2. Now on that occasion the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila were living at the Park of the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood. 354
  3. Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from meditation and went to the Park of the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood. The park keeper saw the Blessed One coming in the distance and told him: “Do not enter this park, recluse. There are three clansmen here seeking their own good. Do not disturb them.”
  4. The venerable Anuruddha heard the park keeper speaking to the Blessed One and told him: “Friend park keeper, do not keep the Blessed One out. It is our Teacher, the Blessed One, who has come.” Then the venerable Anuruddha went to the venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila and said: “Come out, venerable sirs, come out! Our Teacher, [206] the Blessed One, has come.”
  5. Then all three went to meet the Blessed One. One took his bowl and outer robe, one prepared a seat, and one set out water for washing the feet. The Blessed One sat down on the seat made ready and washed his feet. Then those three venerable ones paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side. When they were seated, the Blessed One said to them: “I hope you are all keeping well, Anuruddha, I hope you are all comfortable, I hope you are not having any trouble getting almsfood.”

“We are keeping well. Blessed One, we are comfortable, and we are not having any trouble getting almsfood.”

  1. “I hope, Anuruddha, that you are all living in concord, with mutual appreciation, without disputing, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with kindly eyes.”

i 20 7

1

“Surely, venerable sir, we are living in concord, with mutual appreciation, without disputing, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with kindly eyes.”

“But, Anuruddha, how do you live thus?”

  1. “Venerable sir, as to that, I think thus: ‘It is a gain for me, it is a great gain for me, that I am living with such companions in the holy life.’ I maintain bodily acts of loving-kindness towards those venerable ones both openly and privately; I maintain verbal acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately; I maintain mental acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately. 355 I consider: ‘Why should I not [207] set aside what I wish to do and do what these venerable ones wish to do?’ Then I set aside what I wish to do and do what these venerable ones wish to do. We are different in body, venerable sir, but one in mind.”

The venerable Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila each spoke likewise, adding: “That is how, venerable sir, we are living in concord, with mutual appreciation, without disputing, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with kindly eyes.”

  1. “Good, good, Anuruddha. I hope that you all abide diligent,

I ardent, and resolute.”

“Surely, venerable sir, we abide diligent, ardent, and resolute.”

I “But, Anuruddha, how do you abide thus?”

| 9. “Venerable sir, as to that, whichever of us returns first from

I the village with almsfood prepares the seats, sets out the water for

I drinking and for washing, and puts the refuse bucket in its place,

j Whichever of us returns last eats any food left over, if he wishes;

| otherwise he throws it away where there is no greenery or drops

it into water where there is no life. He puts away the seats and the water for drinking and for washing. He puts away the refuse bucket after washing it and he sweeps out the refectory. Whoever notices that the pots of water for drinking, washing, or the latrine are low or empty takes care of them. If they are too heavy for him, he calls someone else by a signal of the hand and they move it by joining hands, but because of this we do not break out into speech. But every five days we sit together all night discussing the Dhamma. That is how we abide diligent, ardent, and resolute.”

  1. “Good, good, Anuruddha. But while you abide thus diligent, ardent, and resolute, have you attained any superhuman

The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga 303

state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding?”

“Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we want, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, we enter upon and abide in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. Venerable sir, this is a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which we have attained while abiding diligent, ardent, and resolute.”

11-13. “Good, good, Anuruddha. But is there any other superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which you have attained by surmounting that abiding, [208] by making that abiding subside?”

“Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we want, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, we enter upon and abide in the second jhana…With the fading away as well of rapture…we enter upon and abide in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…we enter upon and abide in the fourth jhana.. .Venerable sir, this is another superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which we have attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that abiding subside.”

  1. “Good, good, Anuruddha. But is there any other superhuman state…which you have attained by surmounting that abiding, by making that abiding subside?”

“Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we want, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ [209] we enter upon and abide in the base of infinite space. Venerable sir, this is another superhuman state…which we have attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that abiding subside.”

15-17. “Good, good, Anuruddha. But is there any other superhuman state…which you have attained by surmounting that abiding, by making that abiding subside?”

“Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we want, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space.

i 210

aware that ‘consciousness is infinite/, we enter upon and abide in the base of infinite consciousness…By completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing/ we enter upon and abide in the base of nothingness…By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, we enter upon and abide in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Venerable sir, this is another superhuman state.. .which we have attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that abiding subside.”

  1. “Good, good Anuruddha. But is there any other superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which you have attained by surmounting that abiding, by making that abiding subside?”

“Why not, venerable sir? Here, venerable sir, whenever we want, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, we enter upon and abide in the cessation of perception and feeling. And our taints are destroyed by our seeing with wisdom. Venerable sir, this is another superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, a comfortable abiding, which we have attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that abiding subside. And, venerable sir, we do not see any other comfortable abiding higher or more sublime than this one.”

“Good, good Anuruddha. There is no other comfortable abiding higher or more sublime than that one.”

  1. Then, when the Blessed One had instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila with a talk on the Dhamma, he rose from his seat and departed.
  2. After they had accompanied the Blessed One a little way and turned back again, the venerable [210] Nandiya and the venerable Kimbila asked the venerable Anuruddha: “Have we ever reported to the venerable Anuruddha that we have obtained those abidings and attainments that the venerable Anuruddha, in the Blessed One’s presence, ascribed to us up to the destruction of the taints?”

“The venerable ones have never reported to me that they have obtained those abidings and attainments. Yet by encompassing the venerable ones’ minds with my own mind, I know that they have obtained those abidings and attainments. And deities have

 

The Shorter Discourse in Gosinga 305

 

a l s o reported to me: ‘These venerable ones have obtained those abidings and attainments/ Then I declared it when directly questioned by the Blessed One.”

  1. Then the spirit Dlgha Parajana 356 went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to the Blessed One, he stood at one side and said: “It is a gain for the Vajjians, venerable sir, a great gain for the Vajjian people that the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, dwells among them and these three clansmen, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila!” On hearing the exclamation of the spirit Dlgha Parajana, the earth gods exclaimed: “It is a gain for the Vajjians, a great gain for the Vajjian people that the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, dwells among them and these three clansmen, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila!” On hearing the exclamation of the earth gods, the gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings…the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three…the Yama gods…the gods of the Tusita heaven…the gods who delight in creating…the gods who wield power over others’ creations…the gods of Brahma’s retinue exclaimed: “It is a gain for the Vajjians, a great gain for the Vajjian people that the Tathagata, accomplished and fully enlightened, dwells among them and these three clansmen, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Nandiya, and the venerable Kimbila!” Thus at that instant, at that moment, those venerable ones were known as far as the Brahma-world.
  2. [The Blessed One said:] “So it is, Dlgha, so it is! And if the clan from which those three clansmen went forth from the home life into homelessness should remember them with confident heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of that clan for a long time. And if the retinue of the clan from which those three clansmen went forth [211]…the village from which they went forth…the town from which they went forth…the city from which they went forth…the country from which those three clansmen went forth from the home life into homelessness should remember them with confident heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of that country for a long time. If all nobles should remember those three clansmen with confident heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of the nobles for a long time. If all brahmins…all merchants…all workers

i 211

should remember those three clansmen with confident heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of the workers for a long time. If the world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, should remember those three clansmen with confident heart, that would lead to the welfare and happiness of the world for a long time. See, Dlgha, how those three clansmen are practising for the welfare and happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare and happiness of gods and humans.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The spirit Dlgha Parajana was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

32 Mahagosinga Sutta The Greater Discourse in Gosinga

 

[212] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Park of the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood together with a number of very well-known elder disciples – the venerable Sariputta, the venerable Maha Moggallana, the venerable Maha Kassapa, the venerable Anuruddha, the venerable Revata, the venerable Ananda, and other very well-known elder disciples.

  1. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Maha Moggallana rose from meditation, went to the venerable Maha Kassapa, and said to him: “Friend Kassapa, let us go to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma.” – “Yes, friend,” the venerable Maha Kassapa replied. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana, the venerable Maha Kassapa, and the venerable Anuruddha went to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma.
  2. The venerable Ananda saw them going to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma. Thereupon he went to the venerable Revata and said to him: “Friend Revata, those true men are going to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma. Let us also go to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma.” – “Yes, friend,” the venerable Revata replied. Then the venerable Revata and the venerable Ananda went to the venerable Sariputta to listen to the Dhamma.
  3. Tire venerable Sariputta saw the venerable Revata and the venerable Ananda coming in the distance and said to the venerable Ananda: “Let the venerable Ananda come, welcome to the venerable Ananda, the Blessed One’s attendant, who is always in the Blessed One’s presence. Friend Ananda, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful, the night is moonlit, the sala trees are all in blossom, and heavenly scents seem to be floating in the air. What kind of bhikkhu, friend Ananda, could illuminate the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?”

i 213

“Here, friend [213] Sariputta, a bhikkhu has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned. Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and which affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure – such teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, mastered verbally, investigated with the mind, and penetrated well by view. And he teaches the Dhamma to the four assemblies with well-rounded and coherent statements and phrases for the eradication of the underlying tendencies. 357 That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the venerable Revata thus: “Friend Revata, the venerable Ananda has spoken according to his own inspiration. 358 Now we ask the venerable Revata: Friend Revata, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful, the night is moonlit, the sala trees are all in blossom, and heavenly scents seem to be floating in the air. What kind of bhikkhu, friend Revata, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?”

“Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu delights in solitary meditation and takes delight in solitary meditation; he is devoted to internal serenity of mind, does not neglect meditation, possesses insight, and dwells in empty huts. 359 That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the venerable Anuruddha thus: “Friend Anuruddha, the venerable Revata has spoken according to his own inspiration. Now we ask the venerable Anuruddha: Friend Anuruddha, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful…What kind of bhikkhu, friend Anuruddha, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?”

“Here, friend Sariputta, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, a bhikkhu surveys a thousand worlds. Just as a man with good sight, when he has ascended to the upper palace chamber, might survey a thousand wheel-rims, so too, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, a bhikkhu surveys a thousand worlds. 360 That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the venerable Maha Kassapa thus: “Friend Kassapa, the venerable Anuruddha has spoken according to his own inspiration. Now

The Greater Discourse in Gosinga 309

we a sk the venerable Maha Kassapa: Friend Kassapa, the Gosinga gala-tree Wood is delightful…What kind of bhikkhu, friend Kassapa, [214] could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?”

“Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu is a forest dweller himself and speaks in praise of forest dwelling; he is an almsfood eater himself and speaks in praise of eating almsfood; he is a refuse-rag wearer himself and speaks in praise of wearing refuse-rag robes; he is a triple-robe wearer himself and speaks in praise of wearing the triple robe; 361 he has few wishes himself and speaks in praise of fewness of wishes; he is content himself and speaks in praise of contentment; he is secluded himself and speaks in praise of seclusion; he is aloof from society himself and speaks in praise of aloofness from society; he is energetic himself and speaks in praise of arousing energy; he has attained to virtue himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of virtue; he has attained to concentration himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of concentration; he has attained to wisdom himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of wisdom; he has attained to deliverance himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of deliverance; he has attained to the knowledge and vision of deliverance himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of the knowledge and vision of deliverance. That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta addressed the venerable Maha Moggallana thus: “Friend Moggallana, the venerable Maha Kassapa has spoken according to his own inspiration. Now we ask the venerable Maha Moggallana: Friend Moggallana, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful…What kind of bhikkhu, friend Moggallana, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?”

 

  1. When this was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana addressed the venerable Sariputta thus: “Friend Sariputta, we have all spoken according to our own inspiration. Now we ask the venerable Sariputta: Friend Sariputta, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful, the night is moonlit, the sala trees are all in

i 216

blossom, and heavenly scents seem to be floating in the air. What kind of bhikkhu, friend Sariputta, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?”

“Here, friend Moggallana, a bhikkhu wields mastery over his mind, he does not let the mind wield mastery over him. In the morning he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants [215] to abide in during the morning; at mid-day he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in at mid-day; in the evening he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in during the evening. Suppose a king or a king’s minister had a chest full of variously coloured garments. In the morning he could put on whatever pair of garments he wanted to put on in the morning; at mid-day he could put on whatever pair of garments he wanted to put on at mid-day; in the evening he could put on whatever pair of garments he wanted to put on in the evening. So too, a bhikkhu wields mastery over his mind, he does not let the mind wield mastery over him. In the morning…at mid-day…in the evening he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in during the evening. That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.”

  1. Then the venerable Sariputta addressed those venerable ones thus: “Friends, we have all spoken according to our own inspiration. Let us go to the Blessed One and report this matter to him. As the Blessed One answers, so let us remember it.” -“Yes, friend,” they replied. Then those venerable ones went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down at one side. The venerable Sariputta said to the Blessed One:
  2. “Venerable sir, the venerable Revata and the venerable Ananda came to me to listen to the Dhamma. I saw them coming in the distance and [216] said to the venerable Ananda: ‘Let the venerable Ananda come, welcome to the venerable Ananda…Friend Ananda, the Gosinga Sala-tree Wood is delightful. ..What kind of bhikkhu, friend Ananda, could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?’ When asked, venerable sir, the venerable Ananda replied: ‘Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu has learned much… (as in §4 ),..That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood/”

“Good, good, Sariputta. Ananda, speaking rightly, should speak just as he did. For Ananda has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned.

The Greater Discourse in Gosinga 311

*218

Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and ^rhich affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure – such teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, mastered verbally, investigated with the mind, and penetrated well by view. And he teaches the Dhamma to the four assemblies with well-rounded and coherent statements and phrases for the eradication of the underlying tendencies.”

  1. “When this was said, venerable sir, I addressed the venerable Revata thus: ‘Friend Revata…What kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?’ And the venerable Revata replied: ‘Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu delights in solitary meditation …(as in §5 )…That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'”

“Good, good, Sariputta. Revata, speaking rightly, should speak just as he did. For Revata delights in solitary meditation, takes delight in solitary meditation, is devoted to internal serenity of mind, does not neglect meditation, possesses insight, and dwells in empty huts.” [217]

  1. “When that was said, venerable sir, I addressed the venerable Anuruddha thus: ‘Friend Anuruddha…What kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?’ And the venerable Anuruddha replied: ‘Here, friend Sariputta, with the divine eye…(as in §6 )…That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'”

“Good, good, Sariputta. Anuruddha, speaking rightly, should speak just as he did. For with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, Anuruddha surveys a thousand worlds.”

  1. “When this was said, venerable sir, I addressed the venerable Maha Kassapa thus: ‘Friend Kassapa…What kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?’ And the venerable Maha Kassapa replied: ‘Here, friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu is a forest-dweller himself…(as in §7 )…That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'” [218]

“Good, good, Sariputta. Kassapa, speaking rightly, should speak just as he did. For Kassapa is a forest-dweller himself and speaks in praise of forest dwelling.. .he has attained to the knowledge and vision of deliverance himself and speaks in praise of the attainment of the knowledge and vision of deliverance.”

i 219

  1. “When this was said, venerable sir, I addressed the venerable Maha Moggallana thus: ‘Friend Moggallana… What kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?’ And the venerable Maha Moggallana replied: ‘Here, friend Sariputta, two bhikkhus engage in a talk on the higher Dhamma…(as in §8 )…That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.'”

“Good, good, Sariputta. Moggallana, speaking rightly, should speak just as he did. For Moggallana is one who talks on the Dhamma.”

  1. When that was said, the venerable Maha Moggallana told the Blessed One: “Then, venerable sir, I addressed the venerable Sariputta thus: ‘Friend Sariputta…What kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood?’ And the venerable Sariputta replied: ‘Here, friend Moggallana, a bhikkhu wields mastery over his mind…[219] (as in §9 )…’That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood,”‘

“Good, good, Moggallana. Sariputta, speaking rightly, should speak just as he did. For Sariputta wields mastery over his mind, he does not let the mind wield mastery over him. In the morning he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in during the morning; at mid-day he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in at mid-day; in the evening he abides in whatever abiding or attainment he wants to abide in during the evening.”

  1. When this was said, the venerable Sariputta asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, which of us has spoken well?”

“You have all spoken well, Sariputta, each in his own way. Hear also from me what kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood. Here, Sariputta, when a bhikkhu has returned from his almsround, after his meal, he sits down, folds his legs crosswise, sets his body erect, and establishing mindfulness in front of him, resolves: ‘I shall not break this sitting position until through not clinging my mind is liberated from the taints.’ That kind of bhikkhu could illuminate this Gosinga Sala-tree Wood.” 363

That is what the Blessed One said. Those venerable ones were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

33 Mahagopalaka Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd

 

[220] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” -“Venerable sir/’ they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, when a cowherd possesses eleven factors, he is incapable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle. What eleven? Here a cowherd has no knowledge of form, he is unskilled in characteristics, he fails to pick out flies’ eggs, he fails to dress wounds, he fails to smoke out the sheds, he does not know the watering place, he does not know what it is to have drunk, he does not know the road, he is unskilled in pastures, he milks dry, and he shows no extra veneration to those bulls who are fathers and leaders of the herd. When a cowherd possesses these eleven factors, he is incapable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle.
  2. “So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu possesses eleven qualities, he is incapable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline. What eleven? Here a bhikkhu has no knowledge of form, he is unskilled in characteristics, he fails to pick out flies’ eggs, he fails to dress wounds, he fails to smoke out the sheds, he does not know the watering place, he does not know what it is to have drunk, he does not know the road, he is unskilled in pastures, he milks dry, and he shows no extra veneration to those elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha.
  3. “How has a bhikkhu no knowledge of form? Here a bhikkhu does not understand as it actually is thus: ‘All material form of whatever kind consists of the four great elements and the material form derived from the four great elements.’ That is how a bhikkhu has no knowledge of form.
  4. “How is a bhikkhu unskilled in characteristics? Here a bhikkhu does not understand as it actually is thus: ‘A fool is characterised by his actions; a wise man is characterised by his actions/ That is how a bhikkhu is unskilled in characteristics. 364
  5. “How does a bhikkhu fail to pick out flies 7 eggs? Here, when a thought of sensual desire has arisen, a bhikkhu tolerates it; he does not abandon it, remove it, do away with it, and annihilate it. When a thought of ill will has arisen…When a thought of cruelty has arisen…When evil unwholesome states have arisen, a bhikkhu tolerates them; [221] he does not abandon them, remove them, do away with them, and annihilate them. That is how a bhikkhu fails to pick out flies’ eggs.
  6. “How does a bhikkhu fail to dress wounds? Here, on seeing a form with the eye, a bhikkhu grasps at its signs and features. Even though, when he leaves the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he does not practise the way of its restraint, he does not guard the eye faculty, he does not undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose.. .On tasting a flavour with the tongue.. .On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he grasps at its signs and features. Even though, when he leaves the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he does not practise the way of its restraint, he does not guard the mind faculty, he does not undertake the restraint of the mind faculty. That is how a bhikkhu fails to dress wounds.
  7. “How does a bhikkhu fail to smoke out the sheds? Here a bhikkhu does not teach others in detail the Dhamma as he has learned it and mastered it. That is how a bhikkhu fails to smoke out the sheds.
  8. “How does a bhikkhu not know the watering place? Here a bhikkhu does not go from time to time to those bhikkhus who have learned much, who are well versed in the tradition, who maintain the Dhamma, the Discipline, and the Codes, 365 and he does not enquire and ask questions of them thus: ‘How is this, venerable sir? What is the meaning of this?’ These venerable ones do not reveal to him what has not been revealed, do not clarify what is not clear, or remove his doubts about the numerous things that give rise to doubt. That is how a bhikkhu does

The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd 315

not know the watering place.

  1. “How does a bhikkhu not know what it is to have drunk? Here, when the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata is being taught, a bhikkhu does not gain inspiration in the meaning, does not gain inspiration in the Dhamma, does not gain gladness connected with the Dhamma. 366 That is how a bhikkhu does not know what it is to have drunk.
  2. “How does a bhikkhu not know the road? Here a bhikkhu does not understand the Noble Eightfold Path as it actually is. That is how a bhikkhu does not know the road.
  3. “How is a bhikkhu unskilled in pastures? Here a bhikkhu does not understand the four foundations of mindfulness as they actually are. That is how [222] a bhikkhu is unskilled in pastures. 367
  4. “How does a bhikkhu milk dry? Here, when faithful householders invite a bhikkhu to take as much as he likes of robes, almsfood, resting places, and medicinal requisites, the bhikkhu does not know moderation in accepting. That is how a bhikkhu milks dry.
  5. “How does a bhikkhu show no extra veneration to those elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha? Here a bhikkhu does not maintain bodily acts of loving-kindness both openly and privately towards those elder bhikkhus; he does not maintain verbal acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately; he does not maintain mental acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately. That is how a bhikkhu shows no extra veneration to those elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha.

“When a bhikkhu possesses these eleven qualities, he is incapable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline.

  1. “Bhikkhus, when a cowherd possesses eleven factors, he is capable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle. What eleven? Here a cowherd has knowledge of form, he is skilled in characteristics, he picks out flies’ eggs, he dresses wounds, he smokes out the sheds, he knows the watering place, he knows what it is to have drunk, he knows the road, he is skilled in pastures, he does not milk dry, and he shows extra veneration to those bulls who are fathers and leaders of the herd. When a cowherd

i 223

possesses these eleven factors, he is capable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle.

  1. “So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu possesses these eleven qualities, he is capable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline. What eleven? Here a bhikkhu has knowledge of form, he is skilled in characteristics, he picks out flies’ eggs, he dresses wounds, he smokes out the sheds, he knows the watering place, he knows what it is to have drunk, he knows the road, he is skilled in pastures, he does not milk dry, and he shows extra veneration to those elder bhikkhus of longstanding who have long since gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha.
  2. “How does a bhikkhu have knowledge of form? Here a bhikkhu understands as it actually is thus: ‘AH material form of whatever kind consists of the four [223] great elements and the material form derived from the four great elements/ That is how a bhikkhu has knowledge of form.
  3. “How is a bhikkhu skilled in characteristics? Here a bhikkhu understands as it actually is thus: ‘A fool is characterised by his actions; a wise man is characterised by his actions/ That is how a bhikkhu is skilled in characteristics.
  4. “How does a bhikkhu pick out flies’ eggs? Here, when a thought of sensual desire has arisen, a bhikkhu does not tolerate it; he abandons it, removes it, does away with it, and annihilates it. When a thought of ill will has arisen…When a thought of cruelty has arisen…When evil unwholesome states have arisen, a bhikkhu does not tolerate them; he abandons them, removes them, does away with them, and annihilates them. That is how a bhikkhu picks out flies’ eggs.
  5. “How does a bhikkhu dress wounds? Here, on seeing a form with the eye, a bhikkhu does not grasp at its signs and features. Since if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear.. .On smelling an odour with the nose… On tasting a flavour with the tongue…On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, a bhikkhu does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness

The Greater Discourse on the Cowherd 317

i 224

an d grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, ke guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. That is how a bhikkhu dresses wounds.

  1. “How does a bhikkhu smoke out the sheds? Here a bhikkhu teaches others in detail the Dhamma as he has learned it and mastered it. That is how a bhikkhu smokes out the sheds.
  2. “How does a bhikkhu know the watering place? Here a bhikkhu goes from time to time to such bhikkhus who have learned much, who are well versed in the tradition, who maintain the Dhamma, the Discipline, and the Codes, and he enquires and asks questions of them thus: ‘How is this, venerable sir? What is the meaning of this?’ These venerable ones reveal to him what has not been revealed, clarify what is not clear, and remove his doubts about the numerous things that give rise to doubt. That is how a bhikkhu knows the watering place.
  3. “How does [224] a bhikkhu know what it is to have drunk? Here, when the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata is being taught, a bhikkhu gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. That is how a bhikkhu knows what it is to have drunk.
  4. “How does a bhikkhu know the road? Here a bhikkhu understands the Noble Eightfold Path as it actually is. That is how a bhikkhu understands the road.
  5. “How is a bhikkhu skilled in pastures? Here a bhikkhu understands the four foundations of mindfulness as they actually are. That is how a bhikkhu is skilled in pastures.
  6. “How does a bhikkhu not milk dry? Here, when faithful householders invite a bhikkhu to take as much as he likes of robes, almsfood, resting places, and medicinal requisites, the bhikkhu knows moderation in accepting. That is how a bhikkhu does not milk dry.
  7. “How does a bhikkhu show extra veneration to those elder bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha? Here a bhikkhu maintains bodily acts of loving-kindness both openly and privately towards those elder bhikkhus; he maintains verbal acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately; he maintains mental acts of loving-kindness towards them both openly and privately. That is how a bhikkhu shows extra veneration to those elder

i 224

bhikkhus of long-standing who have long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha.

“When a bhikkhu possesses these eleven qualities, he is capable of growth, increase, and fulfilment in this Dhamma and Discipline.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

34 Culagopalaka Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd

 

[225] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Vajjian country at Ukkacela on the banks of the river Ganges. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, there was once a foolish Magadhan cowherd who, in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, without examining the near shore or the further shore of the river Ganges, drove his cattle across to the other shore in the Videhan country at a place that had no ford. Then the cattle bunched together in mid-stream in the river Ganges, and they met with calamity and disaster. Why was that? Because that foolish Magadhan cowherd, in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, without examining the near shore or the further shore of the river Ganges, drove his cattle across to the other shore in the Videhan country at a place that had no ford.
  2. “So too, bhikkhus, as to those recluses and brahmins who are unskilled in this world and the other world, unskilled in Mara’s realm and what is outside Mara’s realm, unskilled in the realm of Death and what is outside the realm of Death – it will lead to the harm and suffering for a long time of those who think they should listen to them and place faith in them.
  3. “Bhikkhus, there was once a wise Magadhan cowherd who, in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, after examining the near shore and the further shore of the river Ganges, drove his cattle across to the other shore in the Videhan country at a place that had a ford. He made the bulls, the fathers and leaders of the herd, enter first, and they breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. He made the strong cattle and the cattle to be tamed enter next, and they

i226

too breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. He made the heifers and young oxen enter next, and they too breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. He made the calves and the feeble cattle enter next, and they too breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. At the time there was a tender calf just born, and being urged on by its mother’s lowing, it too breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore. Why was that? Because that wise Magadhan cowherd, [226] in the last month of the rainy season, in the autumn, after examining the near shore and the further shore of the river Ganges, drove his cattle across to the other shore in the Videhan country at a place that had a ford.

  1. “So too, bhikkhus, as to those recluses and brahmins who are skilled in this world and the other world, skilled in Mara’s realm and what is outside Mara’s realm, skilled in the realm of Death and what is outside the realm of Death – it will lead to the welfare and happiness for a long time of those who think they should listen to them and place faith in them.
  2. “Bhikkhus, just as the bulls, the fathers and leaders of the herd, breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who are arahants with taints destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and are completely liberated through final knowledge – by breasting Mara’s stream they have gotten safely across to the further shore.
  3. “Just as the strong cattle and the cattle to be tamed breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who, with the destruction of the five lower fetters, will reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning from that world – by breasting Mara’s stream they will get safely across to the further shore.
  4. “Just as the heifers and young oxen breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who, with the destruction of three fetters and with the attenuation of lust, hate, and delusion, are once-returners, returning once to this world to make an end of suffering – by breasting Mara’s stream they too will get safely across to the fur-

The Shorter Discourse on the Cowherd 321

ther shore.

  1. “Just as the calves and the feeble cattle breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who, with the destruction of three fetters, are stream-enterers, no longer subject to perdition, bound [for deliverance!, headed for enlightenment – by breasting Mara’s stream they too will get safely across to the further shore.
  2. “Just as that tender calf just born, being urged on by its mother’s lowing, also breasted the stream of the Ganges and got safely across to the further shore, so too, those bhikkhus who are Dhamma-followers and faith-followers – by breasting Mara’s stream they too will get safely across to the further shore. 368
  3. “Bhikkhus, I am [227] skilled in this world and in the other world, skilled in Mara’s realm and in what is outside Mara’s realm, skilled in the realm of Death and in what is outside the realm of Death. It will lead to the welfare and happiness for a long time of those who think they should listen to me and place faith in me.”
  4. That is what the Blessed One said. When the Sublime One had said that, the Teacher said further.

“Both this world and the world beyond Are well described by the one who knows.

And what is still in Mara’s reach And what is out of reach of Death.

Knowing directly all the world.

The Enlightened One who understands Opened the door to the deathless state By which Nibbana may be safely reached;

For Mara’s stream is breasted now.

Its current blocked, its reeds removed;

Rejoice then, bhikkhus, mightily And set your hearts where safety lies.”

 

 

35 Culasaccaka Sutta The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Vesall in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof.
  2. Now on that occasion Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was staying at Vesall, a debater and a clever speaker regarded by many as a saint. 369 He was making this statement before the Vesall assembly: “I see no recluse or brahmin, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, even one claiming to be accomplished and fully enlightened, who would not shake, shiver, and tremble, and sweat under the armpits if he were to engage in debate with me. Even if I were to engage a senseless post in debate, it would shake, shiver, and tremble if it were to engage in debate with me, so what shall I say of a human being?”
  3. Then, when it was morning, the venerable Assaji dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Vesall for alms. 370 As Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was walking and wandering for exercise in Vesall, [228] he saw the venerable Assaji coming in the distance and went up’ to him and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son stood at one side and said to him:
  4. “Master Assaji, how does the recluse Gotama discipline his disciples? And how is the recluse Gotama’s instruction usually presented to his disciples?”

“This is how the Blessed One disciplines his disciples, Aggi-vessana, and this is how the Blessed One’s instruction is usually presented to his disciples: ‘Bhikkhus, material form is impermanent, feeling is impermanent, perception is impermanent, formations are impermanent, consciousness is impermanent. Bhikkhus, material form is not self, feeling is not self, perception is not self, formations are not self, consciousness is not self. All formations are impermanent; all things are not self.’ 371 That is how the

The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 323

‘ i 229

Blessed One disciplines his disciples, and that is how the Blessed One’s instruction is usually presented to his disciples.”

“If this is what the recluse Gotama asserts, we hear indeed what is disagreeable. Perhaps sometime or other we might meet Master Gotama and have some conversation with him. Perhaps we might detach him from that evil view.”

  1. Now at that time five hundred Licchavis had met together in an assembly hall for some business or other. Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son went to them and said: “Come forth, good Licchavis, come forth! Today there will be some conversation between me and the recluse Gotama. If the recluse Gotama maintains before me what was maintained before me by one of his famous disciples, the bhikkhu named Assaji, then just as a strong man might seize a long-haired ram by the hair and drag him to and drag him fro and drag him round about, so in debate I will drag the recluse Gotama to and drag him fro and drag him round about. Just as a strong brewer’s workman might throw a big brewer’s sieve into a deep water tank, and taking it by the corners, drag it to and drag it fro and drag it round about, so in debate I will drag the recluse Gotama to and drag him fro and drag him round about. Just as a strong brewer’s mixer [229] might take a strainer by the corners and shake it down and shake it up and thump it about, so in debate I will shake the recluse Gotama down and shake him up and thump him about. And just as a sixty-year-old elephant might plunge into a deep pond and enjoy playing the game of hemp-washing, so I shall enjoy playing the game of hemp-washing with the recluse Gotama. 372 Come forth, good Licchavis, come forth! Today there will be some conversation between me and the reduse Gotama.”
  2. Thereupon some Licchavis said: “How can the recluse Gotama refute Saccaka the Nigantha’s son’s assertions? On the contrary, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son will refute the recluse Gotama’s assertions.” And some Licchavis said: “Who is Saccaka the Nigantha’s son that he could refute the Blessed One’s assertions? On the contrary, the Blessed One will refute Saccaka the Nigantha’s son’s assertions.” Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son went with five hundred Licchavis to the Hall with the Peaked Roof in the Great Wood.
  3. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were walking up and down in the open. Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son

i 230

went up to them and asked: “Where is Master Gotama staying now, sirs? We want to see Master Gotama.”

“The Blessed One has entered the Great Wood, Aggivessana, and is sitting at the root of a tree for the day’s abiding.”

  1. Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son, together with a large following of Licchavis, entered the Great Wood and went to the Blessed One. He exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and after this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at one side. Some of the Licchavis paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some exchanged greetings with him, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at one side; some extended their hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some pronounced their name and clan in the Blessed One’s presence and sat down at one side; some kept silent and sat down at one side.
  2. When Saccaka the Nigantha’s son had sat down, he said to the Blessed One: “I would like to question Master Gotama on a certain point, if Master Gotama would grant me the favour of an answer to the question.”

“Ask what you like, Aggivessarta.” [230]

“How does Master Gotama discipline his disciples? And how is Master Gotama’s instruction usually presented to his disciples?”

“This is how I discipline my disciples, Aggivessana, and this is how my instruction is usually presented to my disciples: ‘Bhikkhus, material form is impermanent, feeling is impermanent, perception is impermanent, formations are impermanent, consciousness is impermanent. Bhikkhus, material form is not self, feeling is not self, perception is not self, formations are not self, consciousness is not self. All formations are impermanent; all things are not self.’ That is the way I discipline my disciples, and that is how my instruction is usually presented to my disciples.”

  1. “A simile occurs to me. Master Gotama.”

“Explain how it occurs to you, Aggivessana,” the Blessed One said.

“Just as when seeds and plants, whatever their kind, reach growth, increase, and maturation, all do so in dependence upon the earth, based upon the earth; and just as when strenuous works, whatever their kind, are done, all are done in dependence upon the earth, based upon the earth – so too. Master

 

Gotama, a person has material form as self, and based upon material form he produces merit or demerit. A person has feeling a s self, and based upon feeling he produces merit or demerit. A person has perception as self, and based upon perception he produces merit or demerit. A person has formations as self, and based upon formations he produces merit or demerit. A person has consciousness as self, and based upon consciousness he produces merit or demerit.”

  1. “Aggivessana, are you not asserting thus: ‘Material form is my self, feeling is my self, perception is my self, formations are my self, consciousness is my self’?”

“I assert thus. Master Gotama: ‘Material form is my self, feeling is my self, perception is my self, formations are my self, consciousness is my self.’ And so does this great multitude.” 373

“What has this great multitude to do with you, Aggivessana? Please confine yourself to your own assertion alone.”

“Then, Master Gotama, I assert thus: ‘Material form is my self, feeling is my self, perception is my self, formations are my self, consciousness is my self.'” j

  1. “In that case, Aggivessana, I shall ask you a question in return. Answer it as you choose. [231] What do you think, Aggivessana? Would a head-anointed noble king – for example, King Pasenadi of Kosala or King Ajatasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha – exercise the power in his own realm to execute those who should be executed, to fine those who should be fined, and to banish those who should be banished?”

“Master Gotama, a head-anointed noble king – for example. King Pasenadi of Kosala or King Ajatasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha – would exercise the power in his own realm to execute those who should be executed, to fine those who should be fined, and to banish those who should be banished. For even these [oligarchic] communities and societies such as the Vajjians and the Mallians exercise the power in their own realm to execute those who should be executed, to fine those who should be fined, and to banish those who should be banished; so all tire more so should a head-anointed noble king such as King Pasenadi of Kosala or King Ajatasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha. He would exercise it. Master Gotama, and he would be worthy to exercise it.”

  1. “What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: Material form is my self,’ do you exercise any such power over

 

i 232

that material form as to say: ‘Let my form be thus; let my form 1 not be thus’?” 374 When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was silent.

A second time the Blessed One asked the same question, and a second time Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was silent. Then the Blessed One said to him: “Aggivessana, answer now. Now is not the time to be silent. If anyone, when asked a reasonable question up to the third time by the Tathagata, still does not answer, his head splits into seven pieces there and then.”

  1. Now on that occasion a thunderbolt-wielding spirit holding an iron thunderbolt that burned, blazed, and glowed, appeared in the air above Saccaka the Nigantha’s son, thinking:

“If this Saccaka the Nigantha’s son, when asked a reasonable question up to the third time by the Blessed One, still does not answer, I shall split his head into seven pieces here and now.” 375 The Blessed One saw the thunderbolt-wielding spirit and so did Saccaka the Nigantha’s son. Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was frightened, alarmed, and terrified. [232] Seeking his shelter, asylum, and refuge in the Blessed One, he said: “Ask me. Master Gotama, I will answer.”

  1. “What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: ‘Material form is my self,’ do you exercise any such power over that material form as to say: ‘Let my form be thus; let my form not be thus’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”
  2. “Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: ‘Feeling is my self,’ do you exercise any power over that feeling as to say: ‘Let my feeling be thus; let my feeling not be thus’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”
  3. “Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: ‘Perception is my self,’ do you exercise any power over that perception as to say; ‘Let my perception be thus; let my perception not be thus’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”
  4. “Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said

The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 327

afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what oU said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you ga y thus: ‘Formations are my self/ do you exercise any such power over those formations as to say: ‘Let my formations be thus; let my formations not be thus’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”

  1. “Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say thus: ‘Consciousness is my self/ do you exercise any such power over that consciousness as to say: ‘Let my consciousness be thus; let my consciousness not be thus’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”
  2. “Pay attention, Aggivessana, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. What do you think, Aggivessana, is material form permanent or impermanent?” – “Impermanent, Master Gotama.” – “Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?” – “Suffering, Master Gotama.” – “Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, [233] this is my self’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”

“What do you think, Aggivessana? Is feeling permanent or impermanent?…Is perception permanent or impermanent?… Are formations permanent or impermanent?…Is consciousness permanent or impermanent?” – “Impermanent, Master Gotama.” – “Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?” -“Suffering, Master Gotama.” – “Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self’?” – “No, Master Gotama.”

  1. “What do you think, Aggivessana? When one adheres to suffering, resorts to suffering, holds to suffering, and regards what is suffering thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self/ could one ever fully understand suffering oneself or abide with suffering utterly destroyed?”

“How could one. Master Gotama? No, Master Gotama.”

*”What do you think, Aggivessana? That being so, do you not adhere to suffering, resort to suffering, hold to suffering, and regard what is suffering thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self’?”

i 234

“How could I not. Master Gotama? Yes, Master Gotama.”* 376

  1. “It is as though a. man needing heartwood, seeking heart-wood, wandering in search of heartwood, were to take a sharp axe and enter the wood, and there he would see a large plantain trunk, straight, young, with no fruit-bud core. Then he would cut it down at the root, cut off the crown, and unroll the leaf-sheaths; but as he went on unrolling the leaf sheaths, he would never come even to any sapwood, let alone heartwood. So too, Aggivessana, when you are pressed, questioned, and cross-questioned by me about your own assertion, you turn out to be empty, vacant, and mistaken. But it was you who made this statement before the Vesali assembly: ‘I see no recluse or brahmin, the head of an order, the head of a group, the teacher of a group, even one claiming to be accomplished and fully enlightened, who would not shake, shiver, and tremble and sweat under the armpits if he were to engage in debate with me. Even if I were to engage a senseless post in debate, it would shake, shiver, and tremble if it were to engage in debate with me, so what shall I say of a human being?’ Now there are drops of sweat on your forehead and they have soaked through your upper robe and fallen to the ground. But there is no sweat on my body now.” And the Blessed One uncovered his golden-coloured body before the assembly. [234] When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son sat silent, dismayed, with shoulders drooping and head down, glum, and without response.
  2. Then Dummukha, the son of the Licchavis, seeing Saccaka the Nigantha’s son in such a condition, said to the Blessed One: “A simile occurs to me, Master Gotama.”

“Explain how it occurs to you, Dummukha.”

“Suppose, venerable sir, not far from a village or town there was a pond with a crab in it. And then a party of boys and girls went out from the town or village to the pond, went into the water, and pulled the crab out of the water and put it on dry land. And whenever the crab extended a leg, they cut it off, broke it, and smashed it with sticks and stones, so that the crab with all its legs cut off, broken, and smashed, would be unable to get back to the pond as before. So too, all Saccaka the Nigantha’s son’s contortions, writhings, and vacillations have been cut off, broken, and smashed by the Blessed One, and now he cannot get near the Blessed One again for the purpose of debate.”

The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka 329

i 235

  1. When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son told him: “Wait, Dummukha, wait! We are not speaking with you, here Y/e are speaking with Master Gotama.”

[Then he said]: “Let that talk of ours be. Master Gotama. Like that of ordinary recluses and brahmins, it was mere prattle, I think. But in what way is a disciple of the recluse Gotama one who carries out his instruction, who responds to his advice, who has crossed beyond doubt, become free from perplexity, gained intrepidity, and become independent of others in the Teacher’s Dispensation?” 377

“Here, Aggivessana, any kind of material form whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near – a disciple of mine sees all material form as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ [235] Any kind of feeling whatever…Any kind of perception whatever…Any kind of formations whatever…Any kind of consciousness whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near – a disciple of mine sees all consciousness as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ It is in this way that a disciple of mine is one who carries out my instruction, who responds to my advice, who has crossed beyond doubt, become free from perplexity, gained intrepidity, and become independent of others in the Teacher’s Dispensation.”

  1. “Master Gotama, in what way is a bhikkhu an arahant with taints destroyed, one who has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final knowledge?”

“Here, Aggivessana, any kind of material form whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near – a bhikkhu has seen all material form as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self/ and through not clinging he is liberated. Any kind of feeling whatever…Any kind of perception whatever…Any kind of formations whatever …Any kind of consciousness whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near – a bhikkhu has seen all consciousness as it actually is

i 236

with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self,’ and through not clinging he is liberated. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed, one who has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final knowledge.

  1. “When a bhikkhu’s mind is thus liberated, he possesses three unsurpassable qualities: unsurpassable vision, unsurpassable practice of the way, and unsurpassable deliverance. 378 When a bhikkhu is thus liberated, he still honours, reveres, and venerates the Tathagata thus: ‘The Blessed One is enlightened and he teaches the Dhamma for the sake of enlightenment. The Blessed One is tamed and he teaches the Dhamma for taming oneself. The Blessed One is at peace and he teaches the Dhamma for the sake of peace. The Blessed One has crossed over and he teaches the Dhamma for crossing over. The Blessed One has attained Nibbana and he teaches the Dhamma for attaining Nibbana.'”
  2. When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son [236] replied: “Master Gotama, we were bold and impudent in thinking we could attack Master Gotama in debate. A man might attack a mad elephant and find safety, yet he could not attack Master Gotama and find safety. A man might attack a blazing mass of fire and find safety, yet he could not attack Master Gotama and find safety. A man might attack a terrible poisonous snake and find safety, yet he could not attack Master Gotama and find safety. We were bold and impudent in thinking we could attack Master Gotama in debate.

“Let the Blessed One together with the Sangha of bhikkhus consent to accept tomorrow’s meal from me.” The Blessed One consented in silence.

  1. Then, knowing that the Blessed One had consented, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son addressed the Licchavis: “Hear me, Licchavis. The recluse Gotama together with the Sangha of bhikkhus has been invited by me for tomorrow’s meal. You may bring to me whatever you think would be suitable for him.”
  2. Then, when the night had ended, the Licchavis brought five hundred ceremonial dishes of milk rice as gifts of food. Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son had good food of various kinds prepared in his own park and had the time announced to the Blessed One: “It is time. Master Gotama, the meal is ready.”

The Shorter Discourse to Saccaka

  1. Then, it being morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went with the Sangha of bhikkhus to the park of Saccaka the Nigantha’s son and sat down on the seat made ready. Then, with his own hands, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son served and satisfied the Sangha of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha with the various kinds of good food. When the Blessed One had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from the bowl, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son took a low seat, sat down at one side, and said to the Blessed One: “Master Gotama, may the merit and the great meritorious fruits of this act of giving be for the happiness of the givers.”

“Aggivessana, whatever comes about from giving to a recipient such as yourself – one who is not free from lust, not free from hate, not free from delusion – [237] that will be for the givers. And whatever comes about from giving to a recipient such as myself – one who is free from lust, free from hate, free from delusion – that will be for you.” 379

 

 

36 Mahasaccaka Sutta The Greater Discourse to Saccaka

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof.
  2. Now on that occasion, when it was morning, the Blessed One had finished dressing and had taken his bowl and outer robe, desiring to go into Vesali for alms.
  3. Then, as Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was walking and wandering for exercise, he came to the Hall with the Peaked Roof in the Great Wood. 380 The venerable Ananda saw him coming in the distance and said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, here comes Saccaka the Nigantha’s son, a debater and a clever speaker regarded by many as a saint. He wants to discredit the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. It would be good if the Blessed One would sit down for a while out of compassion.” 381 The Blessed One sat down on the seat made ready. Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son went up to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the Blessed One:
  4. “Master Gotama, there are some recluses and brahmins who abide pursuing development of body, but not development of mind. 382 They are touched by bodily painful feeling. In the past, when one was touched by bodily painful feeling, one’s thighs would become rigid, one’s heart would burst, hot blood would gush from one’s mouth, and one would go mad, go out of one’s mind. So then the mind was subservient to the body, the body wielded mastery over it. Why is that? [238] Because the mind was not developed. But there are some recluses and brahmins who abide pursuing development of mind, but not development of body. They are touched by mental painful feeling. Li the past, when one was touched by mental painful feeling, one’s

The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 333

thighs would become rigid, one’s heart would burst, hot blood would gush from one’s mouth, and one would go mad, go out of one’s mind. So then the body was subservient to the mind, the mind wielded mastery over it. Why is that? Because the body was not developed. Master Gotama, it has occurred to me: ‘Surely Master Gotama’s disciples abide pursuing development of mind, but not development of body.'”

  1. “But, Aggivessana, what have you learned about development of body?”

“Well, there are, for example, Nanda Vaccha, Kisa Sankicca, Makkhali Gosala. 383 They go naked, rejecting conventions, licking their hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked; they do not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; they receive nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman lying with a man, from where food is advertised to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from where flies are buzzing; they accept no fish or meat, they drink no liquor, wine, or fermented brew. They keep to one house, to one morsel; they keep to two houses, to two morsels…they keep to seven houses, to seven morsels. They live on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a day…on seven saucerfuls a day. They take food once a day, once every two days…once every seven days, and so on up to once every fortnight; they dwell pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals.”

  1. “But do they subsist on so little, Aggivessana?”

“No, Master Gotama, sometimes they consume excellent hard food, eat excellent soft food, taste excellent delicacies, drink excellent drinks. Thereby they again regain their strength, fortify themselves, and become fat.”

“What they earlier abandoned, Aggivessana, they later gather together again. That is how there is increase and decrease of this body. But what have you learned about development of mind?” [239]

When Saccaka the Nigantha’s son was asked by the Blessed One about development of mind, he was unable to answer.

  1. Then the Blessed One told him: “What you have just spoken of as development of body, Aggivessana, is not development of body according to the Dhamma in the Noble One’s

 

i 240

Discipline. Since you do not know what development of body is, how could you know what development of mind is? Nevertheless, Aggivessana, as to how one is undeveloped in body and undeveloped in mind, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, sir,” Saccaka the Nigantha’s son replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “How, Aggivessana, is one undeveloped in body and undeveloped in mind? Here, Aggivessana, pleasant feeling arises in an untaught ordinary person. Touched by that pleasant feeling, he lusts after pleasure and continues to lust after pleasure. That pleasant feeling of his ceases. With the cessation of the pleasant feeling, painful feeling arises. Touched by that painful feeling, he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught. When that pleasant feeling has arisen in him, it invades his mind and remains because body is not developed. And when that painful feeling has arisen in him, it invades his mind and remains because mind is not developed. Anyone in whom, in this double manner, arisen pleasant feeling invades his mind and remains because body is not developed, and arisen painful feeling invades his mind and remains because mind is not developed, is thus undeveloped in body and undeveloped in mind.
  2. “And how, Aggivessana, is one developed in body and developed in mind? Here, Aggivessana, pleasant feeling arises in a well-taught noble disciple. Touched by that pleasant feeling, he does not lust after pleasure or continue to lust after pleasure. That pleasant feeling of his ceases. With the cessation of the pleasant feeling, painful feeling arises. Touched by that painful feeling, he does not sorrow, grieve, and lament, he does not weep beating his breast and become distraught. When that pleasant feeling has arisen in him, it does not invade his mind and remain because body is developed. And when that painful feeling has arisen in him, it does not invade his mind and remain because mind is developed. Anyone in whom, in this double manner, arisen pleasant feeling [240] does not invade his mind and remain because body is developed, and arisen painful feeling does not invade his mind and remain because mind is developed, is thus developed in body and developed in mind.” 384
  3. “I have confidence in Master Gotama thus: ‘Master Gotama is developed in body and developed in mind.'”

The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 335

“Surely, Aggivessana, your words are offensive and discourteous, but still I will answer you. Since I shaved off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and went forth from the home life into homelessness, it has not been possible for arisen pleasant feeling to invade my mind and remain or for arisen painful feeling to invade my mind and remain.”

  1. “Has there never arisen in Master Gotama a feeling so pleasant that it could invade his mind and remain? Has there never arisen in Master Gotama a feeling so painful that it could invade his mind and remain?”
  2. “Why not, Aggivessana? 385 Here, Aggivessana, before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhi-satta, I thought: ‘Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy life Utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’

13-16. “Later, while still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life… (as Sutta 26, §§14-17)…And I sat down there thinking: ‘This will serve for striving.’

  1. “Now these three similes occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of wood lying in water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’ What do you think, Aggivessana? Could the man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying in the water?”

“No, Master Gotama. Why not? Because it is a wet sappy piece of wood, [241] and it is lying in water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”

“So too, Aggivessana, as to those recluses and brahmins who still do not live bodily and mentally withdrawn from sensual pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they

 

i 242

are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. This was the first simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

  1. “Again, Aggivessana, a second simile occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: T shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’ What do you think, Aggivessana? Could the man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?”

“No, Master Gotama. Why not? Because it is a wet sappy piece of wood, even though it is lying on dry land far from water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment.”

“So too, Aggivessana, as to those recluses and brahmins who live bodily and mentally withdrawn from sensual pleasures, 386 but whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. This was the second simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. *

  1. “Again, Aggivessana, a third simile occurred to me [242] spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a dry sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’ What do you think, Aggivessana? Could the man light a fire and produce heat by rubbing it against the dry sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?”

“Yes, Master Gotama. Why so? Because it is a dry sapless piece of wood, and it is lying on dry land far from water.”

“So too, Aggivessana, as to those recluses and brahmins who live bodily and mentally withdrawn from sensual pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has been fully abandoned and suppressed

The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 337

 

internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. 387 This was the third simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. These are the three similes that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

  1. “I thought: ‘Suppose, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrain, and crush mind with mind.’ So, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind. While I did so, sweat ran from my armpits. Just as a strong man might seize a weaker man by the head or shoulders and beat him down, constrain him, and crush him, so too, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind, and sweat ran from my armpits. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought [243] and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain. 388
  2. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth and nose. While I did so, there was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes. Just as there is a loud sound when a smith’s bellows are blown, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my nose and ears, there was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.
  3. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, violent winds cut through my head. Just as if a strong man were splitting my head

 

a

i 244

open with a sharp sword, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent winds cut through my head. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.

  1. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, there were violent pains in my head. Just as if a strong man [244] were tightening a tough leather strap around my head as a headband, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, there were violent pains in my head. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.
  2. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, violent winds carved up my belly. Just as if a skilled butcher or his apprentice were to carve up an ox’s belly with a sharp butcher’s knife, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent winds carved up my belly. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.
  3. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, there was a violent burning in my body. Just as if two strong men were to seize a weaker man by both arms and roast him over a pit of hot coals, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, there was a violent burning in my body. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful

The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 33 9

striving. But such painful feeling that arose in me did not invade xny mind and remain.

  1. “Now when [245] deities saw me, some said: ‘The recluse Gotama is dead/ Other deities said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not dead, he is dying.’ And other deities said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not dead nor dying; he is an arahant, for such is the way ara-hants abide.’
  2. “I thought: ‘Suppose I practise entirely cutting off food.’ Then deities came to me and said: ‘Good sir, do not practise entirely cutting off food. If you do so, we shall infuse heavenly food into the pores of your skin and you will live on that.’ I considered: ‘If I claim to be completely fasting while these deities infuse heavenly food into the pores of my skin and I live on that, then I shall be lying.’ So I dismissed those deities, saying: ‘There is no need.’
  3. “I thought: ‘Suppose I take very little food, a handful each time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup.’ So I took very little food, a handful each time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup. While I did so, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of eating so little my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or bamboo stems. Because of eating so little my backside became like a camel’s hoof. Because of eating so little the projections on my spine stood forth like corded beads. Because of eating so little my ribs jutted out as gaunt as the crazy rafters of an old roofless barn. Because of eating so little the gleam of my eyes sank far down in their sockets, looking like the gleam of water that has sunk far down in a deep well. Because of eating so little my scalp shrivelled and withered as [246] a green bitter gourd shrivels and withers in the wind and sun. Because of eating so little my belly skin adhered to my backbone; thus if I touched my belly skin I encountered my backbone and if I touched my backbone I encountered my belly skin. Because of eating so little, if I urinated or defecated, I fell over on my face there. Because of eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair, rotted at its roots, fell from my body as I rubbed.
  4. “Now when people saw me, some said: ‘The recluse Gotama is black.’ Other people said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not black, he is brown.’ Other people said: ‘The recluse Gotama is neither

1247

black nor brown, he is golden-skinned.’ So much had the clear, bright colour of my skin deteriorated through eating so little.

  1. “I thought: ‘Whatever recluses or brahmins in the past have experienced painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins in the future will experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins at present experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. But by this racking practice of austerities I have not attained any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. Could there be another path to enlightenment?’
  2. “I considered: ‘I recall that when my father the Sakyan was occupied, while I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. 389 Could that be the path to enlightenment?’ Then, following on that memory, came the realisation: ‘That is the path to enlightenment.’
  3. “I thought: ‘Why [247] am I afraid of that pleasure that has nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states?’ 1 thought: ‘I am not afraid of that pleasure since it has nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states.’ 390
  4. “I considered: ‘It is not easy to attain that pleasure with a body so excessively emaciated. Suppose I ate some solid food -some boiled rice and bread.’ And I ate some solid food – some boiled rice and bread. Now at that time five bhikkhus were waiting upon me, thinking: ‘If our recluse Gotama achieves some higher state, he will inform us.’ But when I ate the boiled rice and bread, the five bhikkhus were disgusted and left me, thinking: ‘The recluse Gotama now lives luxuriously; he has given up his striving and reverted to luxury.’
  5. “Now when I had eaten solid food and regained my strength, then quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. But such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain. 391

The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 341

35-37. “With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I entered upon and abided in the second jhana…With the fading away as well of rapture…1 entered upon and abided in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhana…But such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.

  1. “When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, [248] I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. I recollected my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births …(as Sutta 4, §27 )…Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past lives.
  2. “This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. But such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.
  3. “When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings…(as Sutta 4, §29)… Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.
  4. “This was the second true knowledge attained by me in the second watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, [249] darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. But such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.
  5. “When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’;…’This is the origin of suffering’;…’This is the cessation of suffering’;…’This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’;…’These are the taints’;…’This is the origin of the

Mahasaccaka Sutta: Sutta 36

taints’;…’This is the cessation of the taints’;…’This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

  1. “When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it was liberated there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’
  2. “This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the third watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute. But such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.
  3. “Aggivessana, I recall teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of many hundreds. Perhaps each person thinks: ‘The recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma especially for me.’ But it should not be so regarded; the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma to others only to give them knowledge. When the talk is finished, Aggivessana, then I steady my mind internally, quieten it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before, in which I constantly abide.” 392

“This can be believed of Master Gotama, since he is accomplished and fully enlightened. But does Master Gotama recall sleeping during the day?” 393

  1. “I recall, Aggivessana, in the last month of the hot season, on returning from my alfnsround, after my meal I lay out my outer robe folded in four, and lying down on my right side, I fall asleep mindful and fully aware.”

“Some recluses and brahmins call that abiding in delusion. Master Gotama.” [250]

“It is not in such a way that one is deluded or undeluded, Aggivessana. As to how one is deluded or undeluded, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” – “Yes, sir,” Saccaka the Nigantha’s son replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Him I call deluded, Aggivessana, who has not abandoned the taints that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death; for it is with the non-abandoning of the taints that one is deluded. Him I call undeluded who has abandoned the taints that defile, bring

The Greater Discourse to Saccaka 343

renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death; for it is with the abandoning of the taints that one is undeluded. The Tathagata, Aggivessana, has abandoned the taints that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death; he has cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, done away with them so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Just as a palm tree whose crown is cut off is incapable of further growth, so too, the Tathagata has abandoned the taints that defile…done away with them so that they are no longer subject to future arising.”

  1. When this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha’s son said: “It is wonderful. Master Gotama, it is marvellous how when Master Gotama is spoken to offensively again and again, assailed by discourteous courses of speech, the colour of his skin brightens and the colour of his face clears, as is to be expected of one who is accomplished and fully enlightened. I recall. Master Gotama, engaging Purana Kassapa in debate, and then he prevaricated, led the talk aside, and showed anger, hate, and bitterness. But when Master Gotama is spoken to offensively again and again, assaulted by discourteous courses of speech, the colour of his skin brightens and the colour of his face clears, as is to be expected of one who is accomplished and fully enlightened. I recall, Master Gotama, engaging Makkhali Gosala…Ajita Kesakambalin…Pakudha Kaccayana…Sanjaya Belatthiputta… the Nigantha Nataputta in debate, [251] and then he prevaricated, led the talk aside, and showed anger, hate, and bitterness. But when Master Gotama is spoken to offensively again and again, assailed by discourteous courses of speech, the colour of his skin brightens and the colour of his face clears, as is to be expected of one who is accomplished and fully enlightened. And now, Master Gotama, we depart. We are busy and have much to do.”

“Now is the time, Aggivessana, to do as you think fit.”

Then Saccaka the Nigantha’s son, having delighted and rejoiced in the Blessed One’s words, got up from his seat and departed. 394

 

 

37 Culatanhasankhaya Sutta The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in the Eastern Park, in the Palace of Migara’s Mother.
  2. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he stood at one side and asked: “Venerable sir, how in brief is a bhikkhu liberated by the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and humans?” 395
  3. “Here, ruler of gods, a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to. When a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to, he directly knows everything; having directly known everything, he fully understands everything; having fully understood everything, whatever feeling he feels, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he abides contemplating impermanence in those feelings, contemplating fading away, contemplating cessation, contemplating relinquishment. Contemplating thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. 396 [252] He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being/ Briefly, it is in this way, ruler of gods, that a bhikkhu is liberated by the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and humans.”
  4. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, delighting and rejoicing in the

The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 345

Blessed One’s words, paid homage to the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right, he vanished at once.

  1. Now on that occasion the venerable Maha Moggallana was sitting not far from the Blessed One. Then he considered: “Did that spirit penetrate to the meaning of the Blessed One’s words when he rejoiced, or did he not? Suppose I found out whether he did or not.”
  2. Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, the venerable Maha Moggallana vanished from the Palace of Migara’s Mother in the Eastern Park and appeared among the gods of the Thirty-three.
  3. Now on that occasion Sakka, ruler of gods, was furnished and endowed a hundredfold with the five kinds of heavenly music, and he was enjoying it in the Pleasure Park of the Single Lotus. When he saw the venerable Maha Moggallana coming in the distance, he dismissed the music, went to the venerable Maha Moggallana, and said to him: “Come, good sir Moggallana! Welcome, good sir Moggallana! It is long, good sir Moggallana, since you found am opportunity to come here. Sit down, good sir Moggallana; this seat is ready.”

The venerable Maha Moggallana sat down on the seat made ready, and Sakka took a low seat and sat down at one side. The venerable Maha Moggallana then asked him:

  1. “Kosiya, 397 how did the Blessed One state to you in brief deliverance through the destruction of craving? It would be good if we might also get to hear that statement.”

“Good sir Moggallana, we are so busy, we have so much to do, not only with our own business, but also with the business of the gods of the Thirty-three. Besides, good sir Moggallana, what is well heard, well learned, [253] well attended to, well remembered, does not vanish all of a sudden. Good sir Moggallana, it once happened that war broke out between the gods and the titans. 398 In that war the gods won and the titans were defeated. When I had won that war and returned from it as a conqueror, I had the Vejayanta Palace built. Good sir Moggallana, the Vejayanta Palace has a hundred towers, and each tower has seven hundred upper chambers, and each upper chamber has seven nymphs, and each nymph has seven maids. Would you like to see the loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace,

i 254

good sir Moggallana?” The venerable Maha Moggallana consented in silence.

  1. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and the divine King Vessavana 399 went to the Vejayanta Palace, giving precedence to the venerable Maha Moggallana. When the maids of Sakka saw the venerable Maha Moggallana coming in the distance, they were embarrassed and ashamed and they went each into their own rooms. Just as a daughter-in-law is embarrassed and ashamed on seeing her father-in-law, so too, when the maids of Sakka saw the venerable Maha Moggallana coming, they were embarrassed and ashamed and they went each into their own rooms.
  2. Then Sakka, ruler of gods, and the divine King Vessavana had the venerable Maha Moggallana walk all over and explore the Vejayanta Palace: “See, good sir Moggallana, this loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace! See, good sir Moggallana, this loveliness of the Vejayanta Palace!”

“It does the venerable Kosiya credit as one who has formerly made merit; and whenever human beings see anything lovely, they say: ‘Sirs, it does credit to the gods of the Thirty-three!’ It does the venerable Kosiya credit as one who has formerly made merit.”

  1. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana considered thus: “This spirit is living much too negligently. What if I stirred up a sense of urgency in him?” Then the venerable Maha Moggallana performed such a feat of supernormal power that with the point of his toe he made the Vejayanta Palace shake and quake and tremble. 400 [254] Sakka and the divine King Vessavana and the gods of the Thirty-three were filled with wonder and amazement, and they said: “Sirs, it is wonderful, it is marvellous, what power and might the recluse has, that with the point of his toe he makes the heavenly region shake and quake and tremble!”
  2. When the venerable Maha Moggallana knew that Sakka, ruler of the gods, was stirred to a sense of urgency with his hair standing on end, he asked him: “Kosiya, how did the Blessed One state to you in brief deliverance through the destruction of craving? It would be good if we might also get to hear that statement.”

“Good sir Moggallana, I went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, I stood at one side and said: ‘Venerable sir,…[as in §2]…of gods and humans?’ When this was said, good

The Shorter Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 347

sir Moggallana, the Blessed One told me: ‘Here, ruler of gods,… [as in §3]…of gods and humans.’ That is how the Blessed One stated to me in brief deliverance through the destruction of craving, good sir Moggallana.”

  1. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana delighted and rejoiced in the words of Sakka, ruler of gods. [255] Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, he vanished from among the gods of the Thirty-three and appeared in the Eastern Park in the Palace of Migara’s Mother.
  2. Then, soon after the venerable Maha Moggallana had gone, the attendants of Sakka, ruler of gods, asked him: “Good sir, was that your teacher, the Blessed One?” – “No, good sirs, that was not my teacher, the Blessed One. That was one of my companions in the holy life, tire venerable Maha Moggallana.” 401 – “Good sir, it is a gain for you that your companion in the holy life has such power and might. Oh, how much more so that the Blessed One is your teacher!”
  3. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked him: “Venerable sir, does the Blessed One recall stating in brief – to a certain one of the renowned spirits with a great following – deliverance through the destruction of craving?”

“I do recall doing so, Moggallana. Here Sakka, ruler of gods, came to me, and after paying homage to me, he stood at one side and asked: ‘Venerable sir, how in brief is a bhikkhu liberated by the destruction of craving, one who has reached the ultimate end, the ultimate security from bondage, the ultimate holy life, the ultimate goal, one who is foremost among gods and humans?’ When this was said, I told him: ‘Here, ruler of gods, a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to. When a bhikkhu has heard that nothing is worth adhering to, he directly knows everything; having directly known everything, he fully understands everything; having fully understood everything, whatever feeling he feels, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he abides contemplating impermanence in those feelings, contemplating fading away, contemplating cessation, contemplating relinquishment. Contemplating thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains

i 254

Nibbana. He understands: “Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, [256] what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.” Briefly, it is in this way, ruler of gods, that a bhikkhu is liberated by the destruction of craving.. .one who is foremost among gods and humans.’ That is how I recall stating in brief to Sakka, ruler of gods, deliverance through the destruction of craving.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Maha Moggallana was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

38 Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving

 

(setting)

  1. Thus have I. heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Now on that occasion a pernicious view had arisen in a bhikkhu named Sati, son of a fisherman, thus: “As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, not another.” 402
  3. Several bhikkhus, having heard about this, went to the bhikkhu Sati and asked him: “Friend Sati, is it true that such a pernicious view has arisen in you?”

“Exactly so, friends. As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, not another.”

Then those bhikkhus, desiring to detach him from that pernicious view, pressed and questioned and cross-questioned him thus: “Friend Sati, do not say so. Do not misrepresent the Blessed One; it is not good to misrepresent the Blessed One. The Blessed One would not speak thus. For in many discourses the Blessed One has stated consciousness to be dependently arisen, [257] since without a condition there is no origination of consciousness.”

Yet although pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by those bhikkhus in this way, the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, still obstinately adhered to that pernicious view and continued to insist upon it.

  1. Since the bhikkhus were unable to detach him from that pernicious view, they went to the Blessed One, and after paying

i 258

homage to him, they sat down at one side and told him all that had occurred, adding: “Venerable sir, since we could not detach the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, from this pernicious view, we have reported this matter to the Blessed One.”

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: “Come, [258] bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, in my name that the Teacher calls him.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and he went to the bhikkhu Sati and told him: “The Teacher calls you, friend Sati.”

“Yes, friend,” he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed One then asked him: “Sati, is it true that the following pernicious view has arisen in you: ‘As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, not another’?”

“Exactly so, venerable sir. As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, it is this same consciousness that runs and wanders through the round of rebirths, not another.”

“What is that consciousness, Sati?”

“Venerable sir, it is that which speaks and feels and experiences here and there the result of good and bad actions.” 403

“Misguided man, to whom have you ever known me to teach the Dhamma in that way? Misguided man, in many discourses have I not stated consciousness to be dependency arisen, since without a condition there is no origination of consciousness? But you, misguided man, have misrepresented us by your wrong grasp and injured yourself’and stored up much demerit; for this will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time.”

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, what do you think? Has this bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, kindled even a spark of wisdom in this Dhamma and Discipline?”

“How could he, venerable sir? No, venerable sir.”

When this was said, the bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, sat silent, dismayed, with shoulders drooping and head down, glum, and without response. Then, knowing this, the Blessed One told him: “Misguided man, you will be recognised by your own pernicious view. I shall question the bhikkhus on this matter.”

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, do you understand the Dhamma taught by me as

 

The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 351

this bhikkhu Sati, [259] son of a fisherman, does when he mis-r epresents us by his wrong grasp and injures himself and stores u p much demerit?”

“No, venerable sir. For in many discourses the Blessed One has stated consciousness to be dependently arisen, since without a condition there is no origination of consciousness.”

“Good, bhikkhus. It is good that you understand the Dhamma taught by me thus. For in many discourses I have stated consciousness to be dependently arisen, since without a condition there is no origination of consciousness. But this bhikkhu Sati, son of a fisherman, misrepresents us by his wrong grasp and injures himself and stores up much demerit; for this will lead to the harm and suffering of this misguided man for a long time.

(CONDITIONALITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS)

  1. “Bhikkhus, consciousness is reckoned by the particular condition dependent upon which it arises. When consciousness arises dependent on the eye and forms, it is reckoned as eye-consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the ear and sounds, it is reckoned as ear-consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the nose and odours, [260] it is reckoned as nose-consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the tongue and flavours, it is reckoned as tongue-consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the body and tangibles, it is reckoned as body-consciousness; when consciousness arises dependent on the mind and mind-objects, it is reckoned as mind-consciousness. Just as fire is reckoned by the particular condition dependent on which it burns – when fire bums dependent on logs, it is reckoned as a log fire; when fire burns dependent on faggots, it is reckoned as a faggot fire; when fire bums dependent on grass, it is reckoned as a grass fire; when fire burns dependent on cowdung, it is reckoned as a cowdung fire; when fire burns dependent on chaff, it is reckoned as a chaff tire; when fire burns dependent on rubbish, it is reckoned as a rubbish fire – so too, consciousness is reckoned by the particular condition dependent on which it arises. 404 When consciousness arises dependent on the eye and forms, it is reckoned as eye-consciousness…when consciousness arises dependent on tire mind and mind-objects, it is reckoned as mind-consciousness.

i 260

(general questionnaire on being)

  1. “Bhikkhus, do you see: ‘This has come to be’?” 405 – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, do you see: ‘Its origination occurs with that as nutriment’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, do you see: ‘With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  2. “Bhikkhus, does doubt arise when one is uncertain thus: ‘Has this come to be or not’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” -“Bhikkhus, does doubt arise when one is uncertain thus: ‘Does its origination occur with that as nutriment or not’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, does doubt arise when one is uncertain thus: ‘With the cessation of that nutriment, is what has come to be subject to cessation or not’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  3. “Bhikkhus, is doubt abandoned in one who sees as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This has come to be’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, is doubt abandoned in one who sees as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘Its origination occurs with that as nutriment’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, is doubt abandoned in one who sees as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  4. “Bhikkhus, are you free from doubt here: ‘This has come to be’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, are you free from doubt here: ‘Its origination occurs with that as nutriment’?” -“Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, are you free from doubt here: ‘With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  5. “Bhikkhus, has it been seen well by you as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This has come to be’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, has it been seen well by you as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘Its origination occurs with that as nutriment’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Bhikkhus, has it been seen well by you as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation’?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  6. “Bhikkhus, purified and bright as this view is, if you adhere to it, cherish it, treasure it, and treat it as a possession, would you then understand the Dhamma that has been taught as similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not

 

The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 353

for the purpose of grasping?” 406 – “No, venerable sir.” – “Bhik-Ichus, purified and bright as this view is, [261] if you do not adhere to it, cherish it, treasure it, and treat it as a possession, would you then understand the Dhamma that has been taught as similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the purpose of grasping?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

(NUTRIMENT AND DEPENDENT ORIGINATION)

  1. “Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that already have come to be and for the support of those seeking a new existence. What four? They are: physical food as nutriment, gross or subtle; contact as the second; mental volition as the third; and consciousness as the fourth. 407
  2. “Now, bhikkhus, these four kinds of nutriment have what as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born and produced? These four kinds of nutriment have craving as their source, craving as their origin; they are born and produced from craving. And this craving has what as its source…? Craving has feeling as its source…And this feeling has what as its source…? Feeling has contact as its source…And this contact has what as its source…? Contact has the sixfold base as its source…And this sixfold base has what as its source…? The sixfold base has mentality-materiality as its source…And this mentality-materiality has what as its source…? Mentality-materiality has consciousness as its source…And this consciousness has what as its source…? Consciousness has formations as its source…And these formations have what as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born and produced? Formations have ignorance as their source, ignorance as their origin; they are born and produced from ignorance.

(FORWARD EXPOSITION ON ARISING)

  1. “So, bhikkhus, with ignorance as condition, formations [come to be]; with formations as condition, consciousness; with consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality-materiality as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging;

i 262

with clinging as condition, being; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

(reverse order questionnaire on arising)

  1. “‘With birth as condition, ageing and death’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, do ageing and death have birth as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Ageing and death have birth as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With birth as condition, ageing and death.'”

“‘With being as condition, birth’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does birth have being as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Birth has being as condition, [262] venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With being as condition, birth.'”

‘”With clinging as condition, being’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does being have clinging as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Being has clinging as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With clinging as condition, being.'”

“‘With craving as condition, clinging’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does clinging have craving as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Clinging has craving as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With craving as condition, clinging.'”

“‘With feeling as condition, craving’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does craving have feeling as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Craving has feeling as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With feeling as condition, craving.'”

“‘With contact as condition, feeling’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does feeling have contact as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Feeling has contact as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With contact as condition, feeling.'”

“‘With the sixfold base as condition, contact’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does contact have the sixfold base as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 355

“Contact has the sixfold base as condition, venerable sir. fhus we take it in this case: ‘With the sixfold base as condition,

contact.

“‘With mentality-materiality as condition, the sixfold base’: s o it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does the sixfold base have mentality-materiality as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“The sixfold base has mentality-materiality as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With mentality-materiality as condition, the sixfold base.’”

‘”With consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does mentality-materiality have consciousness as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Mentality-materiality has consciousness as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality.'”

“‘With formations as condition, consciousness’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, does consciousness have formations as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Consciousness has formations as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With formations as condition, consciousness.'”

“‘With ignorance as condition, formations’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, do formations have ignorance as condition or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Formations have ignorance as condition, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With formations as condition, ignorance.'”

(recapitulation on arising)

  1. “Good, bhikkhus. So you say thus, and I also say thus: ‘When this exists, that comes to be; [263] with the arising of this, that arises.’ 408 That is, with ignorance as condition, formations [come to be]; with formations as condition, consciousness; with consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality-materiality as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging;

i 264

with clinging as condition, being; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

(forward exposition on cessation)

  1. “But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of formations; with the cessation of formations, cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mentality-materiality; with the cessation of mentality-materiality, cessation of the sixfold base; with the cessation of the sixfold base, cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with the cessation of feeling, cessation of craving; with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

(reverse order questionnaire on cessation)

  1. ‘”With the cessation of birth, cessation of ageing and death’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, do ageing and death cease with the cessation of birth or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Ageing and death cease with the cessation of birth, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With the cessation of birth, cessation of ageing and death.'”

“‘With the cessation of being, cessation of birth’…’With the cessation of clinging, cessation of being’…’With the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging’…’With the cessation of feeling, cessation of craving’… ‘With the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling’ [264]…’With the cessation of the sixfold base, cessation of contact’…’With the cessation of mentality-materiality, cessation of the sixfold base’…’With the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mentality-materiality’…’With the cessation of formations, cessation of consciousness’…’With the cessation of ignorance, cessation of formations’: so it was said. Now, bhikkhus, do formations cease with the cessation of ignorance or not, or how do you take it in this case?”

“Formations cease with the cessation of ignorance, venerable sir. Thus we take it in this case: ‘With the cessation of ignorance, cessation of formations.'”

(recapitulation on cessation)

  1. “Good, bhikkhus. So you say thus, and I also say thus: ‘When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases/ That is, with the cessation of ignorance comes cessation of formations; with the cessation of formations, cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mentality-materiality; with the cessation of mentality-materiality, cessation of the sixfold base; with the cessation of the sixfold base, cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with the cessation of feeling, cessation of craving; with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

(personal knowledge)

  1. “Bhikkhus, knowing and seeing in this way, [265] would you run back to the past thus: ‘Were we in the past? Were we not in the past? What were we in the past? How were we in the past? Having been what, what did we become in the past?’?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Knowing and seeing in this way, would you run forward to the future thus: ‘Shall we be in the future? Shall we not be in the future? What shall we be in the future? How shall we be in the future? Having been what, what shall we become in the future?’?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Knowing and seeing in this way, would you now be inwardly perplexed about the present thus: ‘Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where will it go?’?” 409 – “No, venerable sir.”
  2. “Bhikkhus, knowing and seeing in this way, would you speak thus: ‘The Teacher is respected by us. We speak as we do out of respect for the Teacher’?” – “No, venerable sir.” –

1266

“Knowing and seeing in this way, would you speak thus: ‘The Recluse says this, and so do [other] recluses, but we do not speak thus’?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Knowing and seeing in this way, would you acknowledge another teacher?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Knowing and seeing in this way, would you return to the observances, tumultuous debates, and auspicious signs of ordinary recluses and brahmins, taking them as the core [of the holy life]?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Do you speak only of what you have known, seen, and understood for yourselves?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”

  1. “Good, bhikkhus. So you have been guided by me with this Dhamma, which is visible here and now, immediately effective, inviting inspection, onward leading, to be experienced by the wise for themselves. For it was with reference to this that it has been said: ‘Bhikkhus, this Dhamma is visible here and now, immediately effective, inviting inspection, onward leading, to be experienced by the wise for themselves.’

(the round of existence: conception to maturity)

  1. “Bhikkhus, the conception of an embryo in a womb takes place through the union of three things. 410 Here, there is the union of the mother and father, but it is not the mother’s season, and the being to be reborn 411 is not present – in this case there is no [266] conception of an embryo in a womb. Here, there is the union of the mother and father, and it is the mother’s season, but the being to be reborn is not present – in this case too there is no conception of an embryo in a womb. But when there is the union of the mother and father, and it is the mother’s season, and the being to be reborn is present, through the union of these three things the conception of an embryo in a womb takes place.
  2. “The mother then carries the embryo in her womb for nine or ten months with much anxiety, as a heavy burden. Then, at the end of nine or ten months, the mother gives birth with much anxiety, as a heavy burden. Then, when the child is bom, she nourishes it with her own blood; for the mother’s breast-milk is called blood in the Noble One’s Discipline.
  3. “When he grows up and his faculties mature, the child plays at such games as toy ploughs, tipcat, somersaults, toy windmills, toy measures, toy cars, and a toy bow and arrow.

The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 359

29 . “When he grows up and his faculties mature [still further], youth enjoys himself provided and endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure, with forms cognizable by the eye… sounds cognizable by the ear…odours cognizable by the nose… flavours cognizable by the tongue…tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable and likeable, connected with sensual desire, and provocative of lust.

(THE CONTINUATION OF THE ROUND)

  1. “On seeing a form with the eye, he lusts after it if it is pleasing; he dislikes it if it is unpleasing. He abides with mindfulness of the body unestablished, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it actually is the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom wherein those evil unwholesome states cease without remainder. Engaged as he is in favouring and opposing, whatever feeling he feels – whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant – he delights in that feeling, welcomes it, and remains holding to it. 412 As he does so, delight arises in him. Now delight in feelings is clinging. With his clinging as condition, being [comes to be]; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

“On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, [267J he lusts after it if it is pleasing; he dislikes it if it is unpleasing…Now delight in feelings is clinging. With his clinging as condition, being [comes to be]; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

(THE ENDING OF THE ROUND: THE GRADUAL TRAINING)

31-38. “Here, bhikkhus, a Tathagata appears in the world, accomplished, fully enlightened…(as Sutta 27, §§11-18) [268-69].. .he purifies his mind from doubt. [270]

  1. “Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from

i 270

sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana… With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhana.. .With the fading away as well of rapture.. .he enters upon and abides in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana…which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.

(the ending of the round: full cessation)

  1. “On seeing a form with the eye, he does not lust after it if it is pleasing; he does not dislike it if it is unpleasing. He abides with mindfulness of the body established, with an immeasurable mind, and he understands as it actually is the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom wherein those evil unwholesome states cease without remainder. 413 Having thus abandoned favouring and opposing, whatever feeling he feels, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, he does not delight in that feeling, welcome it, or remain holding to it. 414 As he does not do so, delight in feelings ceases in him. With the cessation of his delight comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

“On hearing a sound »with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose.. .On tasting a flavour with the tongue.. .On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does not lust after it if it is pleasing; he does not dislike it if it is unpleasing…With the cessation of his delight comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of being; with the cessation of being, cessation of birth; with the cessation of birth, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

The Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving 361 j,

■f

INCLUSION)

£l’ “Bhikkhus, remember this deliverance through the destruction of craving as taught in brief by me. But the bhikkhu Sati,

[271] son of a fisherman, is caught up in a vast net of craving, in the trammel of craving.”

that is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

39 Maha-Assapura Sutta The Greater Discourse at Assapura

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Angan country at a town of the Angans named Assapura. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “‘Recluses, recluses/ bhikkhus, that is how people perceive you. And when you are asked, ‘What are you?’, you claim that you are recluses. Since that is what you are designated and what you claim to be, you should train thus: ‘We will undertake and practise those things that make one a recluse, that make one a brahmin, 41s so that our designations may be true and our claims genuine, and so that the services of those whose robes, alms-food, resting place, and medicinal requisites we use shall bring them great fruit and benefit, and so that our going forth shall not be in vain but fruitful and fertile.’

(CONDUCT AND LIVELIHOOD)

  1. “And what, bhikkhus, are the things that make one a recluse, that make one a brahmin? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing.’ 416 Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing. That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to do’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done. 417
  2. “What more is to be done? [272] Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our bodily conduct shall be purified, clear and open.

The Greater Discourse at Assapura 363

lawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified bodily conduct.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing and our bodily conduct has been purified. That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to do’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to

be done.

  1. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our verbal conduct shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified verbal conduct.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct has been purified, and our verbal conduct has been purified. That much is enough…’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.
  2. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our mental conduct shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified mental conduct.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct and verbal conduct have been purified, and our mental conduct has been purified. That much is enough…’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.
  3. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our livelihood shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified livelihood.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, and mental conduct have been purified, and our livelihood has been purified. [273] That much is enough…’; and you may rest content with that much.

i273

Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

(restraint of the senses)

  1. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will guard the doors of our sense faculties. On seeing a form with the eye, we will not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if we left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade us, we will practise the way of its restraint, we will guard the eye faculty, we will undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, we will not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if we left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade us, we will practise the way of its restraint, we will guard the mind faculty, we will undertake the restraint of the mind faculty.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, and we guard the doors of our sense faculties. That much is enough…’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

(moderation in eating)

  1. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be moderate in eating. Reflecting wisely, we will take food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy life, considering: “Thus I shall terminate old feelings without arousing new feelings and I shall be healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort.”‘ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and

The Greater Discourse at Assapura 365

fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors f oU r sense faculties, and we are moderate in eating. That much enough../; and you may rest content with that much, ghikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of reduseship while there is more to be done.

(wakefulness)

  1. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be devoted to wakefulness. During the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of obstructive states. In the first watch of the night, [274] while walking back arid forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of obstructive states. In the middle watch of the night we will lie down on the right side in the lion’s pose with one foot overlapping the other, mindful and fully aware, after noting in our minds the time for rising. After rising, in the third watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of obstructive states.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors of our sense faculties, we are moderate in eating, and we are devoted to wakefulness. That much is enough…’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of reduseship while there is more to be done.

(mindfulness and full awareness)

  1. “What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be possessed of mindfulness and full awareness. We will act in full awareness when going forward and returning; we will act in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; we will act in full awareness when flexing and extending our limbs; we will act in full awareness when wearing our robes and carrying our outer robe and bowl; we will act in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; we

i 275

,

will act in full awareness when defecating and urinating; we will act in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors of our sense faculties, we are moderate in eating, we are devoted to wakefulness, and we are possessed of mindfulness and full awareness. That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to do’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse’s status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

(abandoning of the hindrances)

  1. “What more is to be done? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw.
  2. “On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect and establishing mindfulness before him. Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; [275] he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.
  3. “Bhikkhus, suppose a man were to take a loan and undertake business and his business were to succeed so that he could repay all the money of the old loan and there would remain enough extra to maintain a wife; then on considering this, he

The Greater Discourse at Assapura 367

would be glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man were afflicted, guffering and gravely ill, and his food would not agree with him and his body had no strength, but later he would recover from the affliction and his food would agree with him and his body would regain strength; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man were imprisoned in a prisonhouse, but later he would be released from prison, safe and secure, with no loss to his property; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man were a slave, not self-dependent but dependent on others, unable to go where he wants, but later on he would be released from slavery, self-dependent, independent of others, a freed man able to go where he wants; then on considering this, [276] he would be glad and full of joy. Or suppose a man with wealth and property were to enter a road across a desert, but later on he would cross over the desert, safe and secure, with no loss to his property; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy. So too, bhikkhus, when these five hindrances are unabandoned in himself, a bhikkhu sees them respectively as a debt, a disease, a prisonhouse, slavery, and a road across a desert. But when these five hindrances have been abandoned in himself, he sees that as freedom from debt, healthiness, release from prison, freedom from slavery, and a land of safety. 418

(the four jhAnas)

  1. “Having abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. Just as a skilled bath man or a bath man’s apprentice heaps bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it gradually with water, kneads it until the moisture wets his ball of bath powder, soaks it, and pervades it inside and out, yet the ball itself does not ooze; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade

i 277

this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

  1. “Again, bhikkhus, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. He makes the rapture and pleasure bom of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration. Just as though there were a lake whose waters welled up from below [277] and it had no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and would not be replenished from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the whole lake unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure bom of concentration.
  2. “Again, bhikkhus, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ He makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture. Just as, in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and cool water drenches, steeps, fills, and pervades them to their tips and their roots, so that there is no part of all those lotuses unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture.
  3. “Again, bhikkhus, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright

The Greater Discourse at Assapura 369

j^jnd, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by pure bright mind. Just as though a man were sitting covered from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be n o part of his whole [278] body unpervaded by the white cloth; so too, a bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind.

(THE THREE TRUE KNOWLEDGES)

  1. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births…(as Sutta 4, §27 )…’Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. Just as a man might go from his own village to another village and then back again to his own village, he might think: ‘I went from my own village to that village, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a way; and from that village I went to that other village, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a way; and from that village I came back again to my own village.’ So too, a bhikkhu recollects his manifold past lives.. .Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.
  2. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings…(as Sutta 4, §29) [279]…Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. Just as though there were two houses with doors and a man with good sight standing there between them saw people entering the houses and coming out and passing to and fro, so too, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, a bhikkhu sees beings passing away and reappearing…and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.

i28Q 1

  1. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright 1 unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and i attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’;…’This is the origin of suffering’;…’This is the cessation of suffering’;…’This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’;…’These are the taints’;…’This is the origin of the taints’;…’This is the cessation of the taints’;…’This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

“When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

“Just as if there were a lake in a mountain recess, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, so that a man with good sight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting, he might think: “There is this lake, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, and there are these [280] shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ So too, a bhikkhu understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering.’…He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

(the akahant) ,

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu such as this is called a recluse, a brahmin, one who has been washed, one who has attained to knowledge, a holy scholar, a noble one, an arahant. 419
  2. “And how is a bhikkhu a recluse? He has quieted down evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is a recluse.
  3. “And how is a bhikkhu a brahmin? He has expelled evil unwholesome states that defile…and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is a brahmin.
  4. “And how is a bhikkhu one who has been washed? 420 He has washed off evil unwholesome states that defile…and lead to

The Greater Discourse at Assapura 371

 

future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is one w ho has been washed.

  1. “And how is a bhikkhu one who has attained to knowledge? He has known evil unwholesome states that defile…and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is one who has attained to knowledge.
  2. “And how is a bhikkhu a holy scholar? 421 The evil unwholesome states that defile…and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, have streamed away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is a holy scholar.
  3. “And how is a bhikkhu a noble one? Evil unwholesome states that defile…and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, are far away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is a noble one.
  4. “And how is a bhikkhu an arahant? Evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, are far away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is an arahant.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

40 Cula-Assapura Sutta The Shorter Discourse at Assapura

 

[281] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Angan country at a town of the Angans named Assapura. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir/’ they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. ‘”Recluses, recluses,’ bhikkhus, that is how people perceive you. And when you are asked, ‘What are you?’ you claim that you are recluses. Since that is what you are designated and what you claim to be, you should train thus: ‘We will practise the way proper to the recluse 422 so that our designations may be true and our claims genuine, and so that the services of those whose robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites we use shall bring them great fruit and benefit, and so that our going forth shall not be in vain but fruitful and fertile.’
  2. “How, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu not practise the way proper to the recluse? For so long as a bhikkhu who is covetous has not abandoned covetousness, who has a mind of ill will has not abandoned ill will, who is angry has not abandoned anger, who is revengeful has not abandoned revenge, who is contemptuous has not abandoned contempt, who is domineering has not abandoned his domineering attitude, who is envious has not abandoned envy, who is avaricious has not abandoned avarice, who is fraudulent has not abandoned fraud, who is deceitful has not abandoned deceit, who has evil wishes has not abandoned evil wishes, who has wrong view has not abandoned wrong view, 423 for so long he does not practise the way proper to the recluse, I say, because of his failure to abandon these stains for the recluse, these faults for the recluse, these dregs for the recluse, which are grounds for rebirth in a state of deprivation and whose results are to be experienced in an unhappy destination.

372

 

The Shorter Discourse at Assapura 373

  1. “Suppose the weapon called a niataja, well whetted on both edges, were enclosed and encased in a patchwork sheath. I say that such a bhikkhu’s going forth is comparable to that.
  2. “I do not say that the recluse’s status comes about in a patchwork-cloak wearer through the mere wearing of the patchwork cloak, nor in a naked ascetic through mere nakedness, nor in a dweller in dust and dirt through mere dust and dirt, nor in a washer in water through mere washing in water, nor in a tree-root dweller through mere [282] dwelling at the root of a tree, nor in an open-air dweller through mere dwelling in the open air, nor in a practitioner of continuous standing through mere continuous standing, nor in a taker of food at stated intervals through mere taking of food at stated intervals, nor in a reciter of incantations through mere recitation of incantations; nor do I say that the recluse’s status comes about in a matted-hair ascetic through mere wearing of the hair matted.
  3. “Bhikkhus, if through the mere wearing of the patchwork cloak a patchwork-cloak wearer who was covetous abandoned covetousness, who had a mind of ill will abandoned ill will… who had wrong view abandoned wrong view, then his friends and companions, his kinsmen and relatives, would make him a patchwork-cloak wearer as soon as he was born and have him undertake the patchwork-cloak wearing thus: ‘Come, my dear, be a patchwork-cloak wearer so that, as a patchwork-cloak wearer, when you are covetous you will abandon covetousness, when you have a mind of ill will you will abandon ill will… when you have wrong view you will abandon wrong view/ But I see here a patchwork-cloak wearer who is covetous, who has a mind of ill will.. .who has wrong view; and that is why I do not say that the recluse’s status comes about in a patchwork-cloak wearer through the mere wearing of the patchwork cloak.

“If through mere nakedness a naked ascetic who was covetous abandoned covetousness…If through mere dust and dirt…If through mere washing in water.. .If through mere dwelling at the root of a tree…If through mere dwelling in the open air…If through mere continuous standing…If through mere taking of food at stated intervals…If through mere recitation of incantations… If through mere wearing of the hair matted…[283]…and that is why I do not say that the recluse’s status comes about in a matted-hair ascetic through the mere wearing of the hair matted.

i 284

  1. “How, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu practise the way proper to the recluse? When any bhikkhu who was covetous has abandoned covetousness, who had a mind of ill will has abandoned ill will, who was angry has abandoned anger, who was revengeful has abandoned revenge, who was contemptuous has abandoned contempt, who was domineering has abandoned his domineering attitude, who was envious has abandoned envy, who was avaricious has abandoned avarice, who was fraudulent has abandoned fraud, who was deceitful has abandoned deceit, who had evil wishes has abandoned evil wishes, who had wrong view has abandoned wrong view, then he practises the way proper to the recluse, I say, because of his abandoning these stains for the recluse, these faults for the recluse, these dregs for the recluse, which are grounds for rebirth in a state of deprivation and whose results are to be experienced in an unhappy destination.
  2. “He sees himself purified of all these evil unwholesome states, he sees himself liberated from them. When he sees this, gladness is born in him. When he is glad, rapture is born in him; in one who is rapturous, the body becomes tranquil; one whose body is tranquil feels pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated.
  3. “He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued wifla loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.

10-12. “He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion…with a mind imbued with appreciative joy…with a mind imbued with equanimity…abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will.

  1. “Suppose there were a pond with clear, agreeable cool water, transparent, with smooth banks, delightful. [284] If a man, scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched, and thirsty, came from the east or from the west or from the north or from the south or from where you will, having come upon the pond he would quench his thirst and his hot-weather fever. So too, bhikkhus, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and after encountering the

The Shorter Discourse at Assapura 375

Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata, develops loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity, and thereby gains internal peace, then because of that internal peace he practises the way proper to the recluse, I say. And if anyone from a clan of brahmins goes forth…If anyone from a clan of merchants goes forth…If anyone from a clan of workers goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and after encountering the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata, develops loving-kindness, compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity, and thereby gains internal peace, then because of that internal peace he practises the way proper to the recluse, I say.

  1. “Bhikkhus, if anyone from a clan of nobles goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and by realising for himself with direct knowledge here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints, then he is already a recluse because of the destruction of the taints. 424 And if anyone from a clan of brahmins goes forth…If anyone from a clan of merchants goes forth…If anyone from a clan of workers goes forth from the home life into homelessness, and by realising for himself with direct knowledge here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints, then he is already a recluse because of the destruction of the taints.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

The Shorter Division of Pairs

(Culayamakavagga)

 

 

 

 

41 Saleyyaka Sutta The Brahmins of Sala

 

[285] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering by stages in the Kosalan Country with a large Sangha of bhikkhus, and eventually he arrived at a Kosalan brahmin village named Sala.

  1. The brahmin householders of Sala heard: “The recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, has been wandering in the Kosalan country with a large Sangha of bhikkhus and has come to Sala. Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect: That Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realised with direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.’ Now it is good to see such arahants.”
  2. Then the brahmin householders of Sala went to the Blessed One. Some paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some exchanged greetings with him, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at one side; some extended their hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some pronounced their name and clan in the Blessed One’s presence and sat down at one side; some kept silent and sat down at one side.
  3. When they were seated, they said to the Blessed One: “Master Gotama, what is the cause and condition why some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear

i 286

in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell? And what is the cause and condition why some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world?”

  1. “Householders, it is by reason of conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of unrighteous conduct that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. It is by reason of conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of righteous conduct that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world.” [286]
  2. “We do not understand the detailed meaning of Master Gotama’s utterance, which he has spoken in brief without expounding the detailed meaning. It would be good if Master Gotama would teach us the Dhamma so that we might understand the detailed meaning of his utterance.”

“Then, householders, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Householders, there are three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. There are four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. There are three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct.
  2. “And how, householders, are there three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct? Here someone kills living beings; he is murderous, bloody-handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings. He takes what is not given; he takes by way of theft the wealth and property of others in the village or forest. He misconducts himself in sensual pleasures; he has intercourse with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives, who have a husband, who are protected by law, and even with those who are garlanded in token of betrothal. That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct.
  3. “And how, householders, are there four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct? Here someone speaks falsehood; when summoned to a court, or

The Brahmins o/Sala 381

to a meeting, or to his relatives’ presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family’s presence, and questioned as a witness thus: ‘So, good man, tell what you know,’ not knowing, he says, ‘I know,’ or knowing, he says, ‘I do not know’; not seeing, he says, T see,’ or seeing, he says, ‘I do not see’; in full awareness he speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another’s ends, or for some trifling worldly end. He speaks maliciously; he repeats elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, or he repeats to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, who enjoys discord, rejoices in discord, delights in discord, a speaker of words that create discord. He speaks harshly; he utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others, bordering on anger, unconducive to concentration. [287] He is a gossip; he speaks at the wrong time, speaks what is not fact, speaks what is useless, speaks contrary to the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the wrong time he speaks such words as are worthless, unreasonable, immoderate, and unbeneficial. That is how there are four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct.

  1. “And how, householders, are there three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct? Here someone is covetous; he covets the wealth and property of others thus: ‘Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!’ Or he has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate thus: ‘May these beings be slain and slaughtered, may they be cut off, perish, or be annihilated!’ Or he has wrong view, distorted vision, thus: ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ 425 That is how there are three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. So, householders, it is by reason of such conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of such unrighteous conduct that some beings here on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell.

i 288

  1. “Householders/ there are three kinds of bodily conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. There are four kinds of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. There are three kinds of mental conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct.
  2. “And how, householders, are there three kinds of bodily conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct? Here someone, abandoning the killing of living beings, abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; he does not take by way of theft the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest. Abandoning misconduct in sensual pleasures, he abstains from misconduct in sensual pleasures; he does not have intercourse with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives, who have a husband, who are protected by law, or with those who are garlanded in token of betrothal. That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. [288]
  3. “And how, householders, are there four kinds of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct? Here someone, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech; when summoned to a court, or to a meeting, or to his relatives’ presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family’s presence, and questioned as a witness thus: ‘So, good man, tell what you know,’ not knowing, he says, ‘I do not know,’ or knowing, he says, ‘I know’; not seeing, he says, ‘I do not see,’ or seeing, he says, ‘I see’; he does not in full awareness speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another’s ends, or for some trifling worldly end. Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord. Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous,

 

The Brahmins of Sola 383

i2 89

desired by many, and agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, tie abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial. That is how there are four kinds of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct.

  1. “And how, householders, are there three kinds of mental conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct? Here someone is not covetous; he does not covet the wealth and property of others thus: ‘Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!’ His mind is without ill will and he has intentions free from hate thus: ‘May these beings be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety! May they live happily!’ He has right view, undistorted vision, thus: ‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings who are reborn spontaneously; there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ That is how there are three kinds of mental conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. So, householders, it is by reason of such conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of such righteous conduct that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world, [289]
  2. “If, householders, one who observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: ‘Oh, that on the dissolution of the body, after death, I might reappear in the company of well-to-do nobles!’ it is possible that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in the company of well-to-do nobles. Why is that? Because he observes conduct that is in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct.

16-17. “If, householders, one who observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: ‘Oh, that on the dissolution of the body, after death, 1 might reappear in the company of well-to-do brahmins!…in the company of well-to-do householders!’ it is possible that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in the company of

i 290

well-to-do householders. Why is that? Because he observes conduct that is in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct

18-42. “If, householders, one who observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: ‘Oh, that on the dissolution of the body, after death, I might reappear in the company of the gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings!…in the company of the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three … the Yama gods… the gods of the Tusita heaven… the gods who delight in creating…the gods who wield power over others’ creations…the gods of Brahma’s retinue…the gods of Radiance 426 …the gods of Limited Radiance…the gods of Immeasurable Radiance…the gods of Streaming Radiance…the gods of Glory…the gods of Limited Glory…the gods of Immeasurable Glory…the gods of Refulgent Glory…the gods of Great Fruit…the Aviha gods…the Atappa gods…the Sudassa gods…the SudassI gods…the Akanittha gods…the gods of the base of infinite space.. .the gods of the base of infinite consciousness. . .the gods of the base of nothingness.. .the gods of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception!’ it is possible that on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in the company of the gods of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Why is that? Because he observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct.

  1. “If, householders, one who observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct, should wish: ‘Oh, that by realising for myself with direct knowledge I might here and now enter upon and abidfe in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints!’ it is possible that, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, he will here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. Why is that? Because he observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct.” 427 [290]
  2. When this was said, the brahmin householders of Sala said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness for

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

42 Veranjaka Sutta The Brahmins of Veranja

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Now on that occasion some brahmin householders of Veranja were on a visit to Savatthl for some business or other. [291]

3-44. [The text of this sutta is the same as that of Sutta 41, except that where the preceding sutta is phrased in terms of “conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct” (§§7-10) and “conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct” (§§11-14), this sutta is phrased in terms of “one who does not observe conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, one of unrighteous conduct” and “one who observes conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, one of righteous conduct”; substitute “Veranja” for “Sala” throughout.]

 

 

 

 

 

43 Mahavedalla Sutta The Greater Series of Questions and Answers

 

[292] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.

Then, when it was evening, the venerable Maha Kotthita rose from meditation, went to the venerable Sariputta, and exchanged greetings with him. 428 When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the venerable Sariputta:

(wisdom)

  1. “”One who is unwise, one who is unwise’ is said, friend. With reference to what is this said, ‘one who is unwise’?”

“‘One does not wisely understand, one does not wisely understand/ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is unwise/ And what doesn’t one wisely understand? One does not wisely understand: ‘This is suffering’; one does not wisely understand: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; one does not wisely understand: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; one does not wisely understand: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ ‘One does not wisely understand, one does not wisely understand/ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is unwise.'”

Saying, “Good, friend,” the venerable Maha Kotthita delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sariputta’s words. Then he asked him a further question:

  1. “‘One who is wise, one who is wise,’ is said, friend. With reference to what is this said, ‘one who is wise’?”

“‘One wisely understands, one wisely understands/ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is wise.’ What does one wisely understand? One wisely understands: ‘This is suffering’; one

i293

wisely understands: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; one wisely understands: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; one wisely understands: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ ‘One wisely understands, one wisely understands/ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is wise/” 429

(consciousness)

  1. “‘Consciousness, consciousness’ is said, friend. With reference to what is ‘consciousness’ said?”

“‘It cognizes, it cognizes/ friend; that is why ‘consciousness’ is said. 430 What does it cognize? It cognizes: ‘[This is] pleasant’; it cognizes: ‘[This is] painful’; it cognizes: ‘[This is] neither-painful-nor-pleasant.’ ‘It cognizes, it cognizes/ friend; that is why ‘consciousness’ is said.” 431

  1. “Wisdom and consciousness, friend – are these states conjoined or disjoined? And is it possible to separate each of these states from the other in order to describe the difference between them?”

“Wisdom and consciousness, friend – these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the other in order to describe the difference between them. For what one wisely understands, that one cognizes, and what one cognizes, that one wisely understands. [293] That is why these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the other in order to describe the difference between them.” 432

  1. “What is the difference, friend, between wisdom and consciousness, these states that are conjoined, not disjoined?”

“The difference, friend, between wisdom and consciousness, these states that are conjoined, not disjoined, is this: wisdom is to be developed, consciousness is to be fully understood.” 433

(feeling)

7, “‘Feeling, feeling’ is said, friend. With reference to what is ‘feeling’ said?”

“‘It feels, it feels,’ friend; that is why ‘feeling’ is said. What does it feel? It feels pleasure, it feels pain, it feels neither-pain-nor-pleasure. ‘It feels, it feels/ friend, that is why ‘feeling’ is said.” 434

The Greater Series of Questions and Answers 389

Perception)

-“perception, perception/ is said, friend. With reference to w hat is ‘perception’ said?”

‘”It perceives, it perceives,’ friend; that is why ‘perception’ is said- What does it perceive? It perceives blue, it perceives yellow, it perceives red, and it perceives white. ‘It perceives, it perceives/ friend; that is why ‘perception’ is said.” 435

  1. “Peeling, perception, and consciousness, friend – are these states conjoined or disjoined? And is it possible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them?”

“Feeling, perception, and consciousness, friend – these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them. For what one feels, that one perceives; and what one perceives, that one cognizes. That is why these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them.” 436

(KNOWABLE BY MIND ALONE)

  1. “Friend, what can be known by purified mind-consciousness released from the five faculties?”

“Friend, by purified mind-consciousness released from the five faculties the base of infinite space can be known thus; ‘Space is infinite’; the base of infinite consciousness can be known thus; ‘Consciousness is infinite’; and the base of nothingness can be known thus; ‘There is nothing.'” 437

  1. “Friend, with what does one understand a state that can be known?”

“Friend, one understands a state that can be known with the eye of wisdom.” 438

  1. “Friend, what is the purpose of wisdom?”

“The purpose of wisdom, friend, is direct knowledge, its purpose is full understanding, its purpose is abandoning.” 439

£294

(right view)

[294] 13. “Friend, how many conditions are there for the arising of right view?”

“Friend, there are two conditions for the arising of right view-the voice of another and wise attention. These are the two conditions for the arising of right view.” 440

  1. “Friend, by how many factors is right view assisted when it has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit, when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit?”

“Friend, right view is assisted by five factors when it has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit, when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit. Here, friend, right view is assisted by virtue, learning, discussion, serenity, and insight. Right view assisted by these five factors has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit; it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit .” 441

(being)

  1. “Friend, how many kinds of being are there?”

“There are these three kinds of being, friend: sense-sphere being, fine-material being, and immaterial being.”

  1. “Friend, how is renewal of being in the future generated?” “Friend, renewal of being in the future is generated through

the delighting in this and that on the part of beings who are hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving.” 442

  1. “Friend, how is renewal of being in the future not generated?” “Friend, with the fading away of ignorance, with the arising of

true knowledge, and with the cessation of craving, renewal of being in the future is not generated.”

(the first jhana)

  1. “Friend, what is the first jhana?”

“Here, friend, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained

The Greater Series of Questions and Answers 391

; ought- with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. This is Pled the first jhana.”

19 . “Friend, how many factors does the first jhana have?”

| “priend, the first jhana has five factors. Here, when a bhikkhu k aS entered upon the first jhana, there occur applied thought, sustained thought, rapture, pleasure, and unification of mind, fhat is how the first jhana has five factors.”

  1. “Friend, how many factors are abandoned in the first jhana and how many factors are possessed?”

“Friend, in the first jhana five factors are abandoned and five factors are possessed. Here, when a bhikkhu has entered upon the first jhana, sensual desire is abandoned, ill will is abandoned, sloth and torpor are abandoned, restlessness and remorse [295] are abandoned, and doubt is abandoned; and there occur applied thought, sustained thought, rapture, pleasure, and unification of mind. That is how in the first jhana five factors are abandoned and five factors are possessed.”

(the five faculties)

  1. “Friend, these five faculties each have a separate field, a separate domain, and do not experience each other’s field and domain, that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty. Now of these five faculties, each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experiencing each other’s field and domain, what is their resort, what experiences their fields and domains?” 443

“Friend, these five faculties each have a separate field, a separate domain, and do not experience each other’s field and domain, that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty. Now these five faculties, each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experiencing each other’s field and domain, have mind as their resort, and mind experiences their fields and domains.”

  1. “Friend, as to these five faculties – that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty – what do these five faculties stand in dependence on?”

“Friend, as to these five faculties – that is, the eye faculty, the e ar faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty – these five faculties stand in dependence on vitality.” 444

“Friend, what does vitality stand in dependence on?”

i296

“Friend, as to these five faculties – that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty – these five faculties stand in dependence on vitality.

“Friend, what does vitality stand in dependence on?”

“Vitality stands in dependence on heat.” 445

“Friend, what does heat stand in dependence on?”

“Heat stands in dependence on vitality.”

“Just now, friend, we understood the venerable Sariputta to have said: ‘Vitality stands in dependence on heat’; and now we understand him to say: ‘Heat stands in dependence on vitality.’ How should the meaning of these statements be regarded?”

“In that case, friend, I shall give you a simile, for some wise men here understand the meaning of a statement by means of a simile. Just as when an oil-lamp is burning, its radiance is seen in dependence on its flame and its flame is seen in dependence on its radiance; so too, vitality stands in dependence on heat and heat stands in dependence on vitality.”

(vital formations)

  1. “Friend, are vital formations states of feeling or are vital formations one thing and states of feeling another?” [296]

“Vital formations, friend, are not states of feeling. 446 If vital formations were states of feeling, then when a bhikkhu has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, he would not be seen to emerge from it. Because vital formations are one thing and states of feeling another, when a bhikkhu has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, he can be seen to emerge from it.”

  1. “Friend, when this body is bereft of how many states is it then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log?” 447

“Friend, when this body is bereft of three states – vitality, heat, and consciousness – it is then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log.”

  1. “Friend, what is the difference between one who is dead, who has completed his time, and a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling?”

“Friend, in the case of one who is dead, who has completed his time, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations

have ceased and subsided, his vitality is exhausted, his heat has keen dissipated, and his faculties are fully broken up. In the case 0 f a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception a nd feeling, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations have ceased and subsided, but his vitality is not exhausted, his heat has not been dissipated, and his faculties become exceptionally clear. 448 This is the difference between one who is dead, who has completed his time, and a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling.”

(DELIVERANCE OF MIND)

  1. “Friend, how many conditions are there for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind?”

“Friend, there are four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind: here, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. These are the four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind.”

  1. “Friend, how many conditions are there for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind?”

“Friend, there are two conditions for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind: non-attention to all signs and attention to the signless element. These are the two conditions for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind.” 449

  1. “Friend, how many conditions are there for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind?”

“Friend, there are three conditions for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind; [297] non-attention to all signs, attention to the signless element, and the prior determination [of its duration]. These are the three conditions for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind.”

  1. “Friend, how many conditions are there for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind?”

“Friend, there are two conditions for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind: attention to all signs and non-attention

 

i 298

to the signless element. These are the two conditions for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind.”

  1. “Friend, the immeasurable deliverance of mind, the deliverance of mind through nothingness, the deliverance of mind through voidness, and the signless deliverance of mind: are these states different in meaning and different in name, or are they one in meaning and different only in name?”

“Friend, the immeasurable deliverance of mind, the deliverance of mind through nothingness, the deliverance of mind through voidness, and the signless deliverance of mind: there is a way in which these states are different in meaning and different in name, and there is a way in which they are one in meaning and different only in name.

  1. “What, friend, is the way in which these states are different in meaning and different in name? Here a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion…He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with appreciative joy.. .He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. This is called the immeasurable deliverance of mind.
  2. “And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind through nothingness? Here, with the complete surmounting of the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This is called the deliverance of mind through nothingness.
  3. “And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind through voidness? Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, reflects thus: ‘This is void of a self or of what belongs to a self.’ [298] This is called the deliverance of mind through voidness. 450

 

The Greater Series of Questions and Answers 395

  1. “And what, friend, is the signless deliverance of mind? Jlere, with non-attention to all signs, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the signless concentration of mind. This is called the

signless deliverance of mind. 451 This is the way in which these states are different in meaning and different in name.

  1. “And what, friend, is the way in which these states are one in meaning and different only in name? Lust is a maker of measurement, hate is a maker of measurement, delusion is a maker of measurement. 452 In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of immeasurable deliverance of mind, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion. 453
  2. “Lust is a something, hate is a something, delusion is a something. 454 In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of deliverance of mind through nothingness, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. 455 Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion.
  3. “Lust is a maker of signs, hate is a maker of signs, delusion is a maker of signs. 456 In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of signless deliverance of mind, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. 457 Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion. This is the way in which these states are one in meaning and different only in name.” 458

That is what the venerable Sariputta said. The venerable Maha Kotthita was satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sariputta’s words.

 

 

44 Culavedalla Sutta The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers

 

[299] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary. Then the lay follower Visakha went to the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna, 459 and after paying homage to her, he sat down at one side and asked her:

(personality)

  1. “Lady, ‘personality, personality’ is said. What is called personality by the Blessed One?”

“Friend Visakha, these five aggregates affected by clinging are called personality by the Blessed One; that is, the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling aggregate affected by clinging, the perception aggregate affected by clinging, the formations aggregate affected by clinging, and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. These five aggregates affected by clinging are called personality by the Blessed One.” 460

Saying, “Good, lady,” the lay follower Visakha delighted and rejoiced in the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna’s words. Then he asked her a further question: ■

  1. “Lady, ‘origin of personality, origin of personality’ is said. What is called the origin of personality by the Blessed One?”

“Friend Visakha, it is craving, which brings renewal of being, is accompanied by delight and lust, and delights in this and that; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for being, and craving for non-being. This is called the origin of personality by the Blessed One.”

The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 397

4 “Lady, ‘cessation of personality, cessation of personality’ F.’ g sa id. What is called the cessation of personality by the Blessed One?

“Friend Visakha, it is the remainderless fading away and ceasing/ the giving U P/ relinquishing, letting go, and rejecting of that same craving. This is called the cessation of personality by the Blessed One.”

  1. “Lady, ‘the way leading to the cessation of personality, the way leading to the cessation of personality’ is said. What is called the way leading to the cessation of personality by the Blessed One?”

“Friend Visakha, it is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.”

  1. “Lady, is that clinging the same as these five aggregates affected by clinging, or is the clinging something apart from the five aggregates affected by clinging?”

“Friend Visakha, that clinging is neither the same as these five aggregates affected by clinging [300] nor is clinging something apart from the five aggregates affected by clinging. It is the desire and lust in regard to the five aggregates affected by clinging that is the clinging there.” 461

(personality view)

  1. “Lady, how does personality view come to be?”

“Here, friend Visakha, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form as self, or self as possessed of material form, or material form as in self, or self as in material form. He regards feeling as self, or self as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling. He regards perception as self, or self as possessed of perception, or perception as in self, or self as in perception. He regards formations as self, or self as possessed of formations, or formations as in self, or self as in formations. He regards consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in

i30i

I self, or self as in consciousness. That is how personality view

I comes to be.” 462

1 8. “Lady, how does personality view not come to be?”

1 “Here, friend Visakha, a well-taught noble disciple, who has

regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, does not regard material form as self, or self as possessed of material form, or material form as in self, or self as in material form. He does not regard feeling as self, or self as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling. He does not regard perception as self, or self as possessed of perception, or perception as in self, or self as in perception. He does not regard formations as self, or self as possessed of formations, or formations as in self, or self as in formations. He does not regard consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That is how personality view does not come to be.”

(the noble eightfold path)

  1. “Lady, what is the Noble Eightfold Path?”

“Friend Visakha, it is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.”

  1. “Lady, is the Noble Eightfold Path conditioned or unconditioned?” ,

“Friend Visakha, the Noble Eightfold Path is [301] conditioned.”

  1. “Lady, are the three aggregates included by the Noble Eightfold Path, or is the Noble Eightfold Path included by the three aggregates?” 463

“The three aggregates are not included by the Noble Eightfold Path, friend Visakha, but the Noble Eightfold Path is included by the three aggregates. Right speech, right action, and right livelihood – these states are included in the aggregate of virtue. Right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration – these states are included in the aggregate of concentration. Right view and right intention – these states are included in the aggregate of wisdom.”

The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 399

Concentration)

12 . “Lady, what is concentration? What is the basis of concentration? What is the equipment of concentration? What is the development of concentration?”

“Unification of mind, friend Visakha, is concentration; the four foundations of mindfulness are the basis of concentration; the four right kinds of striving are the equipment of concentration; the repetition, development, and cultivation of these same states is the development of concentration therein.” 464

(formations)

  1. “Lady, how many formations are there?”

“There are these three formations, friend Visakha: the bodily formation, the verbal formation, and the mental formation.”

  1. “But, lady, what is the bodily formation? What is the verbal formation? What is the mental formation?”

“In-breathing and out-breathing, friend Visakha, are the bodily formation; applied thought and sustained thought are the verbal formation; perception and feeling are the mental formation.” 465

  1. “But, lady, why are in-breathing and out-breathing the bodily formation? Why are applied thought and sustained thought the verbal formation? Why are perception and feeling the mental formation?”

“Friend Visakha, in-breathing and out-breathing are bodily, these are states bound up with the body; that is why in-breathing and out-breathing are the bodily formation. First one applies thought and sustains thought, and subsequently one breaks out into speech; that is why applied thought and sustained thought are the verbal formation. Perception and feeling are mental, these are states bound up with the mind; that is why perception and feeling are the mental formation. ” v>6

(the attainment of cessation)

  1. “Lady, how does the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling come to be?”

“Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of

 

i 302

perception and feeling, it does not occur to him: ‘I shall attain the cessation of perception and feeling,’ or ‘I am attaining the cessation of perception and feeling/ or ‘I have attained the cessation of perception and feeling’; but rather his mind has previously been developed in such a way that it leads him to that state.” 467 [302]

  1. “Lady, when a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of perception and feeling, which states cease first in him: the bodily formation, the verbal formation, or the mental formation?”

“Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu is attaining the cessation of perception and feeling, first the verbal formation ceases, then the bodily formation, then the mental formation.” 468

  1. “Lady, how does emergence from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling come to be?”

“Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu is emerging from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, it does not occur to him: ‘I shall emerge from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling,’ or ‘I am emerging from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling/ or ‘I have emerged from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling’; but rather his mind has previously been developed in such a way that it leads him to that state.” 469

  1. “Lady, when a bhikkhu is emerging from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, which states arise first in him: the bodily formation, the verbal formation, or the mental formation?”

“Friend Visakha, whert a bhikkhu is emerging from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, first the mental formation arises, then the bodily formation, then the verbal formation.” 470

  1. “Lady, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, how many kinds of contact touch him?”

“Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, three kinds of contact touch him: voidness contact, signless contact, desireless contact.” 471

  1. “Lady, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, to what does his mind incline, to what does it lean, to what does it tend?”

The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 401

i303

Friend Visakha, when a bhikkhu has emerged from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling, his mind inclines to seclusion, leans to seclusion, tends to seclusion.” 472

(feeling)

  1. “Lady, how many kinds of feeling are there?”

“Friend Visakha, there are three kinds of feeling: pleasant feeling, painful feeling, and neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.”

  1. “But, lady, what is pleasant feeling? What is painful feeling? What is neither painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Friend Visakha, whatever is felt bodily or mentally as pleasant and soothing is pleasant feeling. Whatever is felt bodily or mentally as painful and hurting is painful feeling. Whatever is felt bodily or mentally as neither soothing nor hurting [303] is neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.”

  1. “Lady, what is pleasant and what is painful in regard to pleasant feeling? What is painful and what is pleasant in regard to painful feeling? What is pleasant and what is painful in regard to neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Friend Visakha, pleasant feeling is pleasant when it persists and painful when it changes. Painful feeling is painful when it persists and pleasant when it changes. Neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling is pleasant when there is knowledge [of it] and painful when there is no knowledge [of it].”

(underlying tendencies)

  1. “Lady, what underlying tendency underlies pleasant feeling? What underlying tendency underlies painful feeling? What underlying tendency underlies neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust underlies pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency to aversion underlies painful feeling. The underlying tendency to ignorance underlies neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. ” 473

  1. “Lady, does the underlying tendency to lust underlie all pleasant feeling? Does the underlying tendency to aversion underlie all painful feeling? Does the underlying tendency to ignorance underlie all neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust does not

 

underlie all pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency to aversion does not underlie all painful feeling. The underlying tendency to ignorance does not underlie all neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.”

  1. “Lady, what should be abandoned in regard to pleasant feeling? What should be abandoned in regard to painful feeling? What should be abandoned in regard to neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust should be abandoned in regard to pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency to aversion should be abandoned in regard to painful feeling. The underlying tendency to ignorance should be abandoned in regard to neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.”

  1. “Lady, does the underlying tendency to lust have to be abandoned in regard to all pleasant feeling? Does the underlying tendency to aversion have to be abandoned in regard to all painful feeling? Does the underlying tendency to ignorance have to be abandoned in regard to all neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Friend Visakha, the underlying tendency to lust does not have to be abandoned in regard to all pleasant feeling. The underlying tendency to aversion does not have to be abandoned in regard to all painful feeling. The underlying tendency to ignorance does not have to be abandoned in regard to all neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.

“Here, friend Visakha, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion. With that he abandons lust, and the underlying tendency to lust does not underlie that. 474

“Here a bhikkhu considers thus: ‘When shall I enter upon and abide in that base that the noble ones now enter upon and abide in?’ In one who thus generates a longing for the supreme liberations, [304] grief arises with that longing as condition. With that he abandons aversion, and the underlying tendency to aversion does not underlie that. 475

“Here, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. With

The Shorter Series of Questions and Answers 403

that he abandons ignorance, and the underlying tendency to ignorance does not underlie that.” 476

(COUNTERPARTS)

  1. “Lady, what is the counterpart of pleasant feeling?” 477 “Friend Visakha, painful feeling is the counterpart of pleasant

feeling.”

“What is the counterpart of painful feeling?”

“Pleasant feeling is the counterpart of painful feeling.”

“What is the counterpart of neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling?”

“Ignorance is the counterpart of neither-painful-nor pleasant feeling.” 478

“What is the counterpart of ignorance?”

“True knowledge is the counterpart of ignorance.”

“What is the counterpart of true knowledge?”

“Deliverance is the counterpart of true knowledge.”

“What is the counterpart of deliverance?”

“Nibbana is the counterpart of deliverance.”

“Lady, what is the counterpart of Nibbana?”

“Friend Visakha, you have pushed this line of questioning too far; you were not able to grasp the limit to questions. 479 For the holy life, friend Visakha, merges in Nibbana, culminates in Nibbana, ends in Nibbana. If you wish, friend Visakha, go to the Blessed One and ask him about the meaning of this. As the Blessed One explains it to you, so you should remember it.”

(conclusion)

  1. Then the lay follower Visakha, having delighted and rejoiced in the bhikkhunl Dhamma dinna’s words, rose from his seat, and after paying homage to her, keeping her on his right, he went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the Blessed One his entire conversation with the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna. When he finished speaking, the Blessed One told him:
  2. “The bhikkhunl Dhammadinna is wise, Visakha, the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna has great wisdom. If you had asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you [305] in

j

f

!

I

j

|

I

!

I

i

404 Culavedalla Sutta: Sutta 44 i 305

the same way that the bhikkhunl Dhammadinna has explained it. Such is its meaning, and so you should remember it.” 480

That is what the Blessed One said. The lay follower Visakha was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

45 Culadhammasamadana Sutta The Shorter Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, there are four ways of undertaking things. What are the four? There is a way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain. There is a way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain. There is a way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure. There is a way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure.
  3. “What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain? Bhikkhus, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is no harm in sensual pleasures.’ They take to gulping down sensual pleasures and divert themselves with women wanderers who wear their hair bound in a topknot. They say thus: ‘What future fear do these good recluses and brahmins see in sensual pleasures when they speak of abandoning sensual pleasures and describe the full understanding of sensual pleasures? Pleasant is the touch of this woman wanderer’s tender soft downy arm!’ Thus they take to gulping down sensual pleasures, and having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after death, they reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. There they feel painful, racking, piercing feelings. They say thus: ‘This is the future fear those good recluses and brahmins saw in sensual pleasures when they spoke of abandoning sensual pleasures and described the full understanding of sensual pleasures. For it is by reason of sensual pleasures, [306] owing to sensual pleasures.

i308

that we are now feeling painful, racking, piercing feelings.’

  1. “Bhikkhus, suppose that in the last month of the hot season a maluva-creeper pod burst open and a maluva-creeper seed fell at the foot of a sala tree. Then a deity living in that tree became fearful, perturbed, and frightened; but the deity’s friends and companions, kinsmen and relatives – garden deities, park deities tree deities, and deities inhabiting medicinal herbs, grass, and forest-monarch trees – gathered together and reassured that deity thus: ‘Have no fear, sir, have no fear. Perhaps a peacock will swallow the maluva-creeper seed or a wild animal will eat it or a forest fire will bum it or woodsmen will carry it off or white ants will devour it or it may not even be fertile.’ But no peacock swallowed that seed, no wild animal ate it, no forest fire burned it, no woodsmen carried it off, no white ants devoured it, and it was in fact fertile. Then, being moistened by rain from a rainbearing cloud, the seed in due course sprouted and the maluva creeper’s tender soft downy tendril wound itself around that sala tree. Then the deity living in the sala tree thought: ‘What future fear did my friends and companions, kinsmen and relatives…see in that maluva-creeper seed when they gathered together and reassured me as they did? Pleasant is the touch of this maluva creeper’s tender soft downy tendril!’ Then the creeper enfolded the sala tree, made a canopy over it, draped a curtain all around it, and split the main branches of the tree. The deity who lived in the tree then realised: ‘This is the future fear they saw in that maluva-creeper seed. [307] Because of that maluva-creeper seed I am now feeling painful, tacking, piercing feelings.’

“So too, bhikkhus, there are certain recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is no harm in sensual pleasures.’.. .They say thus: ‘This is the future fear those good recluses and brahmins saw in sensual pleasures…that we are now feeling painful, racking, piercing feelings.’ This is called the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain.

  1. “And what, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain? Here, bhikkhus, someone goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked. ..{as Sutta 12/ §45) [308]. ..He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety

The Shorter Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 407

I lf way s he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mor-jjfying the body. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he te appears in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, jj! perdition, even in hell. This is called the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain.

  1. “And what, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, bhikkhus, someone by nature has strong lust, and he constantly experiences pain and grief born of lust; by nature he has strong bate, and he constantly experiences pain and grief born of hate; I by nature he has strong delusion, and he constantly experiences | pain and grief bom of delusion. Yet in pain and grief, weeping : with tearful face, he leads the perfect and pure holy life. On the ; dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. This is called the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the ; future as pleasure.

| 7. “And what, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that

; is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, | bhikkhus, someone by nature does not have strong lust, and he does not constantly experience pain and grief born of lust; by ; nature he does not have strong hate, and he does not constantly experience pain and grief born of hate; by nature he does not | have strong delusion, [309] and he does not constantly experi-| ence pain and grief bom of delusion. Quite secluded from sen-| sual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana…With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second , >jhana.. .With the fading away as well of rapture.. .he enters upon ; and abides in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana…On ; ‘the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy ! destination, even in the heavenly world. This is called the way °f undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the ‘tutu re as pleasure. These, bhikkhus, are the four ways of undertaking things.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied a ud delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

46 Mahadhammasamadana Sutta The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthl in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir/’ they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, for the most part beings have this wish, desire, and longing: ‘If only unwished for, undesired, disagreeable things would diminish and wished for, desired, agreeable things would increase!’ Yet although beings have this wish, desire, and longing, unwished for, undesired, disagreeable things increase for them and wished for, desired, agreeable things diminish. Now, bhikkhus, what do you think is the reason for that?”

“Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, [310] guided by the Blessed One, have the Blessed One as their resort. It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the meaning of these words. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it.”

“Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, does not know what things should be cultivated and what things should not be cultivated, he does not know what things should be followed and what things should not be followed. Not knowing this, he cultivates things that should not be cultivated and does not cultivate things that should be cultivated, he follows things that should not be followed and does not follow things that should be followed-

It is because he does this that unwished for, undesired, disagreeable things increase for him and wished for, desired, agreeable

|j j The Greater Discourse on Ways of Undertaking Things 409

ngs diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who es not see.

B 4 . “The well-taught noble disciple who has regard for noble 0 nes and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has egard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their }hamma, knows what things should be cultivated and what 1 things should not be cultivated, he knows what things should be I-followed and what things should not be followed. Knowing this, fhe cultivates things that should be cultivated and does not culti-rvate things that should not be cultivated, he follows things that l should be followed and does not follow things that should not I he followed. It is because he does this that unwished for, undesired, disagreeable things diminish for him and wished for, desired, agreeable things increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees.

  1. “Bhikkhus, there are four ways of undertaking things. What – toe the four? There is a way of undertaking things that is painful [ now and ripens in the future as pain. There is [311] a way of ; undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as i pain. There is a way of undertaking things that is painful now and j ‘ripens in the future as pleasure. There is a way of undertaking I things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure.

|(the ignorant person)

6 . (1) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing this ray of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the Ifuture as pain, does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘This ray of undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the future as pain.’ Not knowing it, not understanding it as it ctually is, the ignorant one cultivates it and does not avoid it; ecause he does so, unwished for, undesired, disagreeable a gs increase for him and wished for, desired, agreeable things diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who does ” 3 t see.

j* 7 – (2) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing this a y of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the Wure as pain, does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘This Va y of undertaking things is pleasant now and ripens in the 4ture as pain.’ Not knowing it, not understanding it as it actually

i 312

is, the ignorant one cultivates it and does not avoid it; because he does so, unwished for…things increase for him and wished for…things diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who does not see.

  1. (3) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing this way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure, does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘This way of undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure.’ Not knowing it, not understanding it as it actually is, the ignorant one does not cultivate it but avoids it; because he does so, unwished for…things increase for him and wished for.. .things diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who does not see.
  2. (4) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is ignorant, not knowing the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure, does not understand it as it actually is thus: ‘This way of undertaking things is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure.’ Not knowing it, not understanding it as it actually is, the ignorant one does not cultivate it but avoids it; because he does so, [312] unwished for…things increase for him and wished for…things diminish. Why is that? That is what happens to one who does not see.

(the wise person)

  1. (1) “Now, bhikkhus, £>ne who is wise, knowing this way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain, understands it as it actually is thus: ‘This way of undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the future as pain.’ Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise one does not cultivate it but avoids it; because he does so, unwished for, undesired, disagreeable things diminish for him and wished for, desired, agreeable things increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees.
  2. (2) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is wise, knowing this way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain, understands it as it actually is thus: ‘This way of undertaking things is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain.’ Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise one does

not cultivate it but avoids it; because he does so, unwished for…things diminish for him and wished for…things increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees.

  1. (3) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is wise, knowing this way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure, understands it as it actually is thus: ‘This way of undertaking things is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure.’ Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise one does not avoid it but cultivates it; because he does so, unwished for things…diminish for him and wished for…things increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees.
  2. (4) “Now, bhikkhus, one who is wise, knowing this way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure, understands it as it actually is thus: ‘This way of undertaking things is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure.’ Knowing it, understanding it as it actually is, the wise one does not avoid it but cultivates it; because he does so, unwished for…things diminish for him and wished for…things increase. Why is that? That is what happens to one who sees. [313]

(the four ways)

  1. (1) “What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain? Here, bhikkhus, someone in pain and grief kills living beings, and he experiences pain and grief that have killing of living beings as condition. In pain and grief he takes what is not given…misconducts himself in sensual pleasures…speaks falsehood…speaks maliciously… speaks harshly…gossips…is covetous…has a mind of ill will…holds wrong view, and he experiences pain and grief that have wrong view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. This is called the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain.
  2. (2) “What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain? Here, bhikkhus, someone in pleasure and joy kills living beings, and he

\

412 MaMdhammasamadana Sutta: Sutta 46

experiences pleasure and joy that have killing of living beings as condition. In pleasure and joy he takes what is not given… [314]…holds wrong view, and he experiences pleasure and joy that have wrong view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. This is called the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain.

  1. (3) “What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, bhikkhus, someone in pain and grief abstains from killing living beings, and he experiences pain and grief that have abstention from killing living beings as condition. In pain and grief he abstains from taking what is not given…from misconduct in sensual pleasures…from speaking falsehood…from speaking maliciously.. .from speaking harshly.. .from gossiping.. .he is not covetous…he does not have a mind of ill will…[315]…he holds right view, and he experiences pain and grief that have right view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. This is called the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure.
  2. (4) “What, bhikkhus, is the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure? Here, bhikkhus, someone in pleasure and joy abstains from killing living beings, and he experiences pleasure and joy that have abstention from killing hVing beings as condition. In pleasure and joy he abstains from taking what is not given…he holds right view, and he experiences pleasure and joy that have right view as condition. On the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. This is called the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure.

(the similes)

  1. (1) “Bhikkhus, suppose there were a bitter gourd mixed with poison, and a man came who wanted to live, not to die, who wanted pleasure and recoiled from pain, and they told him: ‘Good man, this bitter gourd is mixed with poison. Drink from it

if you want; [316] as you drink from it, its colour, smell, and taste will not agree with you, and after drinking from it, you will come to death or deadly suffering/ Then he drank from it without reflecting and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its colour, smell, and taste did not agree with him, and after drinking from it, he came to death or deadly suffering. Similar to that, I say, is the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pain.

  1. (2) “Suppose there were a bronze cup of beverage possessing a good colour, smell, and taste, but it was mixed with poison, and a man came who wanted to live, not to die, who wanted pleasure and recoiled from pain, and they told him: ‘Good man, this bronze cup of beverage possesses a good colour, smell, and taste, but it is mixed with poison. Drink from it if you want; as you drink from it, its colour, smell, and taste will agree with you, but after drinking from it, you will come to death or deadly suffering.’ Then he drank from it without reflecting and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its colour, smell, and taste agreed with him, but after drinking from it, he came to death or deadly suffering. Similar to that, I say, is the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pain.
  2. (3) “Suppose there were fermented urine mixed with various medicines, and a man came sick with jaundice, and they told him: ‘Good man, this fermented urine is mixed with various medicines. Drink from it if you want; as you drink from it, its colour, smell, and taste will not agree with you, but after drinking from it, you will be well.’ Then he drank from it after reflecting, and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its colour, taste, and smell did not agree with him, but after drinking from it, he became well. Similar to that, I say, is the way of undertaking things that is painful now and ripens in the future as pleasure.
  3. (4) “Suppose there were curd, honey, ghee, and molasses mixed together, and a man with dysentery came, and they told him: ‘Good man, [317] this is curd, honey, ghee, and molasses mixed together. Drink from it if you want; as you drink from it, its colour, smell, and taste will agree with you, and after drinking from it you will be well.’ Then he drank from it after reflecting, and did not relinquish it. As he drank from it, its colour,

i 317

smell, and taste agreed with him, and after drinking from it, he became well. Similar to that, I say, is the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure.

  1. “Just as, in autumn, in the last month of the rainy season, when the sky is clear and cloudless, the sun rises above the earth dispelling all darkness from space with its shining and beaming and radiance, so too, the way of undertaking things that is pleasant now and ripens in the future as pleasure dispels with its shining and beaming and radiance any other doctrines whatsoever of ordinary recluses and brahmins.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

47 Vimamsaka Sutta The Inquirer

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an inquirer, not knowing how to gauge another’s mind, 482 should make an investigation of the Tathagata in order to find out whether or not he is fully enlightened.”
  3. “Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, guided by the Blessed One, have the Blessed One as their resort. It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the meaning of these words. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it.”

I “Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely to [318] what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is an inquirer, not knowing how to gauge another’s mind, should investigate the Tathagata with respect to two kinds of states, states cognizable through the eye and through the ear thus: ‘Are there found in the Tathagata or not any defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?’ 483 When he investigates him, he comes to know: ‘No defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.’
  2. “When he comes to know this, he investigates him further thus: ‘Are there found in the Tathagata or not any mixed states

,, cognizable through the eye or through the ear?’ 484 When he

II investigates him, he comes to know: ‘No mixed states cognizable

H through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.’

i

 

 

i3l9

  1. “When he comes to know this, he investigates him further thus: ‘Are there found in the Tathagata or not cleansed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?’ When he investigates him, he comes to know: ‘Cleansed states cognizable through the eye or through Hie ear are found in the Tathagata.’
  2. “When he comes to know this, he investigates him further thus: ‘Has this venerable one attained this wholesome state over a long time or did he attain it recently?’ When he investigates him, he comes to know: ‘This venerable one has attained this wholesome state over a long time; he did not attain it only recently.’
  3. “When he comes to know this, he investigates him further thus: ‘Has this venerable one acquired renown and attained fame, so that the dangers [connected with renown and fame] are found in him?’ For, bhikkhus, as long as a bhikkhu has not acquired renown and attained fame, the dangers [connected with renown and fame] are not found in him; but when he has acquired renown and attained fame, those dangers are found in him. 485 When he investigates him, he comes to know: ‘This venerable one has acquired renown and attained fame, but the dangers [connected with renown and fame] are not found in him.’
  4. “When he comes to know this, [319] he investigates him further thus: ‘Is this venerable one restrained without fear, not restrained by fear, and does he avoid indulging in sensual pleasures because he is without lust through the destruction of lust?’ When he investigates him, he comes to know: ‘This venerable one is restrained without fear, not restrained by fear, and he avoids indulging in sensual pleasure because he is without lust through the destruction of lust.’
  5. “Now, bhikkhus, if others should ask that bhikkhu thus: ‘What are the venerable one’s reasons and what is his evidence whereby he says: “That venerable one is restrained without fear, not restrained by fear, and he avoids indulging in sensual pleasures because he is without lust through the destruction of lust”?’ – answering rightly, that bhikkhu would answer thus: ‘Whether that venerable one dwells in the Sangha or alone, while some there are well-behaved and some are ill-behaved and some there teach a group, 486 while some here are seen concerned about material things and some are unsullied by material things, still that venerable one does not despise anyone because

0 f that. 487 And I have heard and learned this from the Blessed One’s own lips: “I am restrained without fear, not restrained by fear, and I avoid indulging in sensual pleasures because I am without lust through the destruction of lust.'”

  1. “The Tathagata, bhikkhus, should be questioned further about that thus: ‘Are there found in the Tathagata or not any defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?’ The Tathagata would answer thus: ‘No defiled states cognizable through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.’
  2. “If asked, ‘Are there found in the Tathagata or not any mixed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?’ the Tathagata would answer thus: ‘No mixed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata.’
  3. “If asked, ‘Are there found in the Tathagata or not cleansed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear?’ the Tathagata would answer thus: ‘Cleansed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear are found in the Tathagata. They are my pathway and my domain, yet I do not identify with them.’ 488
  4. “Bhikkhus, a disciple should approach the Teacher who speaks thus in order to hear the Dhamma. The Teacher teaches him the Dhamma with its higher and higher levels, with its more and more sublime levels, with its dark and bright counterparts. As the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu in this way, through direct knowledge of a certain teaching here in that Dhamma, [320] the bhikkhu comes to a conclusion about the teachings. 489 He places confidence in the Teacher thus: ‘The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.’
  5. “Now if others should ask that bhikkhu thus: ‘What are the venerable one’s reasons and what is his evidence whereby he says, “The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way”?’ – answering rightly, that bhikkhu would answer thus: ‘Here, friends, I approached the Blessed One in order to hear the Dhamma. The Blessed One taught me the Dhamma with its higher and higher levels, with its more and more sublime levels, with its dark and bright counterparts. As the Blessed One taught the Dhamma to me in this way, through direct knowledge of a certain teaching here in that Dhamma, I came to

 

-■:!

Vtmamsaka Sutta: Sutta 47

1

■■! 1 Hit

a conclusion about the teachings. I placed confidence in the Teacher thus: “The Blessed One is fully enlightened, the Dhamma is well proclaimed by the Blessed One, the Sangha is practising the good way.'”

  1. “Bhikkhus, when anyone’s faith has been planted, rooted, and established in the Tathagata through these reasons, terms, and phrases, his faith is said to be supported by reasons, rooted in vision, firm; 490 it is invincible by any recluse or brahmin or god or Mara or Brahma or by anyone in the world. That is how, bhikkhus, there is an investigation of the Tathagata in accordance with the Dhamma, and that is how the Tathagata is well investigated in accordance with the Dhamma.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

I if nr

 

 

 

48 Kosambiya Sutta The Kosambians

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at KosambI in Ghosita’s Park.
  2. Now on that occasion the bhikkhus at KosambI had taken to quarrelling and brawling and were deep in disputes, stabbing each other with verbal daggers. They could neither convince each other nor be convinced by others; they could neither persuade each other nor be persuaded by others. 491
  3. Then [321] a certain bhikkhu went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and informed him of what was happening.
  4. Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: “Come, bhikkhu, tell those bhikkhus in my name that the Teacher calls them.” – “Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and he went to those bhikkhus and told them: “The Teacher calls the venerable ones.”

“Yes, friend,” they replied, and they went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down at one side. The Blessed One then asked them: “Bhikkhus, is it true that you have taken to quarrelling and brawling and are deep in disputes, stabbing each other with verbal daggers; that you can neither convince each other nor be convinced by others, that you can neither persuade each other nor be persuaded by others?”

“Yes, venerable sir.”

  1. “Bhikkhus, what do you think? When you take to quarrelling and brawling and are deep in disputes, stabbing each other with verbal daggers, do you on that occasion maintain acts of loving-kindness by body, speech, and mind in public and in private towards your companions in the holy life?”

“No, venerable sir.”

1322

“So, bhikkhus, when you take to quarrelling and brawling and are deep in disputes, stabbing each other with verbal daggers, on that occasion you do not maintain acts of loving-kindness by body, speech, and mind in public and in private towards your companions in the holy life. Misguided men, what can you possibly know, what can you see, that you take to quarrelling and brawling and are deep in disputes, [322] stabbing each other with verbal daggers? That you can neither convince each other nor be convinced by others, that you can neither persuade each other nor be persuaded by others? Misguided men, that will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time,”

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, there are these six memorable qualities that create love and respect and conduce to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity. What are the six?

“Here a bhikkhu maintains bodily acts of loving-kindness both in public and in private towards his companions in the holy life. This is a memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity.

“Again, a bhikkhu maintains verbal acts of loving-kindness both in public and in private towards his companions in the holy life. This is a memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces to…unity.

“Again, a bhikkhu maintains mental acts of loving-kindness both in public and in private towards his companions in the holy life. This is a memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces to., .unity.

“Again, a bhikkhu uses things in common with his virtuous companions in the holy life; without making reservations, he shares with them any gain of a kind that accords with the Dhamma and has been obtained in a way that accords with the Dhamma, including even the contents of his bowl. This is a memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces to…unity.

“Again, a bhikkhu dwells both in public and in private possessing in common with his companions in the holy life those virtues that are unbroken, untorn, unblotched, unmottled, liberating, commended by the wise, not misapprehended, and

The Kosambians 421

conducive to concentration. This too is a memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces to.. .unity.

“Again, a bhikkhu dwells both in public and in private possessing in common with his companions in the holy life that view that is noble and emancipating, and leads one who practises in accordance with it to the complete destruction of suffering. 492 This too is a memorable quality that creates love and respect, and conduces to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity.

“These are the six memorable qualities that create love and respect, and conduce to helpfulness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity.

  1. “Of these memorable qualities, the highest, the most comprehensive, the most conclusive is this view that is noble and emancipating, and leads the one who practises in accordance with it to the complete destruction of suffering. Just as the highest, the most comprehensive, the most conclusive part of a pinnacled building is the pinnacle itself, so too, [323] of these six memorable qualities, the highest…is this view that is noble and emancipating…
  2. “And how does this view that is noble and emancipating lead the one who practises in accordance with it to the complete destruction of suffering?

“Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, considers thus: ‘Is there any obsession unabandoned in myself that might so obsess my mind that I cannot know or see things as they actually are?’ If a bhikkhu is obsessed by sensual lust, then his mind is obsessed. If he is obsessed by ill will, then his mind is obsessed. If he is obsessed by sloth and torpor, then his mind is obsessed. If he is obsessed by restlessness and remorse, then his mind is obsessed. If he is obsessed by doubt, then his mind is obsessed. If a bhikkhu is absorbed in speculation about this world, then his mind is obsessed. If a bhikkhu is absorbed in speculation about the other world, then his mind is obsessed. If a bhikkhu takes to quarrelling and brawling and is deep in disputes, stabbing others with verbal daggers, then his mind is obsessed.

“He understands thus: ‘There is no obsession unabandoned in myself that might so obsess my mind that I cannot know and see

1324

things as they actually are. My mind is well disposed for awakening to the truths.’ 493 This is the first knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people.

  1. “Again, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘When I pursue, develop, and cultivate this view, do I obtain internal serenity, do I personally obtain stillness?’

“He understands thus: ‘When I pursue, develop, and cultivate this view, I obtain internal serenity, I personally obtain stillness.’ This is the second knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people.

  1. “Again, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Is there any other recluse or brahmin outside [the Buddha’s Dispensation] possessed of a view such as I possess?’

“He understands thus: ‘There is no other recluse or brahmin outside [the Buddha’s Dispensation] possessed of a view [324] such as I possess.’ This is the third knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people.

  1. “Again, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Do I possess the character 494 of a person who possesses right view?’ What is the character of a person who possesses right view? This is the character of a person who possesses right view: although he may commit some kind of offence for which a means of rehabilitation has been laid down, 495 still he at once confesses, reveals, and discloses it to the Teacher or to wise companions in the holy life, and having done that, he enters upon restraint for the future. Just as ( a young, tender infant lying prone at once draws back when he puts his hand or his foot on a live coal, so too, that is the character of a person who possesses right view.

“He understands thus: ‘I possess the character of a person who possesses right view.’ This is the fourth knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people.

  1. “Again, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Do I possess the character of a person who possesses right view?’ What is the character of a person who possesses right view? This is the character of a person who possesses right view: although he may be active in various matters for his companions in the holy life, yet he has a keen regard for training in the higher virtue, training in the higher mind, and training in the higher wisdom. Just as a

The Kosambians 423

c0 w with a new calf, while she grazes watches her calf, so too, (fiat is the character of a person who possesses right view.

“He understands thus: ‘I possess the character of a person who possesses right view/ This is the fifth knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people. [325]

  1. “Again, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Do I possess the strength 496 of a person who possesses right view?’ What is the strength of a person who possesses right view? This is the strength of a person who possesses right view: when the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata is being taught, he heeds it, gives it attention, engages it with all his mind, hears the Dhamma as with eager ears.

“He understands thus: ‘I possess the strength of a person who possesses right view.’ This is the sixth knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people.

  1. “Again, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Do I possess the strength of a person who possesses right view?’ What is the strength of a person who possesses right view? This is the strength of a person who possesses right view: when the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata is being taught, he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. 497

“He understands thus: ‘I possess the strength of a person who possesses right view.’ This is the seventh knowledge attained by him that is noble, supramundane, not shared by ordinary people.

  1. “When a noble disciple is thus possessed of seven factors, he has well sought the character for realisation of the fruit of stream-entry. When a noble disciple is thus possessed of seven factors, he possesses the fruit of stream-entry.” 498

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

49 Brahmanimantanika Sutta The Invitation of a Brahma

 

[326] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” -“Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, on one occasion I was living at Ukkattha in the Subhaga Grove at the root of a royal sala tree. 499 Now on that occasion a pernicious view had arisen in Baka the Brahma thus: ‘This is permanent, this is everlasting, this is eternal, this is total, this is not subject to pass away; for this neither is born nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears, and beyond this there is no escape.’ 500
  2. “I knew with my mind the thought in the mind of Baka the Brahma, so just as quickly as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, I vanished from the root of the royal sala tree in the Subhaga Grove at Ukkattha and appeared in that Brahma-world. Baka the Brahma saw me coming in the distance and said: ‘Come, good sir! Welcome, good sir! It is long, good sir, since you found an opportunity to come here. Now, good sir, this is permanent, this is everlasting, this is eternal, this is total, this is not subject to pass away; for this neither is born nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears, and beyond this there is no escape.’
  3. “When this was said, I told Baka the Brahma: ‘The worthy Baka the Brahma has lapsed into ignorance; he has lapsed into ignorance in that he says of the impermanent that it is permanent, of the transient that it is everlasting, of the non-eternal that it is eternal, of the incomplete that it is total, of what is subject to pass away that it is not subject to pass away, of what is born, ages, dies, passes away, and reappears, that it neither is born nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears; and when

f-327

The Invitation of a Brahma 425

(here is an escape beyond this, he says that there is no escape beyond this.’

5 . “Then Mara the Evil One took possession of a member of (he Brahma’s Assembly , 501 and he told me: ‘Bhikkhu, bhikkhu, do not disbelieve him, do not disbelieve him; for this Brahma is the Great Brahma, [327] the Overlord, the Untranscended, of Infallible Vision, Wielder of Mastery, Lord Maker and Creator, Most High Providence, Master and Father of those that are and ever can be. Before your time, bhikkhu, there were recluses and brahmins in the world who condemned earth through disgust with earth , 502 who condemned water through disgust with water, who condemned fire through disgust with fire, who condemned air through disgust with air, who condemned beings through disgust with beings, who condemned gods through disgust with gods, who condemned Pajapati through disgust with Pajapati, who condemned Brahma through disgust with Brahma; and on the dissolution of the body, when their life was cut off, they became established in an inferior body . 503 Before your time, bhikkhu, there were also recluses and brahmins in the world who lauded earth through delight in earth , 504 who lauded water through delight in water, who lauded fire through delight in fire, who lauded air through delight in air, who lauded beings through delight in beings, who lauded gods through delight in gods, who lauded Pajapati through delight in Pajapati, who lauded Brahma through delight in Brahma; and on the dissolution of the body, when their life was cut off, they became established in a superior body . 505 So, bhikkhu, I tell you this: Be sure, good sir, to do only as the Brahma says; never overstep the word of the Brahma. If you overstep the word of the Brahma, bhikkhu, then, like a man trying to deflect an approaching beam of light with a stick, or like a man losing his hold on the earth with his hands and feet as he slips into a deep chasm, so it will befall you, bhikkhu. Be sure, good sir, to do only as the Brahma says; never overstep the word of the Brahma. Do you not see the Brahma’s Assembly seated here, bhikkhu?’ And Mara the Evil One thus called to witness the Brahma’s Assembly . 506

6 . “When this was said, I told Mara the Evil One: ‘I know you. Evil One. Do not think: “He does not know me.” You are Mara, Evil One, and the Brahma and the Brahma’s Assembly and the

i 328

members of the Brahma’s Assembly have all fallen into your hands, they have all fallen into your power. You, Evil One, think: “This one too has fallen into my hands, he too has fallen into my power”; but I have not fallen into your hands. Evil One, I have not fallen into your power.’

  1. “When this was said, Baka the Brahma told me: ‘Good sir, I say of the permanent that it is permanent, [328] of the everlasting that it is everlasting, of the eternal that it is eternal, of the total that it is total, of what is not subject to pass away that it is not subject to pass away, of what neither is born nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears that it neither is born nor ages nor dies nor passes away nor reappears; and when there is no escape beyond this, I say that there is no escape beyond this. Before your time, bhikkhu, there were recluses and brahmins in the world whose asceticism lasted as long as your whole life. They knew, when there is an escape beyond, that there is an escape beyond, and when there is no escape beyond, that there is no escape beyond. So, bhikkhu, I tell you this: You will find no escape beyond, and eventually you will reap only weariness and disappointment. If you will hold to earth, you will be close to me, within my domain, for me to work my will upon and punish. 507 If you hold to water…to fire…to air…to beings…to gods…to Pajapati…to Brahma, you will be close to me, within my domain, for me to work my will upon and punish/
  2. “‘I know that too, Brahma. If I will hold to earth, I shall be close to you, within your domain, for you to work your will upon and punish. If I will hold to water…to fire…to air…to beings…to gods…to Pajapati…to Brahma, I shall be close to you, within your domain, for you to work your will upon and punish. Further, I understand your reach and your sway to extend thus: Baka the Brahma has this much power, this much might, this much influence.’

‘”Now, good sir, how far do you understand my reach and my sway to extend?’

  1. ‘”As far as moon and sun revolve Shining and lighting up the quarters.

Over a thousandfold such world Does your sovereignty extend.

The Invitation of a Brahma 427

And there you know the high and low,

And those with lust and free from lust.

The state that is thus and otherwise.

The coming and going of beings.

Brahma, I understand your reach and your sway to extend thus: Baka the Brahma has this much power, this much might, [329] this much influence. 308

  1. “‘But, Brahma, there are three other bodies, which you neither know nor see, and which I know and see. There is the body called [the gods of] Streaming Radiance, from which you passed away and reappeared here. 509 Because you have dwelt here long, your memory of that has lapsed, and hence you do not know or see it, but I know and see it. Thus, Brahma, in regard to direct knowledge I do not stand merely at the same level as you, how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you. 510

“‘There is the body called [the gods of] Refulgent Glory… There is the body called [the gods of] Great Fruit. You do not know or see that, but I know and see it. Thus, Brahma, in regard to direct knowledge I do not stand merely at the same level as you, how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you.

  1. “‘Brahma, having directly known earth as earth, and having directly known that which is not commensurate with the earth-ness of earth, I did not claim to be earth, I did not claim to be in earth, I did not claim to be apart from earth, I did not claim earth to be “mine,” I did not affirm earth. 511 Thus, Brahma, in regard to direct knowledge I do not stand merely at the same level as you, how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you.

12-23. “‘Brahma, having directly known water as water…fire as fire…air as air…beings as beings…gods as gods…Pajapati as Pajapati…Brahma as Brahma…the gods of Streaming Radiance as the gods of Streaming Radiance…the gods of Refulgent Glory as the gods of Refulgent Glory…the gods of Great Fruit as the gods of Great Fruit…the Overlord as the Overlord…all as all, and having directly known that which is not commensurate with the allness of all, I did not claim to be all, I did not claim to be in all, I did not claim to be apart from all, I did not claim all to be “mine,” I did not affirm all. Thus, Brahma, in regard to direct knowledge, Ido not stand merely at the same level as yoxi, how then could I know less? Rather, I know more than you.’

i 330

  1. “‘Good sir, [if you claim to directly know] that which is not commensurate with the allness of all, may your claim not turn out to be vain and empty!’ 512
  2. “‘The consciousness that makes no showing,

Nor has to do with finiteness.

Not claiming being with respect to all: 513

that is not commensurate with the earthness of earth, that is not commensurate with the watemess of water…[330]…that is not commensurate with the allness of all.’

  1. “‘Good sir, I shall vanish from you.’

“‘Vanish from me if you can, Brahma.’

“Then Baka the Brahma, saying: ‘I shall vanish from the recluse Gotama, I shall vanish from the recluse Gotama/ was unable to vanish. Thereupon I said: ‘Brahma, I shall vanish from you.’

“‘Vanish from me if you can, good sir.’

“Then I performed such a feat of supernormal power that the Brahma and the Brahma’s Assembly and the members of the Brahma’s Assembly could hear my voice but could not see me. After 1 had vanished, I uttered this stanza:

  1. “‘Having seen fear in every mode of being

And in being seeking for non-being,

I did not affirm any mode of being,

Nor did I cling to any delight [in being].’ 514 *

  1. “At that the Brahma and the Brahma’s Assembly and the members of the Brahma’s Assembly were struck with wonder and amazement, saying: ‘It is wonderful, sirs, it is marvellous, the great power and great might of the recluse Gotama! We have never before seen or heard of any other recluse or brahmin who had such great power and such great might as has this recluse Gotama, who went forth from a Sakyan clan. Sirs, though living in a generation that delights in being, that takes delight in being, that rejoices in being, he has extirpated being together with its root.’
  2. “Then Mara the Evil One took possession of a member of the Brahma’s Assembly, and he said to me: ‘Good sir, if that is what you know, if that is what you have discovered, do not

The Invitation of a Brahma 429

guide your [lay] disciples or those gone forth, do not teach the Ohamxna to your [lay] disciples or to those gone forth, create no yearning in your [lay] disciples or in those gone forth. Before your time, bhikkhu, there were recluses and brahmins in the world claiming to be accomplished and fully enlightened, and they guided their [lay] disciples and those gone forth; they taught the Dhamma to their [lay] disciples and to those gone forth; they created yearning in their [lay] disciples and in those gone forth; and on the dissolution of the body, when their life was cut off, they became established in an inferior body. Before your time, bhikkhu, there were also recluses and brahmins in the world claiming to be accomplished and fully enlightened, [331] and they did not guide their [lay] disciples or those gone forth; they did not teach the Dhamma to their [lay] disciples or to those gone forth; they created no yearning in their [lay] disciples or in those gone forth; and on the dissolution of the body, when their life was cut off, they became established in a superior body. So, bhikkhu, I tell you this: Be sure, good sir, to abide inactive, devoted to a pleasant abiding here and now; this is better left undeclared, and so, good sir, inform no one else/ 515 30. “When this was said, I told Mara the Evil One: ‘I know you. Evil One. Do not think: “He does not know me.” You are Mara, Evil One. It is not out of compassion for their welfare that you speak thus, it is without compassion for their welfare that you speak thus. You think thus. Evil One: “Those to whom the recluse Gotama teaches the Dhamma will escape from my sphere.” Those recluses and brahmins of yours. Evil One, who claimed to be accomplished and fully enlightened, were not accomplished and fully enlightened. But I, who claim to be accomplished and fully enlightened, am accomplished and fully enlightened. If the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma to disciples he is such. Evil One, and if the Tathagata does not teach the Dhamma to disciples he is such. 516 If the Tathagata guides disciples he is such. Evil One, and if the Tathagata does not guide disciples he is such. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has abandoned the taints that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death; he has cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, done away with them so that they are no lobger subject to future arising. Just as a palm tree whose crown is cut off is

 

i 330

incapable of further growth, so too, the Tathagata has abandoned the taints that defile.. .cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, done away with them so that they are no longer subject to future arising/”

  1. Thus, because Mara was unable to reply, and because [it began] with the Brahma’s invitation, this discourse is entitled “On the Invitation of a Brahma.”

1

 

 

 

50 Maratajjaniya Sutta The Rebuke to Mara

 

[332] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the venerable Maha Moggallana was living in the Bhagga country at Sumsumaragira in the Bhesakala Grove, the Deer Park.

  1. Now on that occasion the venerable Maha Moggallana was walking up and down in the open. And on that occasion Mara the Evil One went into the venerable Maha Moggallana’s belly and entered his bowels. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana considered thus: “Why is my belly so heavy? One would think it full of beans.” Thus he left the walk and went into his dwelling, where he sat down on a seat made ready.
  2. When he had sat down, he gave thorough attention to himself, and he saw that Mara the Evil One had gone into his belly and had entered his bowels. When he saw this, he said: “Come out. Evil One! Come out. Evil One! Do not harass the Tathagata, do not harass the Tathagata’s disciple, or it will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time.”
  3. Then Mara the Evil One thought: “This recluse does not know me, he does not see me when he says that. Even his teacher would not know me so soon, so how can this disciple know me?”
  4. Then the venerable Maha Moggallana said: “Even thus I know you, Evil One. Do not think: ‘He does not know me.’ You are Mara, Evil One. You were thinking thus. Evil One: ‘This recluse does not know me, he does not see me when he says that. Even his teacher would not know me so soon, so how can this disciple know me?”‘
  5. Then Mara the Evil One thought: “The recluse knew me, he saw me when he said that,” whereupon he [333] came up from the venerable Maha Moggallana’s mouth and stbod against the door bar.

i 334

  1. The venerable Maha Moggallana saw him standing there and said: “I see you there too. Evil One. Do not think: ‘He does not see me/ You are standing against the door bar. Evil One.
  2. “It happened once. Evil One, that I was a Mara named DusI, 517 and I had a sister named Kali. You were her son, so you were my nephew.
  3. “Now on that occasion the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, had appeared in the world. 518 The Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, had an auspicious pair of chief disciples named Vidhura and Sanjlva. Among all the disciples of the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, there was none equal to the venerable Vidhura in teaching the Dhamma. That was how the venerable Vidhura came to have the designation ‘Vidhura.’ 519 But the venerable Sanjlva, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, entered without difficulty upon the cessation of perception and feeling.
  4. “It happened once. Evil One, that the venerable Sanjlva had seated himself at the root of a certain tree and entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling. Some cowherds, shepherds, and ploughmen passing by saw the venerable Sanjlva sitting at the root of the tree having entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, and they thought: ‘It is wonderful, sirs, it is marvellous! There is this recluse sitting here dead. Let us cremate him.’ Then the cowherds, shepherds, and ploughmen collected grass, wood, and cowdung, and having piled it up against the venerable Sapjlva’s body, they set fire to it and went on their way.
  5. “Now, Evil One, when the night had ended, the venerable Sanjlva emerged from the attainment. 520 He shook his robe, and then, it being morning, he dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went into the village for alms. The cowherds, shepherds, and ploughmen passing by saw the venerable Sanjlva wandering for alms, and they thought: ‘It is wonderful, sirs, it is marvellous! This recluse who was sitting there dead has come back to life!’ [334] That was how the venerable Sanjlva came to have the designation ‘Sanjlva.’ 521
  6. “Then, Evil One, the Mara DusI considered thus: ‘There are these virtuous bhikkhus of good character, but I do not know their coming or their going. Let me now take possession of the

The Rebuke to Mara 433

brahmin householders, telling them: “Come now, abuse, revile, scold, and harass the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then perhaps, when they are abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed by you, some change will come about in their minds whereby the Mara Dusi may find an opportunity.”‘ 522

  1. “Then, Evil One, the Mara Dusi took possession of those brahmin householders, telling them: ‘Come now, abuse, revile, scold, and harass the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then perhaps, when they are abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed by you, some change will come about in their minds whereby the Mara DusT may find an opportunity.’ Then, when the Mara Dusi had taken possession of the brahmin householders, they abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed the virtuous bhikkhus of good character thus: 523 ‘These bald-pated recluses, these swarthy menial offspring of the Kinsman’s feet, 524 claim: “We are meditators, we are meditators!” and with shoulders drooping, heads down and all limp, they meditate, premeditate, out-meditate, and mismeditate. 525 Just as an owl on a branch waiting for a mouse meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates, or just as a jackal on a river-bank waiting for fish meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates, or just as a cat by a door-post or a dust-bin or a drain, waiting for a mouse, meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates, or just as a donkey unladen, standing by a door-post or a dust-bin or a drain, meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates, so too, these bald-pated recluses, these swarthy menial offspring of the Kinsman’s feet, claim: “We are meditators, we are meditators!” and with shoulders drooping, heads down and all limp, they meditate, premeditate, out-meditate, and mismeditate.’ Now, Evil One, on that occasion most of those human beings, when they died, reappeared on the dissolution of the body, after death, in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. [335]
  2. “Then the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, addressed the bhikkhus thus: ‘Bhikkhus, the Mara Dusi has taken possession of the brahmin householders, telling them: “Come now, abuse, revile, scoldy and harass the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then perhaps, when they are abused, reviled, scolded, and harassed by you, some change will come about in their mind whereby the Mara Dusi may find

 

1336

 

an opportunity.” Come, bhikkhus, abide pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to yourselves, abide pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. Abide pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion…with a mind imbued with appreciative joy…with a mind imbued with equanimity… abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will/ 526

  1. “So, Evil One, when those bhikkhus had been thus advised and instructed by the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, then, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, they abided pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness…with a mind imbued with compassion…with a mind imbued with appreciative joy…with a mind imbued with equanimity…without hostility and without ill will.
  2. “Then, Evil One, the Mara DusI considered thus: ‘Though I do as I am doing, still I do not know the coming or the going of these virtuous bhikkhus of good character. Let me now take possession of the brahmin householders, telling them: “Come now, honour, respect, revere, and venerate the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; [336] then perhaps, when they are honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by you, some change will come about in their minds whereby the Mara DusI may find an opportunity.'” 527
  3. “Then, Evil One, the Mara DusI took possession of those brahmin householders, telling them: ‘Come now, honour, respect, revere, and venerate the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then perhaps, when they are honoured, respected, revered, and venerated by you, some change will come about in their minds whereby the Mara DusI may find an opportunity.’ Then, when the Mara DusI had taken possession of the brahmin householders, they honoured, respected, revered, and venerated the virtuous bhikkhus of good character. Now, Evil One, on that occasion most of those human beings, when they died, reappeared on the dissolution of the body, after death, in a happy destination, even the heavenly world.

The Rebuke to Mara 435

  1. “Then, Evil One, the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, addressed the bhikkhus thus: ‘Bhikkhus, the Mara DusI has taken possession of those brahmin householders, telling them: “Come now, honour, respect, revere, and venerate the virtuous bhikkhus of good character; then perhaps, when they are honoured, respected, revered, and venerated hy you, some change will come about in their minds whereby the Mara Dust may find an opportunity.” Come, bhikkhus, abide contemplating foulness in the body, perceiving repulsiveness in nutriment, perceiving disenchantment with all the world, contemplating impermanence in all formations.’ 528
  2. “So, Evil One, when those bhikkhus had been thus addressed and instructed by the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, then, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, they abided contemplating foulness in the body, perceiving repulsiveness in nutriment, perceiving disenchantment with all the world, contemplating impermanence in all formations.
  3. “Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went into the village for alms with the venerable Vidhura as his attendant.
  4. “Then the Mara DusI took possession of a certain boy, and picking up a stone, he struck the venerable Vidhura on the head with it and cut his head. With blood running from his cut head, [337] the venerable Vidhura followed close behind the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened. Then the Blessed One Kakusandha, accomplished and fully enlightened, turned around and looked at him with the elephant look: ‘This Mara DusI knows no bounds.’ And with that look. Evil One, the Mara DQsI fell from that place and reappeared in the Great Hell. 529
  5. “Now, Evil One, there are three names for the Great Hell: the hell of the six bases for contact, the hell of,the impalement with stakes, and the hell to be felt for oneself. 530 Then, Evil One, the wardens of hell came up to me and said: ‘Gopd sir, when stake meets stake in your heart, then you will know: “I have been roasting in hell for a thousand years.'”
  6. “For many a year. Evil One, for many a century, for many a millennium, I roasted in that Great Hell. For ten millennia I roasted in the auxiliary of that Great Hell, experiencing the

feeling called that of emergence from ripening. 531 My body had the same form as a human body. Evil One, but my head had the form of a fish’s head.

  1. “What can hell be well compared to Wherein DusI roasted, assailant Of Vidhura the disciple And the brahmin Kakusandha? 532 Stakes of steel, even a hundred.

Each one suffered separately;

These can hell be well compared to Wherein DusI roasted, assailant Of Vidhura the disciple And the brahmin Kakusandha.

Dark One, you have much to suffer By assaulting such a bhikkhu.

An Enlightened One’s disciple Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “In the middle of the ocean There are mansions aeon-lasting.

Sapphire-shining, fiery-gleaming |

With a clear translucent lustre,

Where iridescent sea-nymphs dance In complex, intricate rhythms.

»

Dark One, you have much to suffer…

Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “I am one who, when exhorted By the Enlightened One in person.

Shook Migara’s Mother’s Palace With his toe, the Order watching. 533

Dark One, you have much to suffer…

Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “I am one who, wielding firmly Strength of supernormal powers.

The Rebuke to Mara 437

f 1338

Shook all Vejayanta Palace With his toe to incite the gods: 534 [338]

Dark One, you have much to suffer… Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “I am one who, in that palace.

Posed to Sakka this question:

‘Do you know then, friend, deliverance Due to craving’s full destruction?’ Whereupon Sakka then answered Truly to the question asked him: 535

Dark One, you have much to suffer… Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “I am one who thought of posing Brahma this question

In Sudhamma Hall in heaven:

‘Is there still found in you, friend.

The wrong view you once accepted?

Is the radiance of heaven Clearly seen by you as passing?’ Brahma then answered my question Truthfully and in due sequence:

‘There is found in me no longer.

Sir, the wrong view that once I held;

All the radiance of heaven I now clearly see as passing;

I disclaim my prior claim That it is permanent, eternal’: 536

Dark One, you have much to suffer… Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “I am one who, by liberation.

Has touched the peak of Mount Sineru, Visited India and Pubbavideha And all the regions of the earth. 537

i 338

Dark One, you have much to suffer By assaulting such a bhikkhu,

An Enlightened One’s disciple Who directly knows this fact.

  1. “There has never been found a fire Which intends, ‘Let me bum the fool,’ But a fool who assaults a fire Burns himself by his own doing.

So it is with you, O Mara:

By assaulting the Tathagata,

Like a fool who plays with fire You only burn yourself alone.

By assaulting the Tathagata,

You generate much demerit.

Evil One, do you imagine That your evil will not ripen?

Doing thus, you store up evil Which will last long, O End-maker! Mara, shun the Enlightened One,

Play no more your tricks on bhikkhus.”

So the bhikkhu chastened Mara In the Bhesakala thicket Whereupon the sombre spirit Disappeared right then and there.

Part Two

The Middle Fifty Discourses

(MajjhimapannasapaU)

 

The Division on Householders

( Gahapativagga)

 

 

 

 

51 Kandaraka Sutta To Kandaraka

 

[339] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Campa on the banks of the Gaggara Lake with a large Sangha of bhikkhus. Then Pessa, the elephant driver’s son, and Kandaraka the wanderer went to the Blessed One. Pessa, after paying homage to the Blessed One, sat down at one side, while Kandaraka exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he stood at one side. 538 Standing there, he surveyed the Sangha of bhikkhus sitting in complete silence, 539 and then he said to the Blessed One:

  1. “It is wonderful. Master Gotama, it is marvellous how the Sangha of bhikkhus has been led to practise the right way by Master Gotama. Those who were Blessed Ones, accomplished and fully enlightened in the past, at most only led the Sangha of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by Master Gotama now. And those who will be Blessed Ones, accomplished and fully enlightened in the future, at most will only lead the Sangha of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by Master Gotama now.” 540
  2. “So it is, Kandaraka, so it is! Those who were Blessed Ones, accomplished and fully enlightened in the past, at most only led the Sangha of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by me now. And those who will be Blessed Ones, accomplished and fully enlightened in the future, at most will only lead the Sangha of bhikkhus to practise the right way as is done by me now.

“Kandaraka, in this Sangha of bhikkhus there are bhikkhus who are arahants with taints destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and who are completely liberated through final knowledge. In this

i 340

Sangha of bhikkhus there are bhikkhus in higher training, of constant virtue, living a life of constant virtue, sagacious, living a life of constant sagacity. They abide with their minds well established in the four foundations of mindfulness. 541 What four? Here, Kandaraka, [340] a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. He abides contemplating feelings as feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. He abides contemplating mind as mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. He abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world.”

  1. When this was said, Pessa, the elephant driver’s son, said: “It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous how well the four foundations of mindfulness have been made known by the Blessed One: for the purification of beings, for the surmounting of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the true way, for the realisation of Nibbana. From time to time, venerable sir, we white-clothed lay people also abide with our minds well established in these four foundations of mindfulness. 542 Here, venerable sir, we abide contemplating the body as a body…feelings as feelings…mind as mind…mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, having put away covetousness and grief for the world. It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous how amid man’s tangle, corruption, and deceptions, the Blessed One knows the welfare and harm of beings. For humankind is a tangle but the animal is open enough. Venerable sir, I can drive an elephant to be tamed, and in the time it takes to make a trip back and forth in Campa, that elephant will show every kind of deception, duplicity, crookedness, and fraud [he is capable of]. 543 But those who are called our slaves, messengers, and servants behave in one way with the body, in another way by speech, while their minds work in still another way. It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous how amid man’s tangle, corruption, and deceptions, the Blessed One knows the welfare and harm of beings. For humankind is a tangle but the animal is open enough.”

To Kandaraka 445

i 342

  1. “So it is, Pessa, so it is! [341] Humankind is a tangle but the animal is open enough. Pessa, there are four kinds of persons to be found existing in the world. 544 What four? Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself. Here a certain kind of person torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others. Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and he also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others. Here a certain kind of person does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself, and he does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others. Since he torments neither himself nor others, he is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and he abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy. 545 Which of these four kinds of persons satisfies your mind, Pessa?”

“The first three do not satisfy my mind, venerable sir, but the last one satisfies my mind.”

  1. “But, Pessa, why don’t the first three kinds of persons satisfy your mind?”

“Venerable sir, the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice? of torturing himself, torments and tortures himself though he desires pleasure and recoils from pain; that is why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind. And the kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others, torments and tortures others who desire pleasure and recoil from pain; that is why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind. And the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and who also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others, torments and tortures himself and others, both of whom desire pleasure and recoil from pain; that is why this kind of person does not satisfy my mind. [342] But the kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others; who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy – he does not torment and torture either himself or others, both of whom desire pleasure and recoil from pain. That is why this kind of

i343

person satisfies my mind. And now, venerable sir, we depart We are busy and have much to do.”

“Now is the time, Pessa, to do as you think fit.”

Then Pessa, the elephant driver’s son, having delighted and rejoiced in the Blessed One’s words, rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he departed.

  1. Soon after he had left, the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus, Pessa, the elephant driver’s son, i s wise, he has great wisdom. If he had sat a while longer until I had expounded for him in detail these four kinds of persons, he would have greatly benefited. Still he has already greatly benefited even as it is.” 546

“This is the time. Blessed One, this is the time. Sublime One, for the Blessed One to expound in detail these four kinds of persons. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it.”

“Then, bhikkhus, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Bhikkhus, what kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself? 547 Here a certain person goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked; he does not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; he receives nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman lying with a man, from where food is advertised to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from where flies are buzzing; he accepts no fish or meat, he drinks no liquor, wine, or fermented brew. He keeps to one house, to one morsel; he keeps to two houses to two morsels;…he keeps to seven houses, to seven morsels. He lives on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a day…on seven saucerfuls a day. He takes food once a day, [343] once every two days…once every seven days, and so on up to once every fortnight; he dwells pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals. He is an eater of greens or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or ricebran or rice-scum or sesanum 1 flour or grass or cowdung. He lives on forest roots and fruits, he

To Kandaraka 447

feeds on fallen fruits. He clothes himself in hemp, in hemp-mixed cloth, in shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope bide, in strips of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fabric, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, fn owls’ wings. He is one who pulls out hair and beard, pursuing the practice of pulling out hair and beard. He is one who stands continuously, rejecting seats. He is one who squats continuously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. He is one who uses a mattress of spikes; he makes a mattress of spikes his bed. He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself.

  1. “What kind of person, bhikkhus, torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others? Here a certain person is a butcher of sheep, a butcher of pigs, a fowler, a trapper of wild beasts, a hunter, a fisherman, a thief, an executioner, a prison warden, or one who follows any other such bloody occupation. This is called the kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  2. “What kind of person, bhikkhus, torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others? Here some person is a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin. 548 Having had a new sacrificial temple built to the east of the city, and having shaved off his hair and beard, dressed himself in rough hide, and greased his body with ghee and oil, scratching his back with a deer’s horn, he enters the sacrificial temple together with his chief queen and his brahmin high priest. There he lies down on the bare ground with the grass on it. The king lives on the milk in the first teat of a cow with a calf of the same colour [344] while the chief queen lives on the milk in the second teat and the brahmin high priest lives on the milk in the third teat; the milk in the fourth teat they pour onto the fire, and the calf lives on what is left. He says thus: ‘Let so many bulls be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many bullocks be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many heifers be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many goats be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many sheep be slaughtered for sacrifice, let so many trees be

i345

felled for the sacrificial posts, let so much grass be cut for the sacrificial grass.’ And then his slaves, messengers, and servants make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, being spurred on by threats of punishment and by fear. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.

  1. “What kind of person, bhikkhus, does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and does not torment others or pursue the practice of tormenting others – the one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy? 549
  2. “Here, bhikkhus, a Tathagata appears in the world, accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realised by direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.
  3. “A householder or householder’s son or one born in some other clan hears that Dhamma. On hearing the Dhamma he acquires faith in the Tathagata. Possessing that faith, he considers thus: ‘Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy, while living in a home, to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’ On a later occasion, abandoning a small or a large fortune, [345] abandoning a small or a large circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from the home life into homelessness.
  4. “Having thus gone forth and possessing the bhikkhus training and way of life, abandoning the killing of living beingS/ he abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid

To Kandaraka 449

aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; taking only what is given, expecting only what is given, by not stealing he abides in purity. Abandoning incelibacy, he observes celibacy, living apart, abstaining from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech; he speaks truth, adheres to truth, is trustworthy and reliable, one who is no deceiver of the world. Abandoning malicious speech, he abstains from malicious speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to these people what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of friendships, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord. Abandoning harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and loveable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many and agreeable to many. Abandoning gossip, he abstains from gossip; he speaks at the right time, speaks what is fact, speaks on what is good, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline; at the right time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, moderate, and beneficial.

“He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He practises eating only in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and outside the proper time. He abstains from dancing, singing, music, and theatrical shows. He abstains from wearing garlands, smartening himself with scent, and embellishing himself with unguents. He abstains from high and large couches. He abstains from accepting gold and silver. He abstains from accepting raw grain. He abstains from accepting raw meat. He abstains from accepting women and girls. He abstains from accepting men and women slaves. He abstains from accepting goats and sheep. He abstains from accepting fowl and pigs. He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle, horses, and mares. He abstains from accepting fields and land. He abstains from going on errands and running messages. He abstains from buying and selling. He abstains from false weights, false metals, and false measures. [346] He

 

1346

abstains from cheating, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery. He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence.

  1. “He becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too, the bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless.
  2. “On seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…On touching a tangible with the body…On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, he does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experiences within himself a bliss that is unsullied.
  3. “He becomes one who acts in full awareness when going forward and returning; who acts in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; who acts in full awareness when flexing and extending his limbs; who acts in full awareness when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; who acts in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; who acts in full awareness when defecating and urinating; who acts in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.
  4. “Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, and this noble restraint of the faculties, and possessing this noble mindfulness and full awareness, he resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw.

To Kandaraka 451

  1. “On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and establishing mindfulness before him. [347] Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.
  2. “Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.
  3. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration.
  4. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, he abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’
  5. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.
  6. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty

i 348

births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, [348] such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.

  1. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the Tiuman, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. He understands how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well-conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.
  2. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as

To Kandaraka 453

it actually is: ‘These are the taints’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of the taints’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of the taints’; he understands as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints/

  1. “When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’
  2. “This, bhikkhus, is called the kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others [349] – the one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

52 Atthakanagara Sutta The Man from Atthakanagara

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was living at Beluvagamaka near Vesall.
  2. Now on that occasion the householder Dasama of Atthakanagara had arrived at Pataliputta for some business or other. Then he went to a certain bhikkhu in Kukkuta’s Park, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked him: “Where does the venerable Ananda live now, venerable sir? I wish to see the venerable Ananda.”

“The venerable Ananda is living at Beluvagamaka near Vesall, householder.”

  1. When the householder Dasama had completed his business at Pataliputta, he went to the venerable Ananda at Beluvagamaka near Vesall. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked him:

“Venerable Ananda, has any one thing been proclaimed by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taints come to be destroyed, and he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before?” 550

“Yes, householder, one such thing has been proclaimed by the Blessed One.” [350]

“What is that one thing, venerable Ananda?”

  1. “Here, householder, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure bom of seclusion-He considers this and understands it thus: This first jhana is conditioned and volitionally produced. 551 But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to

The Man from Atthakanagara 455

cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. 552 But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints, then because of that desire for the Dhamma, that delight in the phamma, 553 with the destruction of the five lower fetters he becomes one due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning from that world.

“This is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taints come to be destroyed, and he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters and abides in the second jhana… He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This second jhana is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints…without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One [351]… wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu…enters upon and abides in the third jhana…He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This third jhana is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is-impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints… with out ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One… wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain…a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana…He considers this and understands it thus: “This fourth jhana is conditioned

i 351

and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and voli-tionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints…without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One… wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This deliverance of mind through loving-kindness is conditioned and voli-tionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints…without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One… wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion…without ill will. He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This deliverance of mind through compassion is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints.. .without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One.-wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute..-he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with appreciative joy…without ill will-

The Man from A tthakanagara 457

considers this and understands it thus: ‘This deliverance of mind through appreciative joy is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints.. .without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One… wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with equanimity…without ill will. He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This deliverance of mind through equanimity is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, [352] subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints.. .without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One… wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space. He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This attainment of the base of infinite space is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints…without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One… Wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. He considers

458 Atthakanagara Sutta: Sutta 52

this and understands it thus: ‘This attainment of the base of L n fj_ nite consciousness is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints.. .without ever returning from that world.

“This too is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One. wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute…he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.

  1. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This attainment of the base of nothingness is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints, then because of that desire for the Dhamma, that delight in the Dhamma, with the destruction of the five lower fetters he becomes one due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning from that world.

“This too^is one thing proclaimed by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein if a bhikkhu abides diligent, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taints come to be destroyed, and he attains the supreme security from bondage that he had not attained before.” 554

  1. When venerable Ananda had spoken, the householder Dasama of Atthakanagara said to him: “Venerable Ananda, just as if a man seeking one entrance to a hidden treasure came all at once upon eleven [353] entrances to a hidden treasure, so too, while I was seeking one door to the Deathless, I have come all at once to hear of eleven doors to the Deathless. 555 Just as if a man had a house with eleven doors and when that house caught on fire, he could flee to safety by any one of these eleven doors, so I can flee to safety by any one of these eleven doors to the Deathless. Venerable sir, these sectarians will even seek a

The Man from Atthakanagara 459

teacher’s fee for their teachers; why shouldn’t I make an offering to the venerable Ananda?”

  1. Then the householder Dasama of Atthakanagara assembled the Sangha of bhikkhus from Pataliputta and Vesall, and with his own hands he served and satisfied them with various kinds of good food. He presented a pair of cloths to each bhikkhu, and he presented a triple robe to the venerable Ananda, and he had a dwelling worth five hundred 556 built for the venerable Ananda.

 

 

 

 

53 The Disciple in Higher Training

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha’s Park.
  2. Now on that occasion a new assembly hall had recently been built for the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and it had not yet been inhabited by any recluse or brahmin or human being at all. Then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, they sat down at one side and said to him:

“Venerable sir, a new assembly hall has recently been built here for the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and it has not yet been inhabited by any recluse or brahmin or human being at all. Venerable sir, let the Blessed One be the first to use it. When the Blessed One has used it first, then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu will use it afterwards. That will lead to their welfare and happiness for a long time.” 557 [354]

  1. The Blessed«Qne consented in silence. .Then, when they saw that he had consented, they got up from their seats, and after paying homage to him, keeping him on their right, they went to the assembly hall. They covered it completely with coverings and prepared seats, and they put out a large water jug and hung up an oil-lamp. Then they went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they stood at one side and said:

“Venerable sir, the assembly hall has been covered completely with coverings and seats have been prepared, a large water jug has been put out and an oil-lamp hung up. Now is the time for the Blessed One to do as he thinks fit.”

  1. Then the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went with the Sangha of bhikkhus to the assembly hall. When he arrived, he washed his feet and then entered the hall and sat down by the central pillar facing the east. And the bhikkhus washed their feet and then entered the hall and sat

460

The Disciple in Higher Training 461

down by the western wall facing the east, with the Blessed One before them. And the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu washed their feet and entered the hall and sat down by the eastern wall facing the west, with the Blessed One before them.

  1. Then, when the Blessed One had instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu with talk on the Dhamma for much of the night, he said to the venerable Ananda:

“Ananda, speak to the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu about the disciple in higher training who has entered upon the way. 558 My back is uncomfortable. I will rest it.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” the venerable Ananda replied.

Then the Blessed One prepared his patchwork cloak folded in four and lay down on his right side in the lion’s pose, with one foot overlapping the other, mindful and fully aware, after noting in his mind the time for rising.

  1. Then the venerable Ananda addressed Mahanama the Sakyan thus:

“Mahanama, here a noble disciple is possessed of virtue, guards the doors of his sense faculties, is moderate in eating, and devoted to wakefulness; he possesses seven good qualities; and he is one who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now. [355]

  1. “And how is a noble disciple possessed of virtue? Here a noble disciple is virtuous, he dwells restrained with the restraint of the Patimokkha, he is perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, he trains by undertaking the training precepts. This is how a noble disciple is possessed of virtue.
  2. “And how does a noble disciple guard the doors of his sense faculties? On seeing a form with the eye, a noble disciple does not grasp at its signs and’features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…On touching a tangible with the body…on cognizing a mind-object with the mind, a noble disciple does not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief

i 356

might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. That is how a noble disciple guards the doors of his sense faculties.

  1. “And how is a noble disciple moderate in eating? Here, reflecting wisely, a noble disciple takes food neither for amuse-ment nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy life, considering: ‘Thus I shall terminate old feelings without arousing new feelings and I shall be healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort.’ That is how a noble disciple is moderate in eating.
  2. “And how is a noble disciple devoted to wakefulness? Here, during the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, a noble disciple purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the middle watch of the night he lies down on the right side in the lion’s pose with one foot overlapping the other, mindful and fully aware, after noting in his mind the time for rising. After rising, in the third watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. That is how a noble disciple is devoted to wakefulness. [356]
  3. “And how does a nobiie disciple possess’seven good qualities? Here a noble disciple has faith; he places his faith in the Tathagata’s enlightenment thus: ‘The Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed/
  4. “He has shame; he is ashamed of misconduct in body, speech, and mind, ashamed of engaging in evil unwholesome deeds.
  5. “He has fear of wrongdoing; he is afraid of misconduct in body, speech, and mind, afraid of engaging in evil unwholesome deeds. 559
  6. “He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned. Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end.

The Disciple in Higher Training 463

with the right meaning and phrasing, and affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure – such teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, recited verbally, investigated with the mind and penetrated well by view.

  1. “He is energetic in abandoning unwholesome states and in undertaking wholesome states; he is steadfast, firm in striving, not remiss in developing wholesome states.
  2. “He has mindfulness; he possesses the highest mindfulness and skill; he recalls and recollects what was done long ago and spoken long ago. 560
  3. “He is wise; he possesses wisdom regarding rise and disappearance that is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. 561 That is how a noble disciple possesses seven good qualities.
  4. “And how is a noble disciple one who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now? Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a noble disciple enters upon and abides in the first jhana…With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhana…With the fading away as well of rapture.. .he enters upon and abides in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. That is how a noble disciple is one who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now.
  5. “When a noble disciple has thus become one who is possessed of virtue, who guards the doors of his sense faculties, who is moderate in eating, who is devoted to wakefulness, who possesses seven good qualities, [357] who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now, he is called one in higher training who has entered upon the way. His eggs are unspoiled; he is capable of breaking out, capable of enlightenment, capable of attaining the supreme security from bondage.

“Suppose there were a hen with eight or ten or twelve eggs, which she had covered, incubated, and nurtured properly. 562

i 358

Even though she did not wish: ‘Oh, that my chicks might pierce their shells with the points of their claws and beaks and hatch out safely!’ yet the chicks are capable of piercing their shells with the points of their claws and beaks and hatching out safely. So too, when a noble disciple has thus become one who is possessed of virtue…he is called one in higher training who has entered upon the way. His eggs are unspoiled; he is capable of breaking out, capable of enlightenment, capable of attaining the supreme security from bondage.

  1. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity, 563 this noble disciple recollects his manifold past lives… (as Sutta 51, §24)…Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. This is his first breaking out like that of the hen’s chicks from their shells.
  2. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, this noble disciple sees beings passing away and reappearing…(as Sutta 51, §25)…he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. This is his second breaking out like that of the hen’s chicks from their shells.
  3. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, this noble disciple here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. [358] This is his third breaking out like that of the hen’s chicks from their shells. 564 *
  4. “When a noble disciple is possessed of virtue, that is his conduct. When he guards the doors of his sense faculties, that is his conduct. When he is moderate in eating, that is his conduct. When he is devoted to wakefulness, that is his conduct. When he possesses seven good qualities, that is his conduct. When he is one who obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now, that is his conduct. 565
  5. “When he recollects his manifold past lives…with their aspects and particulars, that is his true knowledge. When, with the divine eye…he sees beings passing away and reappearing and understands how beings pass on according to their actions, that is his true knowledge. When, by realising for himself with

 

The Disciple in Higher Training 465

direct knowledge, he here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints, that is his true knowledge.

  1. “This noble disciple is thus said to be perfect in true knowledge, perfect in conduct, perfect in true knowledge and conduct. And this stanza was uttered by the Brahma Sanankumara:

‘The noble clan is held to be The best of people as to lineage;

But best of gods and humans is one Perfect in true knowledge and conduct.’

%

“Now that stanza was well sung by the Brahma Sanankumara, not ill-sung; it was well spoken, not ill-spoken; it has a meaning, and is not meaningless; and it was approved by the Blessed One.” 566

  1. Then the Blessed One rose and addressed the venerable Ananda thus: “Good, good, Ananda! It is good that you have spoken to the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu about the disciple in higher training who has entered upon the way.” [359]

That is what the venerable Ananda said. The Teacher approved. The Sakyans of Kapilavatthu were satisfied and delighted in the venerable Ananda’s words.

 

 

54 Potaliya Sutta To Potaliya

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the country of the Anguttarapans at a town of theirs named Apana.
  2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Apana for alms. When he had wandered for alms in Apana and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to a certain grove for the day’s abiding. Having entered the grove, he sat down at the root of a tree.
  3. Potaliya the householder, while walking and wandering for exercise, wearing full dress with parasol and sandals, also went to the grove, and having entered the grove, he went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he stood at one side. The Blessed One said to him: “There are seats, householder, sit down if you like.”

When this was said, the householder Potaliya thought: “The recluse Gotama addresses me as ‘householder,'” and angry and displeased, he remained silent.

A second time the Blessed One said to him: “There are seats, householder, sit down if you like.” And a second time the householder Potaliya thought: “The recluse Gotama addresses me as ‘householder,'” and angry and displeased, he remained silent.

A third time the Blessed One said to him: “There are seats, householder, sit down if you like.” When this was said, the householder Potaliya thought: “The recluse Gotama addresses me as ‘householder,'” and angry and displeased, he said to the Blessed One: [360] “Master Gotama, it is neither fitting nor proper that you address me as ‘householder.'”

“Householder, you have the aspects, marks, and signs of a householder.”

To Potaliya 467

“Nevertheless, Master Gotama, I have given up all my works and cut off all my affairs.”

“In what way have you given up all your works, householder, and cut off all your affairs?”

“Master Gotama, I have given all my wealth, grain, silver, and gold to my children as their inheritance. Without advising or admonishing them, I live merely on food and clothing. That is how I have given up all my works and cut off all my affairs.”

“Householder, the cutting off of affairs as you describe it is one thing, but in the Noble One’s Discipline the cutting off of affairs is different.”

“What is the cutting off of affairs like in the Noble One’s Discipline, venerable sir? It would be good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma, showing what the cutting off of affairs is like in the Noble One’s Discipline.”

“Then listen, householder, and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” Potaliya the householder replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Householder, there are these eight things in the Noble One’s Discipline that lead to the cutting off of affairs. What are the eight? With the support of the non-killing of living beings, the killing of living beings is to be abandoned. With the support of taking only what is given, the taking of what is not given is to be abandoned. With the support of truthful speech, false speech is to be abandoned. With the support of unmalicious speech, malicious speech is to be abandoned. With the support of refraining from rapacious greed, 567 rapacious greed is to be abandoned. With the support of refraining from spiteful scolding, spiteful scolding is to be abandoned. With the support of refraining from angry despair, angry despair is to be abandoned. With the support of non-arrogance, arrogance is to be abandoned. These are the eight things, stated in brief without being expounded in detail, that lead to the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline.”
  2. “Venerable sir, it would be good if, out of compassion, the Blessed One would expound to me in detail these eight things that lead to the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline, which have been stated in brief by the Blessed One without being expounded in detail.”

“Then listen, householder, and attend closely to what I shall say.”

i 363

“Yes, venerable sir,” Potaliya the householder replied. The Blessed One said this: [361]

  1. “‘With the support of the non-killing of living beings, the killing of living beings is to be abandoned/ So it was said. And with reference to what was this said? Here a noble disciple considers thus: ‘I am practising the way to the abandoning and cutting off of those fetters because of which I might kill living beings. If I were to kill living beings, I would blame myself for doing so; the wise, having investigated, would censure me for doing so; and on the dissolution of the body, after death, because of killing living beings an unhappy destination would be expected. But this killing of living beings is itself a fetter and a hindrance. 568 And while taints, vexation, and fever might arise through the killing of living beings, there are no taints, vexation, and fever in one who abstains from killing living beings.’ So it is with reference to this that it was said: ‘With the support of the non-killing of living beings, the killing of living beings is to be abandoned.’
  2. “‘With the support of taking only what is given, the taking of what is not givert is to be abandoned.’ So it was said…
  3. “‘With the support of truthful speech, false speech is to be abandoned.’ So it was said… [362]
  4. “‘With the support of unmalicious speech, malicious speech is to be abandoned.’ So it was said…
  5. “‘With the support of refraining from rapacious greed, rapacious greed is to be abandoned.’ So it was said…
  6. “‘With the support of refraining from spiteful scolding, spiteful scolding is to be abandoned.’ So it was said.. .[363]
  7. “‘With the support of refraining from angry despair, angry despair is to be abandoned.’ So it was said…
  8. “‘With the support of non-arrogance, arrogance is to be abandoned.’ So it was said. And with reference to what was this said? Here a noble disciple considers thus: ‘I am practising the way to the abandoning and cutting off of those fetters because of which I might be arrogant. If I were to be arrogant, I would blame myself for this; the wise, having investigated, would censure me for this; and on the dissolution of the body, after death, because of being arrogant an unhappy destination would be expected. But this arrogance is itself a fetter and a hindrance. And while taints, vexation, and fever might arise through arro-

To Potaliya 469

i 364

gance, there are no taints, vexation, and fever for one who is not arrogant.’ So it is with reference to this that it was said: ‘With the support of non-arrogance, arrogance is to be abandoned.’ 569 [364]

  1. “These eight things that lead to the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline have now been expounded in detail. But the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline has not yet been achieved entirely and in all ways.”

“Venerable sir, how is the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline achieved entirely and in all ways? It would be good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma, showing me how the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline is achieved entirely and in all ways.”

“Then listen, householder, and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” Potaliya the householder replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Householder, suppose a dog, overcome by hunger and weakness, was waiting by a butcher’s shop. 570 Then a skilled butcher or his apprentice would cut out a skeleton of meatless bones smeared with blood and toss it to the dog. What do you think, householder? Would that dog get rid of his hunger and weakness by gnawing such a skeleton of meatless bones smeared with blood?”

“No, venerable sir. Why is that? Because that skeleton consisted only of meatless bones smeared with blood. Eventually that dog would reap weariness and disappointment.”

“So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to a skeleton by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, he avoids the equanimity that is diversified, based on diversity, and develops the equanimity that is unified, based on unity, 571 where clinging to the material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Householder, suppose a vulture, a crow, or a hawk seized a piece of meat and flew away, and then vultures, crows, and hawks flew up and pecked and clawed it. What do you think, householder? If that vulture, crow, or hawk does not quickly let go of that piece of meat, wouldn’t it incur death or deadly suffering because of that?”

 

 

“Yes, venerable sir.”

“So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to a piece of meat by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ [365] Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom…clinging to the material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Householder, suppose a man took a blazing grass torch and went against the wind. What do you think, householder? If that man does not quickly let go of that blazing grass torch, wouldn’t that blazing grass torch burn his hand or his arm or some other part of his body, so that he might incur death or deadly suffering because of that?”

“Yes, venerable sir.”

“So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to a grass torch by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom…clinging to the material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Householder, suppose there were a charcoal pit deeper than a man’s height full of glowing coals without flame or smoke. Then a man came who wanted to live and not to die, who wanted pleasure and recoiled from pain, and two strong men seized him by both arms and dragged him towards that charcoal pit. What do you think, householder? Would that man twist his body this way and that?”

“Yes, venerable sir. Why is that? Because that man knows that if he falls into that charcoal pit, he will incur death or deadly suffering because of that.”

“So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to a charcoal pit by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom…clinging to the material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Householder, suppose a man dreamt about lovely parks, lovely groves, lovely meadows, and lovely lakes, and on waking he saw nothing of it. So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to a dream

 

To Potaliya 471

by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom…clinging to the material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Householder, suppose a man borrowed goods on loan [366] – a fancy carriage and fine-jewelled earrings – and preceded and surrounded by those borrowed goods he went to the marketplace. Then people, seeing him, would say: ‘Sirs, that is a rich man! That is how the rich enjoy their wealth!’ Then the owners, whenever they saw him, would take back their things. What do you think, householder? Would that be enough for that man to become dejected?”

“Yes, venerable sir. Why is that? Because the owners took back their things.”

“So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to borrowed goods by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom…clinging to material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Householder, suppose there were a dense grove not far from some village or town, within which there was a tree laden with fruit but none of its fruit had fallen to the ground. Then a man came needing fruit, seeking fruit, wandering in search of fruit, and he entered the grove and saw the tree laden with fruit. Thereupon he thought: ‘This tree is laden with fruit but none of its fruit has fallen to the ground. I know how to climb a tree, so let me climb this tree, eat as much fruit as I want, and fill my bag.’ And he did so. Then a second man came needing fruit, seeking fruit, wandering in search of fruit, and taking a sharp axe, he too entered the grove and saw that tree laden with fruit. Thereupon he thought: ‘This tree is laden with fruit but none of its fruit has fallen to the ground. I do not know how to climb a tree, so let me cut this tree down at its root, eat as much fruit as I want, and fill my bag.’ And he did so. What do you think, householder? If that first man who had climbed the tree doesn’t come down quickly, when the tree falls, wouldn’t he break his hand or his foot or some other part of his body, [367] so that he might incur death or deadly suffering because of that?”

“Yes, venerable sir.”

i367

“So too, householder, a noble disciple considers thus: ‘Sensual pleasures have been compared to a fruit tree by the Blessed One; they provide much suffering and much despair, while the danger in them is great.’ Having seen this thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, he avoids the equanimity that is diversified, based on diversity, and develops the equanimity that is unified, based on unity, where clinging to the material things of the world utterly ceases without remainder.

  1. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity, this noble disciple recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births…(as Sutta 51, §24 )…Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.
  2. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, this noble disciple sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate…(as Sutta 51, §25 )…and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.
  3. “Having arrived at that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, this noble disciple here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.
  4. “At this point, householder, the cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline has been achieved entirely and in all ways. What do you think, householder? Do you see in yourself any cutting off of affairs like this cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline when it is achieved entirely and in all ways?”

“Venerable sir, who am I that I should possess any cutting off of affairs entirely and in all ways like that in the Noble One’s Discipline? I am far indeed, venerable sir, from that cutting off of affairs in the Noble One’s Discipline when it has been achieved entirely and in all ways. For, venerable sir, though the wanderers of other sects are not thoroughbreds, we imagined that they are thoroughbreds; 572 though they are not thoroughbreds, we fed them the food of thoroughbreds; though they are not thoroughbreds, we set them in the place of thoroughbreds. But though the bhikkhus are thoroughbreds, we imagined that they are not thoroughbreds; though they are thoroughbreds, we

To Potaliya 473

fed them the food of those who are not thoroughbreds; though they are thoroughbreds, we set them in the place of those who are not thoroughbreds. But now, venerable sir, [368] as the wanderers of other sects are not thoroughbreds, we shall understand that they are not thoroughbreds; as they are not thoroughbreds, we shall feed them the food of those who are not thoroughbreds; as they are not thoroughbreds, we shall set them in the place of those who are not thoroughbreds. But as the bhikkhus are thoroughbreds, we shall understand that they are thoroughbreds; as they are thoroughbreds, we shall feed them the food of thoroughbreds; as they are thoroughbreds, we shall set them in the place of those who are thoroughbreds. Venerable sir, the Blessed One has inspired in me love for recluses, confidence in recluses, reverence for recluses.

  1. “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

 

 

55 Jwaka Sutta To Jivaka

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rajagaha in the Mango Grove of Jivaka Komarabhacca. 573
  2. Then Jivaka Komarabhacca went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and said to the Blessed One:
  3. “Venerable sir, I have heard this: ‘They slaughter living beings for the recluse Gotama; the recluse Gotama knowingly eats meat prepared for him from animals killed for his sake.’ Venerable sir, do those who speak thus say what has been said by the Blessed One, and not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact? Do they explain in accordance with the Dhamma in such a way that nothing which provides a ground for censure can be legitimately deduced from their assertions?” [369]
  4. “Jivaka, those who speak thus do not say what has been

said by me, but misrepresent me with what.is untrue and contrary to fact. t

  1. “Jivaka, I say that there are three instances in which meat should not be eaten: when it is seen, heard, or suspected [that the living being has been slaughtered for the bhikkhu], I say that meat should not be eaten in these three instances. I say that there are three instances in which meat may be eaten: when it is not seen, not heard, and not suspected [that the living being has been slaughtered for the bhikkhu], I say that meat may be eaten in these three instances. 574
  2. “Here, Jivaka, some bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain village or town. He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness.

To Jwaka 475

abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. Then a householder or a householder’s son comes to him and invites him for the next day’s meal. The bhikkhu accepts, if he likes. When the night is ended, in the morning he dresses, and taking his bowl and outer robe, goes to the house of that householder or householder’s son and sits down on a seat made ready. Then the householder or householder’s son serves him with good almsfood. He does not think: ‘How good that the householder or householder’s son serves me with good almsfood! If only a householder or householder’s son might serve me with such good almsfood in the future!’ He does not think thus. He eats that almsfood without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and utterly committed to it, seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape from it. What do you think, Jlvaka? Would that bhikkhu on such an occasion choose for his own affliction, or for another’s affliction, or for the affliction of both?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Does not that bhikkhu sustain himself with blameless food on that occasion?”

  1. “Yes, venerable sir. I have heard this, venerable sir: ‘Brahma abides in loving-kindness.’ Venerable sir, the Blessed One is my visible witness to that; for the Blessed One abides in loving-kindness.”

“Jlvaka, any lust, [370] any hate, any delusion whereby ill will might arise have been abandoned by the Tathagata, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. 575 If what you said referred to that, then I allow it to you.”

“Venerable sir, what I said referred to precisely that.”

8-10. “Here, Jlvaka, a bhikkhu lives in dependence upon a certain village or town. He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion…with a mind imbued with appreciative joy…with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. Then a householder or a householder’s son comes to him and invites him for the next day’s meal. The bhikkhu accepts, if he likes…What do you think, Jlvaka? Would that bhikkhu on such an occasion choose

i 371

for his own affliction, or for another’s affliction, or for the affliction of both?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Does not that bhikkhu sustain himself with blameless food on that occasion?”

  1. “Yes, venerable sir. I have heard this, venerable sir: ‘Brahma abides in equanimity.’ Venerable sir, the Blessed One is my visible witness to that; for the Blessed One abides in equanimity.”

“Jivaka, any lust, any hate, any delusion whereby cruelty or discontent or aversion might arise have been abandoned by the Tathagata, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. 575 If what you said referred to that, then I allow it to you.” [371]

“Venerable sir, what I said referred to precisely that.”

  1. “If anyone slaughters a living being for the Tathagata or his disciple, he lays up much demerit in five instances. When he says: ‘Go and fetch that living being,’ this is the first instance in which he lays up much demerit. When that living being experiences pain and grief on being led along with a neck-halter, this is the second instance in which he lays up much demerit. When he says: ‘Go and slaughter that living being,’ this is the third instance in which he lays up much demerit. When that living being experiences pain and grief on being slaughtered, this is the fourth instance in which he lays up much demerit. When he provides the Tathagata or his disciple with food that is not permissible, this is the fifth instance in which he lays up much demerit. Anyone who slaughters a living being for the Tathagata or his disciple lays up much demerit in these five instances.”
  2. When this was said, Jivaka Komarabhacca said to the Blessed One: “It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvellous! The bhikkhus sustain themselves with permissible food. The bhikkhus sustain themselves with blameless food. Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir!…From today let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.” 577

T

 

 

56 Upali Sutta To Upali

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Nalanda in Pavarika’s Mango Grove.
  2. Now on that occasion the Nigantha Nataputta was staying at Nalanda with a large assembly of Niganthas. Then, when the Nigantha [named] Dlgha TapassI 578 had wandered for alms in Nalanda and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to Pavarika’s Mango Grove to see the Blessed One. [372] He exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he stood at one side. As he stood there, the Blessed One said to him: “There are seats, TapassI, sit down if you like.”
  3. When this was said, Dlgha TapassI took a low seat and sat down at one side. Then the Blessed One asked him: “TapassI, how many kinds of action does the Nigantha Nataputta describe for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action?”

“Friend Gotama, the Nigantha Nataputta is not accustomed to use the description ‘action, action’; the Nigantha Nataputta is accustomed to use the description ‘rod, rod.'” 579

“Then, TapassI, how many kinds of rod does the Nigantha Nataputta describe for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action?”

“Friend Gotama, the Nigantha Nataputta describes three kinds of rod for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action; that is, the bodily rod, the verbal rod, and the mental rod.” 580

“How then, TapassI, is the bodily rod one, the verbal rod another, and the mental rod still another?”

“The bodily rod is one, friend Gotama, the verbal rod is another, and the mental rod is still another.”

i 373

“Of these three kinds of rod, Tapassi, thus analysed and distinguished, which kind of rod does the Nigantha Nataputta describe as the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action: the bodily rod or the verbal rod or the mental rod?”

“Of these three kinds of rod, friend Gotama, thus analysed and distinguished, the Nigantha Nataputta describes the bodily rod as the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod.”

“Do you say the bodily rod, Tapassi?”

“I say the bodily rod, friend Gotama.”

“Do you say the bodily rod, Tapassi?”

“I say the bodily rod, friend Gotama.”

“Do you say the bodily rod, Tapassi?”

“I say the bodily rod, friend Gotama.”

Thus the Blessed One made the Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi maintain his statement up to the third time. [373]

  1. Then the Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi asked the Blessed One: “And you, friend Gotama, how many kinds of rod do you describe for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action?”

“Tapassi, the Tathagata is not accustomed to use the description ‘rod, rod’; the Tathagata is accustomed to use the description ‘action, action.'”

“But, friend Gotama, how many kinds of action do you describe for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action?”

“Tapassi, I describe three kinds of action for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action: that is, bodily action, verbal action, and mental action.”

“How then, friend Gotama, is bodily action one, verbal action another, and mental action still another?”

“Bodily action is one, Tapassi, verbal action is another, and mental action is still another.”

“Of these three kinds of action, friend Gotama, thus analysed and distinguished, which kind of action do you describe as the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action: bodily action or verbal action or mental action?”

To Upali 479

“Of these three kinds of action, Tapassi, thus analysed and distinguished, I describe mental action as the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much bodily action and verbal action.” 581

“Do you say mental action, friend Gotama?”

“I say mental action, Tapassi.”

“Do you say mental action, friend Gotama?”

“I say mental action, Tapassi.”

“Do you say mental action, friend Gotama?”

“I say mental action, Tapassi.”

Thus the Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi made the Blessed One maintain his statement up to the third time, after which he rose from his seat and went to the Nigantha Nataputta.

  1. Now on that occasion the Nigantha Nataputta was seated together with a very large assembly of laymen from Balaka, most prominent among them being Upali. The Nigantha Nataputta saw the Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi coming in the distance and asked him: “Now where are you coming from in the middle of the day, Tapassi?”

“I am coming from the presence of the recluse Gotama, venerable sir.”

“Did you have some conversation with the recluse Gotama, Tapassi?” [374]

“I had some conversation with the recluse Gotama, venerable sir.”

“What was your conversation with him like, Tapassi?”

Then the Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi related to the Nigantha Nataputta his entire conversation with the Blessed One.

  1. When this was said, the Nigantha Nataputta told him: “Good, good, Tapassi! The Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi has answered the recluse Gotama like a well-taught disciple who understands his teacher’s dispensation rightly. What does the trivial mental rod count for in comparison with the gross bodily rod? On the contrary, the bodily rod is the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod.”
  2. When this was said, the householder Upali said to the Nigantha Nataputta: “Good, good, venerable sir, [on the part of] Dlgha Tapassi! The venerable Tapassi has answered the recluse Gotama like a well-taught disciple who understands his

i 375

teacher’s dispensation rightly. What does the trivial mental rod count for in comparison with the gross bodily rod? On the contrary, the bodily rod is the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod. Now, venerable sir, I shall go and refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine on the basis of this statement. If the recluse Gotama maintains before me what the venerable Dlgha TapassI made him maintain, then just as a strong man 582 might seize a long-haired ram by the hair and drag him to and drag him fro and drag him round about, so in debate I will drag the recluse Gotama to and drag him fro and drag him round about. Just as a strong brewer’s workman might throw a big brewer’s sieve into a deep water tank, and taking it by the corners, might drag it to and drag it fro and drag it round about, so in debate I will drag the recluse Gotama to and drag him fro and drag him round about. Just as a strong brewer’s mixer might take a strainer by the corners and shake it down and shake it up and thump it about, so in debate I will shake the recluse Gotama down [375] and shake him up and thump him about. And just as a sixty-year-old elephant might plunge into a deep pond and enjoy playing the game of hemp-washing, so I shall enjoy playing the game of hemp-washing with the recluse Gotama. Venerable sir, I shall go and refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine on the basis of this statement.”

“Go, householder, and refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine on the basis of this statement. For either I should refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine or else the Nigantha Dlgha TapassI or you yourself.”

  1. When this was said, the Nigantha Dlgha TapassI said to the Nigantha Nataputta: “Venerable sir, I do not think that the householder Upali should [try to] refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine. For the recluse Gotama is a magician and knows a converting magic by which he converts disciples of other sectarians.”

“It is impossible, TapassI, it cannot happen that the householder Upali should go over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama; but it is possible, it can happen that the recluse Gotama might come over to discipleship under the householder Upali. Go, householder, and refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine. For either I should refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine or else the Nigantha Dlgha TapassI or you yourself.”

To Upali 481

For the second time…For the third time, the Nigantha Digha TapassI said to the Nigantha Nataputta: “Venerable sir, I do not think that the householder Upali should [try to] refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine. For the recluse Gotama is a magician and knows a converting magic by which he converts disciples of other sectarians.”

“It is impossible, TapassI, it cannot happen that the householder Upali should go over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama; but it is possible, it can happen that the recluse Gotama might come over to discipleship under the householder Upali. Go, householder, and refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine. For either I should refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine or else the Nigantha Digha TapassI or you yourself.”

  1. “Yes, venerable sir,” the householder Upali replied, and he rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Nigantha Nataputta, keeping him on his right, he left to go to the Blessed One in Pavarika’s Mango Grove. [376] There, after paying homage to the Blessed One, he sat down at one side and asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, did the Nigantha Digha TapassI come here?”

“The Nigantha Digha TapassI came here, householder.”

“Venerable sir, did you have some conversation with him?”

“I had some conversation with him, householder.”

“What was your conversation with him like, venerable sir?”

Then the Blessed One related to the householder Upali his entire conversation with the Nigantha Digha TapassI.

  1. When this was said, the householder Upali said to the Blessed One: “Good, good, venerable sir, on the part of TapassI! The Nigantha Digha TapassI has answered the Blessed One like a well-taught disciple who understands his teacher’s dispensation rightly. What does the trivial mental rod count for in comparison with the gross bodily rod? On the contrary, the bodily rod is the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod.”

“Householder, if you will debate on the basis of truth, we might have some conversation about this.”

“I will debate on the basis of truth, venerable sir, so let us have some conversation about this.”

  1. “What do you think, householder? Here some Nigantha might be afflicted, suffering, and gravely ill [with an illness

i 377

needing treatment by cold water, which his vows prohibit] and he might refuse cold water [though mentally longing for it] and use only [the permissible] hot water [thus keeping his vows bodily and verbally]. Because he does not get cold water he might die. Now, householder, where would the Nigantha Nataputta describe his rebirth [as taking place]?”

“Venerable sir, there are gods called ‘mind-bound’; he would be reborn there. Why is that? Because when he died he was still bound [by attachment] in the mind.” 583

“Householder, householder, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. Yet you made this statement: ‘I will debate on the basis of truth, venerable sir, so let us have some conversation about this.'”

“Venerable sir, although the Blessed One has spoken thus, yet the bodily rod is the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod.” 584

  1. “What do you think, [377] householder? Here some Nigantha might be restrained with four checks – curbed by all curbs, clamped by all curbs, cleansed by all curbs, and claimed by all curbs 585 – and yet when going forward and returning he brings about the destruction of many small living beings. What result does the Nigantha Nataputta describe for him?”

“Venerable sir, the Nigantha Nataputta does not describe what is not willed as greatly reprehensible.”

“But if one wills it, householder?”

“Then it is greatly reprehensible, venerable sir.”

“But under which [of the three rods] does the Nigantha Nataputta describe willing, householder?”

“Under the mental rod, venerable sir.” 586

“Householder, householder, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. Yet you made this statement: ‘I will debate on the basis of truth, venerable sir, so let us have some conversation about this.'”

“Venerable sir, although the Blessed One has spoken thus, yet the bodily rod is the most reprehensible for the performance of

To Upali 483

evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod.”

  1. “What do you think, householder? Is this town of Nalanda successful and prosperous, is it populous and crowded with people?”

“Yes, venerable sir, it is.”

“What do you think, householder? Suppose a man came here brandishing a sword and spoke thus: ‘In one moment, in one instant, I will make all the living beings in this town of Nalanda into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh.’ What do you think, householder, would that man be able to do that?”

“Venerable sir, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, or even fifty men would not be able to make all the living beings in this town of Nalanda into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh in one moment or instant, so what does a single trivial man count for?”

“What do you think, householder? Suppose some recluse or brahmin came here possessed of supernormal power and attained to mastery of mind, and he spoke thus: ‘I will reduce this town of Nalanda to ashes with one mental act of hate.’ What do you think, householder, would such a recluse or brahmin be able to do that?” [378]

“Venerable sir, such a recluse or brahmin possessed of supernormal power and attained to mastery of mind would be able to reduce ten, twenty, thirty, forty, or even fifty Nalandas to ashes with one mental act of hate, so what does a single trivial Nalanda count for?”

“Householder, householder, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. Yet you made this statement: ‘I will debate on the basis of truth, venerable sir, so let us have some conversation about this.'”

“Venerable sir, although the Blessed One has spoken thus, yet the bodily rod is the most reprehensible for the performance of evil action, for the perpetration of evil action, and not so much the verbal rod and the mental rod.”

  1. “What do you think, householder? Have you heard how the Dandaka, Kalinga, Mejjha, and Matanga forests became forests?” 587 – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “As you heard it, how did they become forests?” – “Venerable sir, I heard that they became forests by means of a mental act of hate on the part of the seers.”

i 379

“Householder, householder, pay attention how you reply! What you said before does not agree with what you said afterwards, nor does what you said afterwards agree with what you said before. Yet you made this statement: ‘I will debate on the basis of truth, venerable sir, so let us have some conversation about this.'”

  1. “Venerable sir, I was satisfied and pleased by the Blessed One’s very first simile. Nevertheless, I thought I would oppose the Blessed One thus since I desired to hear the Blessed One’s varied solutions to the problem. Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Blessed One has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. Venerable sir, I go to the Blessed One for refuge [379] and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”
  2. “Investigate thoroughly, householder. It is good for such well-known people like you to investigate thoroughly.”

“Venerable sir, I am even more satisfied and pleased with the Blessed One for telling me that. For the other sectarians, on acquiring me as their disciple, would carry a banner all over Nalanda announcing: ‘The householder Upali has come to dis-cipleship under us.’ But, on the contrary, the Blessed One tells me: ‘Investigate thoroughly, householder. It is good for such well-known people like you to investigate thoroughly.’ So for the second time, venerable sir, I go to the Blessed One for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

  1. “Householder, your family has long supported the Niganthas and you should consider that alms should be given to them when they come.”

“Venerable sir, I am even more satisfied and pleased with the Blessed One for telling me that. Venerable sir, I have heard that the recluse Gotama says thus: ‘Gifts should be given only to me; gifts should not be given to others. Gifts should be given only to my disciples; gifts should not be given to others’ disciples. Only what is given to me is very fruitful, not what is given to others.

To Upali 485

Only what is given to my disciples is very fruitful, not what is given to others’ disciples.’ But, on the contrary, the Blessed One encourages me to give gifts to the Niganthas. Anyway we shall know the time for that, venerable sir. So for the third time, venerable sir, I go to the Blessed One for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

  1. Then the Blessed One gave the householder Upali progressive instruction, that is, talk on giving, talk on virtue, talk on the heavens; he explained the danger, degradation, and defilement in sensual pleasures and the blessing of renunciation. When he knew that the householder Upali’s mind [380] was ready, receptive, free from hindrances, elated, and confident, he expounded to him the teaching special to the Buddhas: suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the path. Just as a clean cloth with all marks removed would take dye evenly, so too, while the householder Upali sat there, the spotless immaculate vision of the Dhamma arose in him: “All that is subject to arising is subject to cessation.” 588 Then the householder Upali saw the Dhamma, attained the Dhamma, understood the Dhamma, fathomed the Dhamma; he crossed beyond doubt, did away with perplexity, gained intrepidity, and became independent of others in the Teacher’s Dispensation. 589 Then he said to the Blessed One: “Now, venerable sir, we must go. We are busy and have much to do.”

“Now is the time, householder, to do as you think fit.”

  1. Then the householder Upali, having delighted and rejoiced in the Blessed One’s words, rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he left to return to his own house. There he addressed the doorkeeper thus: “Good doorkeeper, from today on I close my door to the Niganthas and the Niganthls, and I open my door to the Blessed One’s bhikkhus, bhikkhunls, men lay followers, and women lay followers. If any Nigantha comes, then tell him thus: ‘Wait, venerable sir, do not enter. From today on the householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama. He has closed his door to the Niganthas and Niganthls, and he has opened it to the Blessed One’s bhikkhus, bhikkhunls, men lay followers, and women lay followers. Venerable sir, if you need alms, wait here; they will bring it to you here.'” – “Yes, venerable sir,” the doorkeeper replied.

 

i 381

  1. The Nigantha Dlgha TapassI heard: “The householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama.” Then he went to the Nigantha Nataputta and told him: “Venerable sir, I have heard thus: ‘The householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama.'”

“It is impossible, TapassI, it cannot happen that the householder Upali should go over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama; but it is possible, it can happen that the recluse Gotama might come over to discipleship under the householder Upali.” [381]

A second time…And a third time the Nigantha Dlgha TapassI told the Nigantha Nataputta: “Venerable sir, I have heard thus: ‘The householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama.'”

“It is impossible, TapassI, it cannot happen…”

“Venerable sir, shall I go and find out whether or not the householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama?”

“Go, TapassI, and find out whether or not he has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama.”

  1. Then the Nigantha Dlgha TapassI went to the householder Upali’s house. The doorkeeper saw him coming in the distance and told him: “Wait, venerable sir, do not enter. From today on the householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama. He has closed his door to the Niganthas and Niganthls, and he has opened it to the Blessed One’s bhikkhus, bhikkhunls, men lay followers, and women lay followers. Venerable sir, if you need alms, wait here; they will bring it to you here.”

“I do not need alms, friend,” he said, and he turned back and went to the Nigantha Nataputta and told him: “Venerable sir, it is only too true that the householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama. Venerable sir, I did not get your consent when I told you: ‘Venerable sir, I do not think that the householder Upali should [try to] refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine. For the recluse Gotama is a magician and knows a converting magic by which he converts disciples of other sectarians.’ And now, venerable sir, your householder Upali has been converted by the recluse Gotama with his converting magic!”

To Upali 487

“It is impossible, Tapassi, it cannot happen that the householder Upali should go over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama; but it is possible, it can happen that the recluse Gotama might come over to discipleship under the householder Upali.”

A second time…And a third time the Nigantha Dlgha Tapassi told the Nigantha Nataputta: “Venerable sir, it is only too true that the householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama [382]…with his converting magic!”

“It is impossible, Tapassi, it cannot happen…it can happen that the recluse Gotama might come over to discipleship under the householder Upali. Now I shall go myself and find out whether or not he has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama.”

  1. Then the Nigantha Nataputta went with a large assembly of Niganthas to the householder Upali’s house. The doorkeeper saw him coming in the distance and told him: “Wait, venerable sir, do not enter. From today on the householder Upali has gone over to discipleship under the recluse Gotama. He has closed his door to the Niganthas and Niganthis, and he has opened his door to the Blessed One’s bhikkhus, bhikkhunls, men lay followers, and women lay followers. Venerable sir, if you need alms, wait here; they will bring it to you here.”

“Good doorkeeper, go to the householder Upali and tell him: ‘Venerable sir, the Nigantha Nataputta is standing at the outer gate with a large assembly of Niganthas; he wishes to see you.'”

“Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and he went to the householder Upali and told him: “Venerable sir, the Nigantha Nataputta is standing at the outer gate with a large assembly of Niganthas; he wishes to see you.”

“In that case, good doorkeeper, make seats ready in the hall of the central door.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and after he had made seats ready in the hall of the central door, he returned to the householder Upali and told him: “Venerable sir, the seats are made ready in the hall of the central door. Now it is time to do as you think fit.”

  1. Then the householder Upali [383] went to the hall of the central door and sat down on the highest, best, chief, most excellent seat there. Then he told the doorkeeper: “Now, good doorkeeper, go to the Nigantha Nataputta and tell him:

i 384

‘Venerable sir, the householder Upali says: “Enter, venerable sir, if you wish/””

“Yes, venerable sir,” he replied, and he went to the Nigantha Nataputta and told him: “Venerable sir, the householder Upali says: ‘Enter, venerable sir, if you wish.'”

Then the Nigantha Nataputta went with the large assembly of Niganthas to the hall of the central door.

  1. Previously, when the householder Upali saw the Nigantha Nataputta coming in the distance, he used to go out to meet him, dust off the highest, best, chief, most excellent seat there with an upper robe, and having arranged it all around, have him seated on it. But now, while seated himself on the highest, best, chief, most excellent seat, he told Nigantha Nataputta: “Venerable sir, there are seats; sit down if you wish.”
  2. When this was said, the Nigantha Nataputta said: “Householder, you are mad, you are an imbecile. You went saying: ‘Venerable sir, I shall refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine,’ and you have come back all caught up in a vast net of doctrine. Just as if a man went to castrate someone and came back castrated on both sides, just as if a man went to put out someone’s eyes and came back with both his eyes put out; so you too, householder, went saying: ‘Venerable sir, I shall refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine,’ and you have come back all caught up in a vast net of doctrine. Householder, you have been converted by the recluse Gotama with his converting magic!”
  3. “Auspicious is that converting magic, venerable sir, good is that converting magic! 590 Venerable sir, if my beloved kinsmen and relatives were to be converted by this conversion, it would lead to the welfare and happiness of my beloved kinsmen and relatives for a long time. If all nobles were to be converted by this conversion, it would lead to the welfare and happiness of the nobles for a longtime. [384] If all brahmins… all merchants… all workers were to be converted by this conversion, it would lead to the welfare and happiness of the workers for a long time. If the world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, were to be converted by this conversion, it would lead to the welfare and happiness of the world for a long time. As to this, venerable sir, I shall give you a simile; for some wise men here understand the meaning of a statement by a simile.
  4. “Venerable sir, there was once a brahmin who was old, aged, and burdened with years, and he had as a wife a young brahmin girl who was pregnant and near her confinement. Then she told him: ‘Go, brahmin, buy a young monkey in the market and bring it back to me as a playmate for my child/ He replied: ‘Wait, madam, till you have borne the child. If you bear a boy, then I will go to the market and buy a young male monkey and bring it back to you as a playmate for your little boy; but if you bear a girl, then I will go to the market and buy a young female monkey and bring it back to you as a playmate for your little girl.’ For the second time she made the same request and received the same answer. For the third time she made the same request. Then, since his mind was bound to her with love, he went to the market, bought a young male monkey, brought it back, and told her: ‘I have bought this young male monkey in the market [385] and brought it back to you as a playmate for your child.’ Then she told him: ‘Go, brahmin, take this young male monkey to Rattapani the dyer’s son and tell him: “Good Rattapani, I want this young male monkey dyed the colour called yellow-unguent, pounded and re-pounded, and smoothened out on both sides.'” Then, since his mind was bound to her with love, he took the young male monkey to Rattapani the dyer’s son and told him: ‘Good Rattapani, I want this young male monkey dyed the colour called yellow-unguent, pounded and re-pounded, and smoothened out on both sides.’ Rattapani the dyer’s son told him: ‘Venerable sir, this young male monkey will take a dyeing but not a pounding or a smoothening out.’ So too, venerable sir, the doctrine of the foolish Niganthas will give delight to fools but not to the wise, and it will not withstand testing or being smoothened out.

“Then, venerable sir, on another occasion that brahmin took a pair of new garments to Rattapani the dyer’s son and told him: ‘Good Rattapani, I want this pair of new garments dyed the colour called yellow-unguent, pounded and re-pounded, and smoothened out on both sides.’ Rattapani the dyer’s son told him: ‘Venerable sir, this pair of new garments will take a dyeing and a pounding and a smoothening out.’ So too, venerable sir, the doctrine of that Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened, will give delight to the wise but not to fools, and it will withstand testing and being smoothened out.”

i 386

  1. “Householder, the assembly and the king know you thus: ‘The householder Upali is a disciple of the Nigantha Nataputta.’ Whose disciple should we consider you to be?”

When this was said, the householder Upali rose from his seat, and arranging his upper robe on one shoulder, [386] he extended his hands in reverential salutation in the direction of the Blessed One and told the Nigantha Nataputta:

  1. “In that case, venerable sir, hear whose disciple I am:

He is the Wise One who has cast off delusion, abandoned the heart’s wilderness, 591 victor in battle;

He knows no anguish, is perfectly even-minded, mature in virtue, of excellent wisdom;

Beyond all temptations, 592 he is without stain:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

Free from perplexity, he abides contented, spurning worldly gains, a vessel of gladness;

A human being who has done the recluse’s duty, a man who bears his final body;

He is utterly peerless and utterly spotless:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

He is free from doubt and skilful, the discipliner and excellent leader.

None can surpass his resplendent qualities; without hesitation, he is the illuminator;

Having severed conceit, he is the hero:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

The leader of the herd, he cannot be measured, his depths are unfathomed, he attained to the silence; 593 Provider of safety, possessor of knowledge, he stands in the Dhamma, inwardly restrained;

Having overcome all bondage, he is liberated:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

The immaculate tusker, living in remoteness, with fetters all shattered, fully freed;

Skilled in discussion, imbued with wisdom.

To Upali 491

i 386

his banner lowered, 594 he no longer lusts;

Having tamed himself, he no more proliferates: 595 The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

The best of seers, 596 with no deceptive schemes, gained the triple knowledge, attained to holiness;

His heart cleansed, a master of discourse, he lives ever tranquil, the finder of knowledge;

The first of all givers, he is ever capable:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

He is the Noble One, developed in mind, who has gained the goal and expounds the truth; Endowed with mindfulness and penetrative insight, he leans neither forwards nor back; 597 Free from perturbation, attained to mastery:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

He has fared rightly and abides in meditation, inwardly undefiled, in purity perfect;

He is independent and altogether fearless, 598 living secluded, attained to the summit;

Having crossed over himself, he leads us across:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

Of supreme serenity, with extensive wisdom, a man of great wisdom, devoid of all greed;

He is the Tathagata, he is the Sublime One, the person unrivalled, the one without equal;

He is intrepid, proficient in all:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.

He has severed craving and become the Enlightened One, cleared of all clouds, completely untainted;

Most worthy of gifts, most mighty of spirits, most perfect of persons, beyond estimation;

The greatest in grandeur, attained the peak of glory:

The Blessed One is he, and I am his disciple.”

  1. “When did you concoct that hymn of praise to the recluse Gotama, householder?”

“Venerable sir, suppose there were a great heap of many kinds of flowers, [387] and then a clever garland-maker or garland-maker’s apprentice were to knot them into a multicoloured garland; so too, venerable sir, the Blessed One has many praiseworthy qualities, many hundred praiseworthy qualities. Who, venerable sir, would not praise the praiseworthy?”

  1. Then, since the Nigantha Nataputta was unable to bear this honour done to the Blessed One, hot blood then and there gushed from his mouth. 599

 

 

57 Kukkuravatika Sutta The Dog-duty Ascetic

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Koliyan country at a town of the Koliyans named Haliddavasana.
  2. Then Punna, son of the Koliyans, an ox-duty ascetic, and also Seniya, a naked dog-duty ascetic, went to the Blessed One. 600 Punna, the ox-duty ascetic, paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side, while Seniya, the naked dog-duty ascetic, exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he too sat down at one side curled up like a dog. Punna, the ox-duty ascetic, said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this Seniya is a naked dog-duty ascetic who does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown to the ground. He has long taken up and practised that dog-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

“Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that.”

A second time…And a third time Punna, the ox-duty ascetic, said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this Seniya is a naked dog-duty ascetic who does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown to the ground. He has long taken up and practised that dog-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

“Well, Punna, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say: ‘Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that,’ I shall therefore answer you.

  1. “Here, Punna, someone develops the dog-duty fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the dog-habit fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the dog-mind fully [388] and uninterruptedly; he develops dog-behaviour fully and uninterruptedly. Having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he

i 389

reappears in the company of dogs. But if he has such a view as this: ‘By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god/ that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal realm. 601 So, Punna, if his dog-duty succeeds, it will lead him to the company of dogs; if it fails, it will lead him to hell.”

  1. When this was said, Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic cried out and burst into tears. Then the Blessed One told Punna, son of the Koliyans, the ox-duty ascetic: “Punna, I could not persuade you when I said: ‘Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that.'”

[Then Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic said:] “Venerable sir, I am not crying because the Blessed One has said this about me, but because I have long taken up and practised this dog-duty. Venerable sir, this Punna, son of the Koliyans, is an ox-duty ascetic. He has long taken up and practised that ox-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

“Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that.”

A second time…And a third time Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this Punna, son of the Koliyans, is an ox-duty ascetic. He has long taken up and practised that ox-duty. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”

“Well, Seniya, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say: ‘Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that,’ I shall therefore answer you.

  1. “Here, Seniya, someone develops the ox-duty fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the ox-habit fully and uninterruptedly; he develops the ox-mind fully and uninterruptedly; he develops ox-behaviour fully and uninterruptedly. Having done so, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of oxen. [389] But if he has such a view as this: ‘By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life I shall become a [great] god or some [lesser] god/ that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal realm. So, Seniya, if his ox-duty succeeds, it will lead him to the company of oxen; if it fails, it will lead him to hell.”
  2. When this was said, Punna, son of the Koliyans, the ox-duty ascetic cried out and burst into tears. Then the Blessed One told

The Dog-duty Ascetic 495

Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic: “Seniya, I could not persuade you when I said: ‘Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that.'”

[Then Punna the ox-duty ascetic said:] “Venerable sir, I am not crying because the Blessed One has said this about me, but because 1 have long taken up and practised this ox-duty. Venerable sir, I have confidence in the Blessed One thus: ‘The Blessed One is capable of teaching me the Dhamma in such a way that I can abandon this ox-duty and that this Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic can abandon that dog-duty.'”

“Then, Punna, listen and attend closely to what I shall say.” -“Yes, venerable sir,” he replied. The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Punna, there are four kinds of action proclaimed by me after realising them for myself with direct knowledge. What are the four? There is dark action with dark result; there is bright action with bright result; there is dark-and-bright action with dark-and-bright result; and there is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-nor-bright result, action that leads to the destruction of action.
  2. “And what, Punna, is dark action with dark result? Here someone generates an afflictive bodily formation, an afflictive verbal formation, an afflictive mental formation. 602 Having generated an afflictive bodily formation, an afflictive verbal formation, an afflictive mental formation, he reappears in an afflictive world. 603 When he has reappeared in an afflictive world, afflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by afflictive contacts, he feels afflictive feelings, extremely painful, as in the case of the beings in [390] hell. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being: 604 one reappears through the actions one has performed. When one has reappeared, contacts touch one. Thus I say beings are the heirs of their actions. This is called dark action with dark result.
  3. “And what, Punna, is bright action with bright result? Here someone generates an unafflictive bodily formation, an unaf-flictive verbal formation, an unafflictive mental formation. 605 Having generated an unafflictive bodily formation, an unafflictive verbal formation, an unafflictive mental formation, he reappears in an unafflictive world. 606 When he has reappeared in an unafflictive world, unafflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by unafflictive contacts, he feels unafflictive feelings, extremely pleasant, as in the case of the gods of Refulgent Glory. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being; one reappears through

 

i 391

the actions one has performed. When one has reappeared, contacts touch one. Thus I say beings are the heirs of their actions. This is called bright action with bright result.

  1. “And what, Punna, is dark-and-bright action with dark-and-bright result? Here someone generates a bodily formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive, a verbal formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive, a mental formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive. 607 Having generated a bodily formation, a verbal formation, a mental formation that is both afflictive and unafflictive, he reappears in a world that is both afflictive and unafflictive. When he has reappeared in a world that is both afflictive and unafflictive, both afflictive and unafflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by both afflictive and unafflictive contacts, he feels both afflictive and unafflictive feelings, mingled pleasure and pain, as in the case of human beings and some gods and some beings in the lower worlds. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being: one reappears through the actions one has performed. When one has reappeared, contacts touch one. Thus I say beings are the heirs to their actions. This is called dark-and-bright action with dark-and-bright result. [391]
  2. “And what, Punna, is action that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-nor-bright result, action that leads to the destruction of action? Therein, the volition in abandoning the kind of action that is dark with dark result, and the volition in abandoning the kind of action that is bright with bright result, and the volition in abandoning the kind of action that is dark and bright with dark-and-bright result: this is called action that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-nor-bright result, action that leads to the destruction of action. 608 These are the four kinds of action proclaimed by me after realising them for myself with direct knowledge.”
  3. When this was said, Punna, son of the Koliyans, the ox-duty ascetic said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Blessed One has made the Dhamma clear in many ways…From today let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”
  4. But Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Blessed One has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as

The Dog-duty Ascetic 497

though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to the Blessed One for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I would receive the going forth under the Blessed One, I would receive the full admission.”

  1. “Seniya, one who formerly belonged to another sect and desires the going forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline lives on probation for four months. 609 At the end of four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with him, they give him the going forth and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state. But I recognise individual differences in this matter.” 610

“Venerable sir, if those who formerly belonged to another sect and desire the going forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline live on probation for four months, and if at the end of the four months the bhikkhus being satisfied with them give them the going forth and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state, then I will live on probation for four years. At the end of the four years if the bhikkhus are satisfied with me, let them give me the going forth and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state.”

  1. Then Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic received the going forth under the Blessed One, and he received the full admission. And soon, not long after his full admission, dwelling alone, withdrawn, [392] diligent, ardent, and resolute, the venerable Seniya, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here and now entered upon and abided in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. He directly knew: “Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.” And the venerable Seniya became one of the arahants.

 

 

58 Abhayarajakumara Sutta To Prince Abhaya

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.
  2. Then Prince Abhaya 611 went to the Nigantha Nataputta, and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. Thereupon the Nigantha Nataputta said to him:
  3. “Come, prince, refute the recluse Gotama’s doctrine, and a good report of you will be spread to this effect: ‘Prince Abhaya has refuted the doctrine of the recluse Gotama, who is so powerful and mighty.'”

“But how, venerable sir, shall I refute his doctrine?”

“Come, prince, go to the recluse Gotama and say: ‘Venerable sir, would the Tathagata utter speech that would be unwelcome and disagreeable to others?’ If the recluse Gotama, on being asked thus, answers: ‘The Tathagata, prince, would utter speech that would be unwelcome and disagreeable to others,’ then say to him: ‘Then, venerable sir, what is the difference between you and an ordinary person? For an ordinary person also would utter speech that would be unwelcome and disagreeable to others.’ But if the recluse Gotama, on being asked thus, answers: ‘The Tathagata, prince, would not utter speech [393] that would be unwelcome and disagreeable to others,’ then say to him: ‘Then, venerable sir, why have you declared of Devadatta: “Devadatta is destined for the states of deprivation, Devadatta is destined for hell, Devadatta will remain [in hell] for the aeon, Devadatta is incorrigible”? Devadatta was angry and dissatisfied with that speech of yours.’ When the recluse Gotama is posed this two-homed question by you, he will not be able either to gulp it down or to throw it up. If an iron spike were stuck in a man’s throat, he would not be able either to gulp it down or to throw it up; so too, prince, when the

To Prince Abhaya 499

recluse Gotama is posed this two-homed question by you, he will not be able either to gulp it down or to throw it up.”

  1. “Yes, venerable sir,” Prince Abhaya replied. Then he rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Nigantha Nata-putta, keeping him on his right, he left and went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to the Blessed One, he sat down at one side, looked at the sun, and thought: “It is too late today to refute the Blessed One’s doctrine. I shall refute the Blessed One’s doctrine in my own house tomorrow.” Then he said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, let the Blessed One with three others consent to accept tomorrow’s meal from me.” The Blessed One consented in silence.
  2. Then, knowing that the Blessed One had consented. Prince Abhaya rose from his seat, and after paying homage to him, keeping him on his right, he departed. Then, when the night had ended, it being morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, he went to Prince Abhaya’s house and sat down on the seat made ready. Then, with his own hands. Prince Abhaya served and satisfied the Blessed One with various kinds of good food. When the Blessed One had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from the bowl, Prince Abhaya took a low seat, sat down at one side, and said to the Blessed One:
  3. “Venerable sir, would a Tathagata utter such speech as would be unwelcome and disagreeable to others?”

“There is no one-sided answer to that, prince.”

“Then, venerable sir, the Niganthas have lost in this.”

“Why do you say this, prince: [394] ‘Then, venerable sir, the Niganthas have lost in this’?” 612

Prince Abhaya then reported to the Blessed One his entire conversation with the Nigantha Nataputta.

  1. Now on that occasion a young tender infant was lying prone on Prince Abhaya’s lap. Then the Blessed One said to Prince Abhaya: [395] “What do you think, prince? If, while you or your nurse were not attending to him, this child were to put a stick or a pebble in his mouth, what would you do to him?”

“Venerable sir, I would take it out. If I could not take it out at once, I would take his head in my left hand, and crooking a finger of my right hand, I would take it out even if it meant drawing blood. Why is that? Because I have compassion for the child.”

1396

  1. “So too, prince, such speech as the Tathagata knows to be untrue, incorrect, and unbeneficial, and which is also unwelcome and disagreeable to others: such speech the Tathagata does not utter. Such speech as the Tathagata knows to be true and correct but unbeneficial, and which is also unwelcome and disagreeable to others: such speech the Tathagata does not utter. Such speech as the Tathagata knows to be true, correct, and beneficial, but which is unwelcome and disagreeable to others: the Tathagata knows the time to use such speech. 613 Such speech as the Tathagata knows to be untrue, incorrect, and unbeneficial, but which is welcome and agreeable to others: such speech the Tathagata does not utter. Such speech as the Tathagata knows to be true and correct but unbeneficial, and which is welcome and agreeable to others: such speech the Tathagata does not utter. Such speech as the Tathagata knows to be true, correct, and beneficial, and which is welcome and agreeable to others: the Tathagata knows the time to use such speech. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has compassion for beings.”
  2. “Venerable sir, when learned nobles, learned brahmins, learned householders, and learned recluses, after formulating a question, then go to the Blessed One and pose it, has there already been in the Blessed One’s mind the thought: ‘If they come to me and ask me thus, I shall answer thus’? Or does that answer occur to the Tathagata on the spot?”
  3. “As to that, prince, I shall ask you a question in return. Answer it as you choose. What do you think, prince? Are you skilled in the parts of a chariot?”

“Yes, venerable sir, I am.”

“What do you think, prince? When people come to you and ask: ‘What is the name of this part of the chariot?’ has there already been in your mind the thought: [396] ‘If they come to me and ask me thus, I shall answer them thus’? Or does that answer occur to you on the spot?”

“Venerable sir, I am well known as a charioteer skilled in the parts of a chariot. All the parts of a chariot are well known to me. That answer would occur to me on the spot.”

  1. “So too, prince, when learned nobles, learned brahmins, learned householders, and learned recluses, after formulating a question, then come to the Tathagata and pose it, the answer occurs to the Tathagata on the spot. Why is that? That element

To Prince Abhaya 501

of things has been fully penetrated by the Tathagata, through the full penetration of which the answer occurs to the Tathagata on the spot.” 614

  1. When this was said. Prince Abhaya said: “Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Blessed One has made the Dhamma clear in many ways…From today let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”

 

 

59 Bahuvedaniya Sutta The Many Kinds of Feeling

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Savattfu in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Then the carpenter Pancakanga 615 went to the venerable Udayin, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked him:
  3. “Venerable sir, how many kinds of feeling have been stated by the Blessed One?”

“Three kinds of feeling have been stated by the Blessed One, householder: pleasant feeling, painful feeling, and neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. [397] These three kinds of feeling have been stated by the Blessed One.”

“Not three kinds of feeling have been stated by the Blessed One, venerable Udayin; two kinds of feeling have been stated by the Blessed One: pleasant feeling and painful feeling. This neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling has been stated by the Blessed One as a peaceful and sublime kind of pleasure.”

A second time and a third time the venerable Udayin stated his position, and a second time and a third time the carpenter Pancakanga stated his. But the venerable Udayin could not convince the carpenter Pancakanga nor could the carpenter Pancakanga convince the venerable Udayin.

  1. The venerable Ananda heard their conversation. Then he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and reported to the Blessed One the entire conversation between the venerable Udayin and the carpenter Pancakanga. When he had finished, the Blessed One told the venerable Ananda:
  2. “Ananda, it was actually a true presentation that the carpenter Pancakanga would not accept from Udayin, and it was actually a true presentation that Udayin would not accept from

The Many Kinds of Feeling 503

the carpenter Pancakanga. I have stated two kinds of feeling in one presentation; [398] I have stated three kinds of feeling in another presentation; I have stated five kinds of feeling in another presentation; I have stated six kinds of feeling in another presentation; I have stated eighteen kinds of feeling in another presentation; I have stated thirty-six kinds of feeling in another presentation; I have stated one hundred and eight kinds of feeling in another presentation. 616 That is how the Dhamma has been shown by me in [different] presentations.

“When the Dhamma has thus been shown by me in [different] presentations, it may be expected of those who will not concede, allow, and accept what is well stated and well spoken by others that they will take to quarreling, brawling, and disputing, stabbing each other with verbal daggers. But it may be expected of those who concede, allow, and accept what is well stated and well spoken by others that they will live in concord, with mutual appreciation, without disputing, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with kindly eyes.

  1. “Ananda, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure. What are the five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the ear… Odours cognizable by the nose…Flavours cognizable by the tongue…Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sensual pleasure. Now the pleasure and joy that arise dependent on these five cords of sensual pleasure are called sensual pleasure.
  2. “Should anyone say: ‘That is the utmost pleasure and joy that beings experience,’ I would not concede that to him. Why is that? Because there is another kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than that pleasure. And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.
  3. “Should anyone say: ‘That is the utmost pleasure and joy that beings experience,’ I would not concede that to him. [399]

i 399

Why is that? Because there is another kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than that pleasure. And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.

  1. “Should anyone say…And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, mindful and fully aware, and still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.
  2. “Should anyone say…And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure. 617
  3. “Should anyone say…And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.
  4. “Should anyone say…And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.
  5. “Should anyone say…And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness.

The Many Kinds of Feeling 505

This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure. [400]

  1. “Should anyone say…And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.
  2. “Should anyone say: ‘That is the utmost pleasure and joy that beings experience/ I would not concede that to him. Why is that? Because there is another kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than that pleasure. And what is that other kind of pleasure? Here, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is that other kind of pleasure loftier and more sublime than the previous pleasure.
  3. “It is possible, Ananda, that wanderers of other sects might speak thus: ‘The recluse Gotama speaks of the cessation of perception and feeling and he describes that as pleasure. What is this, and how is this?’ Wanderers of other sects who speak thus should be told: ‘Friends, the Blessed One describes pleasure not only with reference to pleasant feeling; rather, friends, the Tathagata describes as pleasure any kind of pleasure wherever and in whatever way it is found.'” 618

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Ananda was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

60 The Incontrovertible Teaching

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering in the Kosalan country with a large Sangha of bhikkhus, and eventually he arrived at a Kosalan brahmin village named Sala.
  2. The brahmin householders of Sala heard: “The recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan clan, has been wandering in the Kosalan country [401] with a large Sangha of bhikkhus and has come to Sala. Now a good report of Master Gotama has been spread to this effect: ‘That Blessed One is accomplished, fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He declares this world with its gods, its Maras, and its Brahmas, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its princes and its people, which he has himself realised with direct knowledge. He teaches the Dhamma good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and he reveals a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure.’ Now it is good to see such arahants.”
  3. Then the brahmin householders of Sala went to the Blessed One. Some paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some exchanged greetings with him, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, sat down at one side; some extended their hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and sat down at one side; some pronounced their name and clan in the Blessed One’s presence and sat down at one side; some kept silent and sat down at one side.
  4. When they were seated, the Blessed One asked them: “Householders, is there any teacher agreeable to you in whom you have acquired faith supported by reasons?” 619

506

The Incontrovertible Teaching 507

“No, venerable sir, there is no teacher agreeable to us in whom we have acquired faith supported by reasons.”

“Since, householders, you have not found an agreeable teacher, you may undertake and practise this incontrovertible teaching; 620 for when the incontrovertible teaching is accepted and undertaken, it will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. And what is the incontrovertible teaching? 621

(I. THE DOCTRINE OF NIHILISM)

  1. (A) “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ 622 [402]
  2. (B) “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus: ‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings who are reborn spontaneously; there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ What do you think, householders? Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  3. (A.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is nothing given…no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins do not see in unwholesome states the danger.

i 403

degradation, and defilement, nor do they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

  1. (A.ii) “Since there actually is another world, one who holds the view ‘there is no other world’ has wrong view. Since there actually is another world, one who intends ‘there is no other world’ has wrong intention. Since there actually is another world, one who makes the statement ‘there is no other world’ has wrong speech. Since there actually is another world, one who says ‘there is no other world’ is opposed to those arahants who know the other world. Since there actually is another world, one who convinces another ‘there is no other world’ convinces him to accept an untrue Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept an untrue Dhamma, he praises himself and disparages others. Thus any pure virtue that he formerly had is abandoned and corrupt conduct is substituted. 623 And this wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept an untrue Dhamma, and self-praise and disparagement of others – these several evil unwholesome states thus come into being with wrong view as their condition. [403]
  2. (A.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is no other world, then on the dissolution of the body this good person will have made himself safe enough. 624 But if there is another world, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no other world: still this good person is here and now censured by the wise as an immoral person, one of wrong view who holds the doctrine of nihilism. 625 But on the other hand, if there is another world, then this good person has made an unlucky throw on both counts: since he is censured by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. He has wrongly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends only to one side and excludes the wholesome alternative.’ 626
  3. (B.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is what is given… there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who

The Incontrovertible Teaching 509

have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, and they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

  1. (B.ii) “Since there actually is another world, one who holds the view ‘there is another world’ has right view. Since there actually is another world, one who intends ‘there is another world’ has right intention. Since there actually is another world, one who makes the statement ‘there is another world’ has right speech. Since there actually is another world, one who says ‘there is another world’ is not opposed to those arahants who know the other world. Since there actually is another world, one who convinces another ‘there is another world’ [404] convinces him to accept true Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept true Dhamma, he does not praise himself and disparage others. Thus any corrupt conduct that he formerly had is abandoned and pure virtue is substituted. And this right view, right intention, right speech, non-opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept true Dhamma, and avoidance of self-praise and disparagement of others – these several wholesome states thus come into being with right view as their condition.
  2. (B.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is another world, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, this good person will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no other world: still this good person is here and now praised by the wise as a virtuous person, one with right view who holds the doctrine of affirmation. 627 And on the other hand, if there is another world, then this good person has made a lucky throw on both counts: since he is praised by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. He has rightly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible

510 Apannaka Sutta: Sutta 60

teaching in such a way that it extends to both sides and excludes the unwholesome alternative.’ 628

(D. THE DOCTRINE OF NON-DOING)

  1. (A) “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: 629 ‘When one acts or makes others act, when one mutilates or makes others mutilate, when one tortures or makes others inflict torture, when one inflicts sorrow or makes others inflict sorrow, when one oppresses or makes others inflict oppression, when one intimidates or makes others inflict intimidation, when one kills living beings, takes what is not given, breaks into houses, plunders wealth, commits burglary, ambushes highways, seduces another’s wife, utters falsehood – no evil is done by the doer. If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings on this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering, mutilating and making others mutilate, torturing and making others inflict torture, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts, making offerings and making others make offerings, because of this there would be no merit and no outcome of merit. By giving, by taming oneself, by restraint, by speaking truth, there is no merit and no outcome of merit.’
  2. (B) “Now there are some recluses and brahmins [405] whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus: ‘When one acts or makes others act, when one mutilates or makes others mutilate…utters falsehood – evil is done by the doer. If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings on this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be evil and the outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering, mutilating and making others mutilate, torturing and making others inflict torture, because of this there would be evil and the outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts, making offerings and

The Incontrovertible Teaching 511

making others make offerings, because of this there would be merit and the outcome of merit. By giving, by taming oneself, by restraint, by speaking truth, there is merit and the outcome of merit/ What do you think, householders? Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?” -“Yes, venerable sir.”

  1. (A.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘When one acts or makes others act.. .there is no merit and no outcome of merit,’ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct and good mental conduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins do not see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, nor do they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.
  2. (A.ii) “Since there actually is doing, one who holds the view ‘there is no doing’ has wrong view. Since there actually is doing, one who intends ‘there is no doing’ has wrong intention. Since there actually is doing, one who makes the statement ‘there is no doing’ has wrong speech. Since there actually is doing, one who says ‘there is no doing’ is opposed to those ara-hants who hold the doctrine that there is doing. Since there actually is doing, one who convinces another ‘there is no doing’ convinces him to accept an untrue Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept an untrue Dhamma, he praises himself and disparages others. Thus any pure virtue that he formerly had is abandoned and corrupt conduct is substituted. [406] And this wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept an untrue Dhamma, and self-praise and disparagement of others -these several evil unwholesome states thus come into being with wrong view as their condition.
  3. (A.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is no doing, then on the dissolution of the body this good person will have made himself safe enough. But if there is doing, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and

512 Apannaka Sutta: Sutta 60

brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no doing: still this good person is here and now censured by the wise as an immoral person, one of wrong view who holds the doctrine of non-doing. But on the other hand, if there is doing, then this good person has made an unlucky throw on both counts: since he is censured by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. He has wrongly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends only to one side and excludes the wholesome alternative/

  1. (B.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘When one acts or makes others act…there is merit and outcome of merit/ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, and they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.
  2. (B.ii) “Since there actually is doing, one who holds the view ‘there is doing’ has right view. Since there actually is doing, one who intends ‘there is doing’ has right intention. Since there actually is doing, one who makes the statement ‘there is doing’ has right speech. Since there actually is doing, one who says ‘there is doing’ is not opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine that there is doing. Since there actually is doing, one who convinces another ‘there is doing’ convinces him to accept true Dhamma; [407] and because he convinces another to accept true Dhamma, he does not praise himself and disparage others. Thus any corrupt conduct that he formerly had is abandoned and pure virtue is substituted. And this right view, right intention, right speech, non-opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept true Dhamma, and avoidance of self-praise and disparagement of others – these several wholesome states thus come into being with right view as their condition.
  3. (B.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is doing, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, this good

The Incontrovertible Teaching 513

person will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no doing: still this good person is here and now praised by the wise as a virtuous person, one with right view who holds the doctrine of doing. And on the other hand, if there is doing, then this good person has made a lucky throw on both counts: since he is praised by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. He has rightly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends to both sides and excludes the unwholesome alternative.’

(ill. THE DOCTRINE OF NON-CAUSALITY)

  1. (A) “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: 630 ‘There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified without cause or condition. There is no power, no energy, no manly strength, no manly endurance. All beings, all living things, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy; moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes.’ 631
  2. (B) “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus: “There is a cause and condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled owing to a cause and condition. There is a cause and condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified owing to a cause and condition. There is power, energy, manly strength, manly endurance. It is not the case that all beings, all living things, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy, or that moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes.’ What do you think, householders? [408] Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?” – “Yes, venerable sir.”
  3. (A.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is no cause or condition

 

514 Apannaka Sutta: Sutta 60

for the defilement of beings…they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes/ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins do not see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, nor do they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.

  1. (A.ii) “Since there actually is causality, one who holds the view ‘there is no causality’ has wrong view. Since there actually is causality, one who intends ‘there is no causality’ has wrong intention. Since there actually is causality, one who makes the statement ‘there is no causality’ has wrong speech. Since there actually is causality, one who says ‘there is no causality’ is opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine of causality. Since there actually is causality, one who convinces another ‘there is no causality’ convinces him to accept an untrue Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept an untrue Dhamma, he praises himself and disparages others. Thus any pure virtue that he formerly had is abandoned and corrupt conduct is substituted. And this wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept an untrue Dhamma, and self-praise and disparagement of others – these several evil unwholesome states thus come into being with wrong view as their condition.
  2. (A.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is no causality, then on the dissolution of the body this good person will have made himself safe enough. But if there is causality, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no causality: still this good person is here and now censured by the wise as an immoral person, one of wrong view who holds the doctrine of non-causality. But on the other hand, if there is causality, then this good person has made an unlucky throw on both counts: [409] since he is censured by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he

The Incontrovertible Teaching 515

will reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. He has wrongly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends only to one side and excludes the wholesome alternative.’

  1. (B.i) “Now, householders, of those recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is a cause and condition for the defilement of beings…they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes/ it is to be expected that they will avoid these three unwholesome states, namely, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct, and that they will undertake and practise these three wholesome states, namely, good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct. Why is that? Because those good recluses and brahmins see in unwholesome states the danger, degradation, and defilement, and they see in wholesome states the blessing of renunciation, the aspect of cleansing.
  2. (B.ii) “Since there actually is causality, one who holds the view ‘there is causality’ has right view. Since there actually is causality, one who intends ‘there is causality’ has right intention. Since there actually is causality, one who makes the statement ‘there is causality’ has right speech. Since there actually is causality, one who says ‘there is causality’ is not opposed to those arahants who hold the doctrine of causality. Since there actually is causality, one who convinces another ‘there is causality’ convinces him to accept true Dhamma; and because he convinces another to accept true Dhamma, he does not praise himself and disparage others. Thus any corrupt conduct that he formerly had is abandoned and pure virtue is substituted. And this right view, right intention, right speech, non-opposition to noble ones, convincing another to accept true Dhamma, and avoidance of self-praise and disparagement of others – these several wholesome states thus come into being with right view as their condition.
  3. (B.iii) “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘If there is causality, then on the dissolution of the body, after death, this good person will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. Now whether or not the word of those good recluses and brahmins is true, let me assume that there is no causality: still this good person is here and now praised by the wise as a virtuous person, one with right view who holds the

516 Apannaka Sutta: Sutta 60

doctrine of causality. And on the other hand, if there is [410] causality, then this good person has made a lucky throw on both counts: since he is praised by the wise here and now, and since on the dissolution of the body, after death, he will reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. He has rightly accepted and undertaken this incontrovertible teaching in such a way that it extends to both sides and excludes the unwholesome alternative.’

(IV. THERE ARE NO IMMATERIAL REALMS)

  1. “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There are definitely no immaterial realms.’ 632
  2. “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus: ‘There definitely are immaterial realms.’ What do you think, householders? Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?” -“Yes, venerable sir.”
  3. “About this a wise man considers thus: “These good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view “there are definitely no immaterial realms,” but that has not been seen by me. And these other good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view “there definitely are immaterial realms,” but that has not been known by me. If, without knowing and seeing, I were to take one side and declare: “Only this is true, anything else is wrong,” that would not be fitting for me. Now as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely are no immaterial realms,” if their word is true then it is certainly still possible that I might reappear [after death] among the gods of the fine-material realms who consist of mind. 633 But as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely are immaterial realms,” if their word is true then it is certainly possible that I might reappear [after death] among the gods of the immaterial realms who consist of perception. The taking up of rods and weapons, quarrels, brawls, disputes, recrimination, malice, and false speech are seen to occur based on material form, but this does not exist at all in the immaterial realms.’ After reflecting thus, he practises the way to dispassion

The Incontrovertible Teaching 517

towards material forms, to the fading away and cessation of material forms. 634

(V. THERE IS NO CESSATION OF BEING)

  1. “Householders, there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine and view is this: ‘There is definitely no cessation of being.’ 635
  2. “Now there are some recluses and brahmins whose doctrine is directly opposed to that of those recluses and brahmins, and they say thus: ‘There definitely [411] is a cessation of being.’ What do you think, householders? Don’t these recluses and brahmins hold doctrines directly opposed to each other?” -“Yes, venerable sir.”
  3. “About this a wise man considers thus: ‘These good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view “there is definitely no cessation of being,” but that has not been seen by me. And these other good recluses and brahmins hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is a cessation of being,” but that has not been known by me. If, without knowing and seeing, I were to take one side and declare: “Only this is true, anything else is wrong,” that would not be fitting for me. Now as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is no cessation of being,” if their word is true then it is certainly still possible that I might reappear [after death] among the gods of the immaterial realms who consist of perception. But as to the recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is a cessation of being,” if their word is true then it is possible that I might here and now attain final Nibbana. The view of those good recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is no cessation of being” is close to lust, close to bondage, close to delighting, close to holding, close to clinging; but the view of those good recluses and brahmins who hold the doctrine and view “there definitely is cessation of being” is close to non-lust, close to non-bondage, close to nondelighting, close to non-holding, close to non-clinging. After reflecting thus, he practises the way to dispassion towards being, to the fading away and cessation of being. 636

i 412

(four kinds of persons)

  1. “Householders, there are four kinds of persons to be found existing in the world. What four? Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself. Here a certain kind of person torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others. Here a certain kind of person torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself, and he also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others. Here a certain kind of person does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself, and he does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others. [412] Since he torments neither himself nor others, he is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and he abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.
  2. “What kind of person, householders, torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself? Here a certain person goes naked, rejecting conventions…(os Sutta 51, §8 )…Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself.
  3. “What kind of person, householders, torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others? Here a certain person is a butcher of sheep…(as Sutta 51, §9)…or one who follows any other such bloody occupation. This is called the kind of person who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  4. “What kind of a person, householders, torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and also torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others? Here some person is a head-anointed noble king or a well-to-do brahmin… (as Sutta 51, §10 )…And then his slaves, messengers, and servants make preparations, weeping with tearful faces, being spurred on by threats of punishment and by fear. This is called the kind of person who torments himself and pursues the practice of torturing himself and who torments others and pursues the practice of torturing others.
  5. “What kind of person, householders, does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others – the

The Incontrovertible Teaching 519

one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and now hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy?

40-55. “Here, householders, a Tathagata appears in the world…(as Sutta 51, §§12-27) [413]…He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

  1. “This, householders, is called the kind of person who does not torment himself or pursue the practice of torturing himself and who does not torment others or pursue the practice of torturing others – the one who, since he torments neither himself nor others, is here and how hungerless, extinguished, and cooled, and abides experiencing bliss, having himself become holy.”
  2. When this was said, the brahmin householders of Sala said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness for those with eyesight to see forms. We go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama accept us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge for life.”

 

 

The Division on Bhikkhus

( Bhikkhuvagga )

 

 

 

 

61 Ambalatthikarahulovada Sutta Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika

 

[414] 1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary.

  1. Now on that occasion the venerable Rahula was living at Ambalatthika. 637 Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from meditation and went to the venerable Rahula at Ambalatthika. The venerable Rahula saw the Blessed One coming in the distance and made a seat ready and set out water for washing the feet. The Blessed One sat down on the seat made ready and washed his feet. The venerable Rahula paid homage to him and sat down at one side.
  2. Then the Blessed One left a little water in the water vessel and asked the venerable Rahula: “Rahula, do you see this little water left in the water vessel?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Even so little, Rahula, is the recluseship of those who are not ashamed to tell a deliberate lie.”
  3. Then the Blessed One threw away the little water that was left and asked the venerable Rahula: “Rahula, do you see that little water that was thrown away?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” -“Even so, Rahula, those who are not ashamed to tell a deliberate lie have thrown away their recluseship.”
  4. Then the Blessed One turned the water vessel upside down and asked the venerable Rahula: “Rahula, do you see this water vessel turned upside down?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Even so, Rahula, those who are not ashamed to tell a deliberate lie have turned their recluseship upside down.”
  5. Then the Blessed One turned the water vessel right way up again and asked the venerable Rahula: “Rahula, do you see this hollow, empty water vessel?” – “Yes, venerable sir.” – “Even so

hollow and empty, Rahula, is the recluseship of those who are not ashamed to tell a deliberate lie.”

  1. “Suppose, Rahula, there were a royal tusker elephant with tusks as long as chariot poles, full-grown in stature, high-bred, and accustomed to battle. In battle he would perform his task with his forefeet and his hindfeet, with his forequarters and his hindquarters, with his head and his ears, with his tusks and his tail, [415] yet he would keep back his trunk. Then his rider would think: ‘This royal tusker elephant with tusks as long as chariot poles…performs his task in battle with his forefeet and his hind-feet…yet he keeps back his trunk. He has not yet given up his life.’ But when the royal tusker elephant…performs his task in battle with his forefeet and his hindfeet, with his forequarters and his hindquarters, with his head and his ears, with his tusks and his tail, and also with his trunk, then his rider would think: ‘This royal tusker elephant with tusks as long as chariot poles…performs his task in battle with his forefeet and his hindfeet…and also with his trunk. He has given up his life. Now there is nothing this royal tusker elephant would not do.’ So too, Rahula, when one is not ashamed to tell a deliberate lie, there is no evil, I say, that one would not do. Therefore, Rahula, you should train thus: ‘I will not utter a falsehood even as a joke.’
  2. “What do you think, Rahula? What is the purpose of a mirror?”

“For the purpose of reflection, venerable sir.”

“So too, Rahula, an action with the body should be done after repeated reflection; an action by speech should be done after repeated reflection; an action by mind should be done after repeated reflection.

  1. “Rahula, when you wish to do an action with the body, you should reflect upon that same bodily action thus: ‘Would this action that I wish to do with the body lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both? Is it an unwholesome bodily action with painful consequences, with painful results?’ When you reflect, if you know: ‘This action that I wish to do with the body would lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both; it is an unwholesome bodily action with painful consequences, with painful results,’ then you definitely should not do such an action with the body. [416] But when you reflect, if you know: ‘This action that I wish to do with the body would

Advice to Rahula at Ambalatthika 525

not lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both; it is a wholesome bodily action with pleasant consequences, with pleasant results/ then you may do such an action with the body.

  1. “Also, Rahula, while you are doing an action with the body, you should reflect upon that same bodily action thus: ‘Does this action that I am doing with the body lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both? Is it an unwholesome bodily action with painful consequences, with painful results?’ When you reflect, if you know: ‘This action that I am doing with the body leads to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both; it is an unwholesome bodily action with painful consequences, with painful results/ then you should suspend such a bodily action. But when you reflect, if you know: ‘This action that I am doing with the body does not lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both; it is a wholesome bodily action with pleasant consequences, with pleasant results,’ then you may continue in such a bodily action.
  2. “Also, Rahula, after you have done an action with the body, you should reflect upon that same bodily action thus: ‘Does this action that I have done with the body lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both? Was it an unwholesome bodily action with painful consequences, with painful results?’ When you reflect, if you know: ‘This action that I have done with the body leads to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both; it was an unwholesome bodily action with painful consequences, with painful results/ then you should confess such a bodily action, reveal it, and lay it open to the Teacher or to your wise companions in the holy life. Having confessed it, revealed it, and laid it open, [417] you should undertake restraint for the future. 638 But when you reflect, if you know: ‘This action that I have done with the body does not lead to my own affliction, or to the affliction of others, or to the affliction of both; it was a wholesome bodily action with pleasant consequences, pleasant results/ you can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.
  3. “Rahula, when you wish to do an action by speech… {complete as in §9, substituting “speech” for “body”)…you may do

526 Ambalatthikarahulovada Sutta: Sutta 61

such an action by speech.

  1. “Also, Rahula, while you are doing an action by speech… (complete as in §10, substituting “speech “for “body”) [418]…you may continue in such an action by speech.
  2. “Also, Rahula, after you have done an action by speech… (i complete as in §11, substituting “speech “for “body”)…you can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.
  3. “Rahula, when you wish to do an action by mind… (complete as in §9, substituting “mind” for “body”) [419]…you may do such an action by mind.
  4. “Also, Rahula, while you are doing an action by mind… (complete as in §10, substituting “mind “for “body”)…you may continue in such a mental action.
  5. “Also, Rahula, after you have done an action by mind… (i complete as in §11, substituting “mind” for “body” 639 )…you can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states. [420]
  6. “Rahula, whatever recluses and brahmins in the past purified their bodily action, their verbal action, and their mental action, all did so by repeatedly reflecting thus. Whatever recluses and brahmins in the future will purify their bodily action, their verbal action, and their mental action, all will do so by repeatedly reflecting thus. Whatever recluses and brahmins in the present are purifying their bodily action, their verbal action, and their mental action, all are doing so by repeatedly reflecting thus. Therefore, Rahula, you should train thus: ‘We will purify our bodily action, our verbal action, and our mental action by repeatedly reflecting upon them.'”

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Rahula was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

62 Maharahulovada Sutta The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula

 

  1. Thus have I heard. 640 On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into SavatthI for alms. The venerable Rahula also [421] dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, followed close behind the Blessed One.
  3. Then the Blessed One looked back and addressed the venerable Rahula thus: 641 “Rahula, any kind of material form whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all material form should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'”

“Only material form. Blessed One? Only material form. Sublime One?”

“Material form, Rahula, and feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness.”

  1. Then the venerable Rahula considered thus: “Who would go into the town for alms today when personally admonished by the Blessed One?” Thus he turned back and sat down at the root of a tree, folding his. legs crosswise, setting his body erect, and establishing mindfulness in front of him.
  2. The venerable Sariputta saw him sitting there and addressed him thus: “Rahula, develop mindfulness of breathing. When mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated, it is of great fruit and great benefit.” 642
  3. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Rahula rose from meditation and went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and asked the Blessed One:
  4. “Venerable sir, how is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated, so that it is of great fruit and great benefit?”

i 422

(the four great elements)

  1. “Rahula, 643 whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is solid, solidified, and clung-to, that is, head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, contents of the stomach, feces, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is solid, solidified, and clung-to: this is called the internal earth element. Now both the internal earth element and the external earth element are simply earth element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ [422] When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the earth element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the earth element.
  2. ”What, Rahula, is the water element? The water element may be either internal or external. What is the internal water element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is water, watery, and clung-to, that is, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil-of-the-joints, urine, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is water, watery, and clung-to: this is called the internal water element. Now both the internal water element and the external water element are simply water element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the water element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the water element.
  3. “What, Rahula, is the fire element? The fire element may be either internal or external. What is the internal fire element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is fire, fiery, and clung-to, that is, that by which one is warmed, ages, and is consumed, and that by which what is eaten, drunk, consumed, and tasted gets completely digested, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is fire, fiery, and clung-to: this is called the internal fire element. Now both the internal fire element and the external fire element are simply fire element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it

The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula 529

actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the fire element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the fire element.

  1. “What, Rahula, is the air element? The air element may be either internal or external. What is the internal air element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is air, airy, and clung-to, that is, up-going winds, down-going winds, winds in the belly, winds in the bowels, winds that course through the limbs, in-breath and out-breath, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is air, airy, and clung-to: this is called the internal air element. Now both the internal air element and the external air element are simply air element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ [423] When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the air element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the air element.
  2. “What, Rahula, is the space element? 644 The space element may be either internal or external. What is the internal space element? Whatever internally, belonging to oneself, is space, spatial, and clung-to, that is, the holes of the ears, the nostrils, the door of the mouth, and that [aperture] whereby what is eaten, drunk, consumed, and tasted gets swallowed, and where it collects, and whereby it is excreted from below, or whatever else internally, belonging to oneself, is space, spatial, and clung-to: this is calLed the internal space element. Now both the internal space element and the external space element are simply space element. And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is with proper wisdom, one becomes disenchanted with the space element and makes the mind dispassionate towards the space element.
  3. “Rahula, develop meditation that is like the earth; for when you develop meditation that is like the earth, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. 645 Just as people throw clean things and dirty things, excrement, urine, spittle, pus, and blood on the earth, and the earth is not horrified, humiliated, and disgusted because of that, so too, Rahula, develop meditation that is like the earth; for when

 

i424

you develop meditation that is like the earth, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain.

  1. “Rahula, develop meditation that is like water; for when you develop meditation that is like water, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. Just as people wash clean things and dirty things, excrement, urine, spittle, pus, and blood in water, and the water is not horrified, humiliated, and disgusted because of that, so too, [424] Rahula, develop meditation that is like water; for when you develop meditation that is like water, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain.
  2. “Rahula, develop meditation that is like fire; for when you develop meditation that is like fire, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. Just as people bum clean things and dirty things, excrement, urine, spittle, pus, and blood in fire, and the fire is not horrified, humiliated, and disgusted because of that, so too, Rahula, develop meditation that is like fire; for when you develop meditation that is like fire, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain.
  3. “Rahula, develop meditation that is like air; for when you develop meditation that is like air, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. Just as the air blows on clean things and dirty things, on excrement, urine, spittle, pus, and blood, and the air is not horrified, humiliated, and disgusted because of that, so too, Rahula, develop meditation that is like air; for when you develop meditation that is like air, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain.

, ’ s% 17. “Rahula, develop meditation that is like space; for when you develop meditation that is like space, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain. Just as space is not established anywhere, so too, Rahula, develop meditation that is like space; for when you develop meditation that is like space, arisen agreeable and disagreeable contacts will not invade your mind and remain.

  1. “Rahula, develop meditation on loving-kindness; for when you develop meditation on loving-kindness, any ill will will be abandoned.
  2. “Rahula, develop meditation on compassion; for when

The Greater Discourse of Advice to Rahula 531

you develop meditation on compassion, any cruelty will be abandoned.

  1. “Rahula, develop meditation on appreciative joy; for when you develop meditation on appreciative joy, any discontent will be abandoned.
  2. “Rahula, develop meditation on equanimity; for when you develop meditation on equanimity, any aversion will be abandoned.
  3. “Rahula, develop meditation on foulness; for when you develop meditation on foulness, any lust will be abandoned.
  4. “Rahula, develop meditation on the perception of impermanence; [425] for when you develop meditation on the perception of impermanence, the conceit ‘I am’ will be abandoned.
  5. “Rahula, develop meditation on mindfulness of breathing. When mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated, it is of great fruit and great benefit. And how is mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated, so that it is of great fruit and great benefit?
  6. “Here, Rahula, a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, sits down; having folded his legs crosswise, set his body erect, and established mindfulness in front of him, ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. 646
  7. “Breathing in long, he understands: ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, he understands: ‘I breathe out long.’ Breathing in short, he understands: ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, he understands: ‘I breathe out short.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body [of breath]’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body [of breath].’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in tran-quillising the bodily formation’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out tranquillising the bodily formation.’
  8. “He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing rapture’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out experiencing rapture.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing pleasure’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out experiencing pleasure.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the mental formation’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the mental formation.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in tranquillising the mental formation’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out tranquillising the mental formation.’

 

, 532 Maharahulovada Sutta: Sutta 62 i 426

  1. “He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the mind’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out experiencing the mind-‘ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in gladdening the mind’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out gladdening the mind.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in concentrating the mind’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out concentrating the mind.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in liberating the mind’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out liberating the mind.’
  2. “He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in contemplating impermanence’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out contemplating impermanence.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in contemplating fading away’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out contemplating fading away.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in contemplating cessation’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out contemplating cessation.’ He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in contemplating relinquishment’; he trains thus: ‘I shall breathe out contemplating relinquishment/
  3. “Rahula, that is how mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated, so that it is of great fruit and great benefit. When mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way, [426] even the final in-breaths and out-breaths are known as they cease, not unknown.” 647

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Rahula was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

63 Culamalunkya Sutta The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park.
  2. Theri, while the venerable Malunkyaputta was alone in meditation, the following thought arose in his mind:

“These speculative views have been undeclared by the Blessed One, set aside and rejected by him, namely: ‘the world is eternal’ and ‘the world is not eternal’; ‘the world is finite’ and ‘the world is infinite’; ‘the soul is the same as the body’ and ‘the soul is one thing and the body another’; and ‘after death a Tathagata exists’ and ‘after death a Tathagata does not exist’ and ‘after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’ and ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.’ The Blessed One does not declare these to me, and I do not approve of and accept the fact that he does not declare these to me, so I shall go to the Blessed One and ask him the meaning of this. If he declares to me either ‘the world is eternal’ or ‘the world is not eternal’…or ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,’ then I will lead the holy life under him; if he does not declare these to me, then I will abandon the training and return to the low life.” [427]

  1. Then, when it was evening, the venerable Malunkyaputta rose from meditation and went to the Blessed One. After paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told him:

“Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in meditation, the following thought arose in my mind: ‘These speculative views have been undeclared by the Blessed One…If he does not declare these to me, then I will abandon the training and return to the low life.’ If the Blessed One knows ‘the world is eternal/ let the Blessed One declare to me ‘the world is eternal’; if the

i 429

Blessed One knows ‘the world is not eternal/ let the Blessed One declare to me ‘the world is not eternal.’ If the Blessed One does not know either ‘the world is eternal’ or ‘the world is not eternal/ then it is straightforward for one who does not know and does not see to say: ‘I do not know, I do not see/

“If the Blessed One knows ‘the world is finite/…’the world is infinite/…’the soul is the same as the body/…’the soul is one thing and the body another/…’after death a Tathagata exists/ [428]…’after death a Tathagata does not exist/…If the Blessed One knows ‘after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist/ let the Blessed One declare that to me; if the Blessed One knows ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist/ let the Blessed One declare that to me. If the Blessed One does not know either ‘after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’ or ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist/ then it is straightforward for one who does not know and does not see to say: ‘I do not know, I do not see/”

  1. “How then, Malunkyaputta, did I ever say to you: ‘Come, Malunkyaputta, lead the holy life under me and I will declare to you “the world is eternal”…or “after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist'”?” – “No, venerable sir.” – “Did you ever tell me: ‘I will lead the holy life under the Blessed One, and the Blessed One will declare to me “the world is eternal”…or “after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist'”?” -“No, venerable sir.” – “That being so, misguided man, who are you and what are you abandoning?
  2. “If anyone should say thus: ‘I will not lead the holy life under the Blessed One until the Blessed One declares to me “the world is eternal”…or “after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist/” [429] that would still remain undeclared by the Tathagata and meanwhile that person would die. Suppose, Malunkyaputta, a man were wounded by an arrow thickly smeared with poison, and his friends and companions, his kinsmen and relatives, brought a surgeon to treat him. The man would say: ‘I will not let the surgeon pull out this arrow until I know whether the man who wounded me was a noble or a brahmin or a merchant or a worker/ And he would say: ‘I will not let the surgeon pull out this arrow until I know the name and clan of the man who wounded me;…until I know whether the

The Shorter Discourse to Malunkyaputta 535

man who wounded me was tall or short or of middle height;… until I know whether the man who wounded me was dark or brown or golden-skinned;…until I know whether the man who wounded me lives in such a village or town or city;…until I know whether the bow that wounded me was a long bow or a crossbow;.. .until I know whether the bowstring that wounded me was fibre or reed or sinew or hemp or bark;…until I know whether the shaft that wounded me was wild or cultivated;… until I know with what kind of feathers the shaft that wounded me was fitted – whether those of a vulture or a crow or a hawk or a peacock or a stork;…until I know with what kind of sinew the shaft that wounded me was bound – whether that of an ox or a buffalo or a lion or a monkey;…until I know what kind of arrow it was that wounded me – whether it was hoof-tipped or curved or barbed or calf-toothed or oleander/ [430]

“All this would still not be known to that man and meanwhile he would die. So too, Malunkyaputta, if anyone should say thus: ‘I will not lead the holy life under the Blessed One until the Blessed One declares to me: “the world is eternal”…or “after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist/” that would still remain undeclared by the Tathagata and meanwhile that person would die.

  1. “Malunkyaputta, if there is the view ‘the world is eternal/ the holy life cannot be lived; and if there is the view ‘the world is not eternal,’ the holy life cannot be lived. Whether there is the view ‘the world is eternal’ or the view ‘the world is not eternal/ there is birth, there is ageing, there is death, there are sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair, the destruction of which I prescribe here and now.

“If there is the view ‘the world is finite,’…’the world is infinite,’., .’the soul is the same as the body/…’the soul is one thing and the body another/…’after death a Tathagata exists/…’after death a Tathagata does not exist,’ the holy life cannot be lived… [431] If there is the view ‘after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist/ the holy life cannot be lived; and if there is the view ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist/ the holy life cannot be lived. Whether there is the view ‘after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’ or the view ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,’ there

536 Culamalunkya Sutta: Sutta 63

is birth, there is ageing, there is death, there are sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair, the destruction of which I prescribe here and now.

  1. “Therefore, Malunkyaputta, remember what I have left undeclared as undeclared, and remember what I have declared as declared. And what have I left undeclared? ‘The world is eternal’ – I have left undeclared. ‘The world is not eternal’ – I have left undeclared. ‘The world is finite’ – I have left undeclared. ‘The world is infinite’ – I have left undeclared. ‘The soul is the same as the body’ -1 have left undeclared. ‘The soul is one thing and the body another’ – I have left undeclared. ‘After death a Tathagata exists’ – I have left undeclared. ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist’ – I have left undeclared. ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’ – I have left undeclared. ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist’ -1 have left undeclared.
  2. “Why have I left that undeclared? Because it is unbeneficial, it does not belong to the fundamentals of the holy life, it does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. That is why I have left it undeclared.
  3. “And what have I declared? ‘This is suffering’ – I have declared. ‘This is the origin of suffering’ – I have declared. ‘This is the cessation of suffering’ – I have declared. ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of .suffering’ -1 have declared.
  4. “Why have I declared that? Because it is beneficial, it belongs to the fundamentals of the holy life, it leads to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbana. That is why I have declared it.

“Therefore, Malunkyaputta, [432] remember what I have left undeclared as undeclared, and remember what I have declared as declared.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Malunkyaputta was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words. 648

 

 

64 Mahamalunkya Sutta The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthT in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, do you remember the five lower fetters as taught by me?”

When this was said, the venerable Malunkyaputta replied: “Venerable sir, I remember the five lower fetters as taught by the Blessed One.” 649

“But, Malunkyaputta, in what way do you remember the five lower fetters as taught by me?”

“Venerable sir, I remember personality view as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember doubt as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember adherence to rules and observances as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember sensual desire as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. I remember ill will as a lower fetter taught by the Blessed One. It is in this way, venerable sir, that I remember the five lower fetters as taught by the Blessed One.”

  1. “Malunkyaputta, to whom do you remember my having taught these five lower fetters in that way? 650 Would not the wanderers of other sects confute you with the simile of the infant? For a young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘personality,’ [433] so how could personality view arise in him? Yet the underlying tendency to personality view lies within him. 651 A young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘teachings/ 652 so how could doubt about teachings arise in him? Yet the underlying tendency to doubt lies within him. A young tender infant lying prone does

i 434

not even have the notion ‘rules/ so how could adherence to rules and observances arise in him? Yet the underlying tendency to adhere to rules and observances lies within him. A young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘sensual pleasures/ so how could sensual desire arise in him? Yet the underlying tendency to sensual lust lies within him. A young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘beings/ so how could ill will towards beings arise in him? Yet the underlying tendency to ill will lies within him. Would not the wanderers of other sects confute you with this simile of the infant?”

  1. Thereupon, the venerable Ananda said: “It is the time. Blessed One, it is the time. Sublime One, for the Blessed One to teach the five lower fetters. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it.”

“Then listen, Ananda, and attend closely to what I shall say.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” the venerable Ananda replied.

The Blessed One said this:

  1. “Here, Ananda, an untaught ordinary person who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, abides with a mind obsessed and enslaved by personality view, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from the arisen personality view; and when that personality view has become habitual and is uneradicated in him, it is a lower fetter. He abides with a mind obsessed and enslaved by doubt..*by adherence to rules and observances .. .by sensual lust [434].. .by ill will, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen ill will; and when that ill will has become habitual and is uneradicated in him, it is a lower fetter.
  2. “A well-taught noble disciple who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, does not abide with a mind obsessed and enslaved by personality view; he understands as it actually is the escape from the arisen personality view, and personality view together with the underlying tendency to it is abandoned in him. 653 He does not abide with a mind obsessed and enslaved by doubt.. .by adherence to rules and observances…by sensual lust…by ill will; he understands as it actually is the escape from the arisen ill will.

The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta 539

and ill will together with the underlying tendency to it is abandoned in him.

  1. “There is a path, Ananda, a way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters; that anyone, without coming to that path, to that way, shall know or see or abandon the five lower fetters -this is not possible. Just as when there is a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, it is not possible that anyone shall cut out its heartwood without cutting through its bark and sap-wood, so too, there is a path.. .this is not possible.

“There is a path, Ananda, a way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters; [435] that someone, by coming to that path, to that way, shall know and see and abandon the five lower fetters -this is possible. Just as, when there is a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, it is possible that someone shall cut Out its heartwood by cutting through its bark and sapwood, so too, there is a path.. .this is possible.

  1. “Suppose, Ananda, the river Ganges were full of water right up to the brim so that crows could drink from it, and then a feeble man came thinking: ‘By swimming across the stream with my arms, I shall get safely across to the further shore of this river Ganges’; yet he would not be able to get safely across. So too, when the Dhamma is being taught to someone for the cessation of personality, if his mind does not enter into it and acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision, then he can be regarded as like the feeble man.

“Suppose, Ananda, the river Ganges were full of water right up to the brim so that crows could drink from it, and then a strong man came thinking: ‘By swimming across the stream with my arms, I shall get safely across to the further shore of this river Ganges’; and he would be able to get safely across. So too, when the Dhamma is being taught to someone for the cessation of personality, if his mind enters into it and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision, then he can be regarded as like the strong man.

  1. “And what, Ananda, is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters? Here, with seclusion from objects of attachment, 654 with the abandoning of unwholesome states, with the complete tranquillization of bodily inertia, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture

i 436

and pleasure bom of seclusion.

“Whatever exists therein of material form, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent, as suffering, as a disease, as a tumour, as a barb, as a calamity, as an affliction, as alien, as disintegrating, as void, as not self. 655 He turns his mind away from those states [436] and directs it towards the deathless element thus: ‘This is the peaceful, this is the sublime, that is, the stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of all attachments, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbana/ 656 Standing upon that, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints, then because of that desire for the Dhainma, that delight in the Dhamma, 657 with the destruction of the five lower fetters he becomes one due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning from that world. This is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.

10-12. “Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhana…Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu…enters upon and abides in the third jhana…Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain…a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity.

“Whatever exists therein of material form, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent… as not self. He turns his mind away from those states and directs it towards the deathless element…This is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.

  1. “Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite/ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space.

“Whatever exists therein of feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, 658 he sees those states as impermanent…as not self. He turns his mind away from those states and directs it towards the deathless element…This is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.

  1. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite

The Greater Discourse to Malunkyaputta 541

space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness.

“Whatever exists therein of feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent…as not self. He turns his mind away from those states and directs it towards the deathless element…This is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.

  1. “Again, by completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness.

“Whatever exists therein of feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent, as suffering, as a disease, as a tumour, as a barb, as a calamity, as an affliction, as alien, as disintegrating, as void, as not self. He turns his mind away from those states and directs it towards the deathless element thus: ‘This is the peaceful, this is the sublime, that is, the stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of all attachments, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbana.’ Standing upon that, [437] he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints, then because of that desire for the Dhamma, that delight in the Dhamma, with the destruction of the five lower fetters he becomes one due to reappear spontaneously [in the Pure Abodes] and there attain final Nibbana without ever returning from that world. This is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.”

  1. “Venerable sir, if this is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters, then how is it that some bhikkhus here [are said to] gain deliverance of mind and some [are said to] gain deliverance by wisdom?”

“The difference here, Ananda, is in their faculties, I say.” 659

That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Ananda was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 

 

 

65 Bhaddali Sutta To Bhaddali

 

  1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at SavatthI in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.” – “Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:
  2. “Bhikkhus, I eat at a single session. By so doing, I am free from illness and affliction, and I enjoy health, strength, and a comfortable abiding. 660 Come, bhikkhus, eat at a single session. By so doing, you too will be free from illness and affliction, and you will enjoy health, strength, and a comfortable abiding.”
  3. When this was said, the venerable Bhaddali told the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, I am not willing to eat at a single session; for if I were to do so, I might have worry and anxiety about it.” 661

“Then, Bhaddali, eat one part there where you are invited and bring away one part to eat. By eating in that way, [438] you will maintain yourself.” ‘

“Venerable sir, I am not willing to eat in that way either; for if I were to do so, I might also have worry and anxiety about it.” 662

  1. Then, when this training precept was being made known by the Blessed One, 663 the venerable Bhaddali publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus his unwillingness to undertake the training. Then the venerable Bhaddali did not present himself to the Blessed One for the whole of that three-month period [of the Rains], as he did not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.
  2. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were engaged in making up a robe for the Blessed One, thinking: “With his robe completed, at the end of the three months [of the Rains], the Blessed One will set out wandering.”
  3. Then the venerable Bhaddali went to those bhikkhus and exchanged greetings with them, and when this courteous and

To Bhaddali 543

amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side. When he had done so, they said to him: “Friend Bhaddali, this robe is being made up for the Blessed One. With his robe completed, at the end of the three months [of the Rains], the Blessed One will set out wandering. Please, friend Bhaddali, give proper attention to your declaration. Do not let it become more difficult for you later on.”

  1. “Yes, friends,” he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and said: “Venerable sir, a transgression overcame me, in that like a fool, confused and blundering, when a training precept was being made known by the Blessed One, I publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus my unwillingness to undertake the training. Venerable sir, may the Blessed One forgive my transgression seen as such for the sake of restraint in the future.”
  2. “Surely, Bhaddali, a transgression overcame you, in that like a fool, confused and blundering, when a training precept was being made known by me, you publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus your unwillingness to undertake the training.
  3. “Bhaddali, this circumstance was not recognised by you: The Blessed One is living at SavatthI, and the Blessed One will know me thus: “The bhikkhu named Bhaddali is one who does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation/” This circumstance was not recognised by you.

“Also, this circumstance was not recognised by you: ‘Many [439] bhikkhus have taken up residence at SavatthI for the Rains, and they too will know me thus: “The bhikkhu named Bhaddali is one who does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.'” This circumstance too was not recognised by you.

“Also, this circumstance was not recognised by you: ‘Many bhikkhurus have taken up residence at SavatthI for the Rains, and they too will know me thus: “The bhikkhu named Bhaddali is one who does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.”’ This circumstance too was not recognised by you.

“Also, this circumstance was not recognised by you: ‘Many men lay followers…Many women lay followers are staying at SavatthI, and they too will know me thus: “The bhikkhu named Bhaddali is one who does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.'” This circumstance too was not recognised by you.

“Also, this circumstance was not recognised by you: ‘Many recluses and brahmins of other sects have taken up residence

i 440

at Savatthi for the Rains, and they too will know me thus: “The bhikkhu named Bhaddali, an elder disciple of the recluse Gotama, is one who does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.'” This circumstance too was not recognised by you.”

  1. “Venerable sir, a transgression overcame me, in that like a fool, confused and blundering, when a training precept was being made known by the Blessed One, I publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus my unwillingness to undertake the training. Venerable sir, may the Blessed One forgive my transgression seen as such for the sake of restraint in the future.”

“Surely, Bhaddali, a transgression overcame you, in that like a fool, confused and blundering, when a training precept was being made known by me, you publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus your unwillingness to undertake the training.

  1. “What do you think, Bhaddali? Suppose a bhikkhu here were one liberated-in-both-ways, 664 and I told him: ‘Come, bhikkhu, be a plank for me to walk across the mud.’ Would he walk across himself, 665 or would he dispose his body otherwise, or would he say ‘No’?”

“No, venerable sir.”

“What do you think, Bhaddali? Suppose a bhikkhu here were one liberated-by-wisdom…a body-witness…one attained-to-view…one liberated-by-faith…a Dhamma-follower…a faith-follower, and I told him: ‘Come, bhikkhu, be a’ plank for me to walk across the mud.’ Would he walk across himself, or would he dispose his body otherwise, or would he say ‘No’?”

“No, venerable sir.”

  1. “What do you think, Bhaddali? Were you on that occasion one liberated-in-both-ways or [440] one liberated-by-wisdom or a body-witness or one attained-to-view or one liberated-by-faith or a Dhamma-follower or a faith-follower?”

“No, venerable sir.”

“Bhaddali, on that occasion were you not an empty, hollow wrong-doer?”

  1. “Yes, venerable sir. Venerable sir, a transgression overcame me, in that like a fool, confused and blundering, when a training precept was being made known by the Blessed One, I publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus my unwillingness to undertake the training. Venerable sir, may the Blessed One

 

To Bhaddali 545

forgive my transgression seen as such for the sake of restraint in the future.”

“Surely, Bhaddali, a transgression overcame you, in that like a fool, confused and blundering, when a training precept was being made known by me, you publicly declared in the Sangha of bhikkhus your unwillingness to undertake the training. But since you see your transgression as such and make amends in accordance with the Dhamma, we forgive you; for it is growth in the Noble One’s Discipline when one sees one’s transgression as such and makes amends in accordance with the Dhamma by undertaking restraint for the future.

  1. “Here, Bhaddali, some bhikkhu does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation. He considers thus: ‘Suppose I were to resort to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw – perhaps I might realise a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones.’ He resorts to some such secluded resting-place. While he lives thus withdrawn, the Teacher censures him, wise companions in the holy life who have made investigation censure him, gods censure him, and he censures himself. Being censured in this way by the Teacher, by wise companions in the holy life, by gods, and by himself, he realises no superhuman state, no distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. Why is that? That is how it is with one who does not fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.
  2. “Here, Bhaddali, some bhikkhu does fulfil the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation. He considers thus: ‘Suppose I were to resort to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, [441] an open space, a heap of straw – perhaps I might realise a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones.’ He resorts to some such secluded resting-place. While he lives thus withdrawn, the Teacher does not censure him, wise companions in the holy life who have made investigation do not censure him, gods do not censure him, and he does not censure himself. Being uncensured in this way by the Teacher, by wise companions in the holy life, by gods, and by himself, he realises a superhuman

i 442

 

state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones.

  1. “Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. Why is that? That is how it is with one who fulfils the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.
  2. “With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhana…With the fading away as well of rapture…he enters upon and abides in the third jhana…With the abandoning of pleasure and pain…he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhana…Why is that? That is how it is with one who fulfils the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.
  3. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified and bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives…(as Sutta 51, §24 )…Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. Why is that? That is how [442] it is with one who fulfils the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.
  4. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified and bright…attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings…(as Sutta 51, §25 )…Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. Why is that? That is how it is with one who fulfils the training in the Teacher’s Dispensation.
  5. “When his concentrated mind is thus purified and bright…attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands a